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The tool wear will cause the following effects

Cutting force increase
Dimensional accuracy will decrease
Work piece surface roughness
Temperature increase in between the tool and the
work piece
Loss of production
Machine will vibrate
• Shearing at highest temperature
• Diffusion wear
• Adhesive wear
• Abrasive wear
• Fatigue wear
• Electrochemical effect
• Oxidation effect
Tool Life
Tool life is defined as the time elapsed between
the two successive grinding of tool
The time for which a cutting edge of a cutting
tool can be usefully employed without grinding
• Complete wear
• Flank wear
• Finish failure
• Size failure
• Cutting force failure
Wear zone
• Crater wear
• Corner wear
• Flank wear
• Frederick W. Taylor derived an equation the
find the tool life equation as
𝑉𝑇 𝑛 = 𝐶
V = Cutting speed in M/min
T = Tool Life in min n = 0.2 to 0.25 for HSS
0.25 to 0.45 for Carbide tool
n = tool life index 0.4 to 0.55 for ceramic tool
C = Constant
Effect of feed rate and depth of cut
𝑛 𝑛1 𝑛2
𝑉𝑇 𝑓 𝑑 = 𝐶1
V = Cutting speed in M/min
= m/min
T = Tool Life in min
n = tool life index
C = Constant
f = Feed in mm/min
t = Depth of cut in mm
Factors affecting tool life
The life of the cutting tool is affected by the
following factors:
 Cutting speed.
 Feed and depth of cut.
 Tool geometry.
 Tool material.
 Cutting fluid.
 Work piece material.
 Rigidity of work, tool and machine.
• Machinability is defined as “the ease with
which a given work piece material
can be machined wit a specified
cutting tool.
• Machinability can be tentatively defined as
“ability of being machined” and more
reasonably as “ease of machining”.
Machinability rating (MR)
Generally, surface finish of any product depends on the
following factors:
 Cutting speed.
Better surface finish can be obtained at higher cutting
speeds. Rough cutting takes place at lower cutting speeds
 Feed.
Surface finish will not be good when coarse feed is
applied. But better finish can be obtained in fine feeds.
 Depth of cut.
Lighter cuts provide good surface finish to the work
piece. If depth of cut increases during machining, the quality
of surface finish will reduce.
The basic purposes of cutting fluid application
Cooling of the job and the tool to reduce the
detrimental effects of cutting temperature on
the job and the tool.
Lubrication at the chip
Cleaning the machining zone by washing away
the chip
Protection of the nascent finished surface
Methods of application of cutting
• Drop-by-drop under gravity.
• Flood under gravity.
• In the form of liquid jet(s).
• Mist (atomized oil) with compressed air.
Types of cutting fluids and their
Solid or semi-solid lubricant
Paste, waxes, soaps, graphite, Moly-
disulphide (MoS2) may also often be used,
either applied directly to the work piece or as an
impregnant in the tool to reduce friction and
thus cutting forces, temperature and tool wear.
For its good wetting and spreading properties
and very high specific heat, water is considered as
the best coolant and hence employed where
cooling is most urgent.
Soluble oil
Water acts as the best coolant but does not
lubricate. Besides, use of only water may impair the
machine-fixture-tool-work system by rusting. So oil
containing some emulsifying agent and additive
together called cutting compound, is mixed with
water in a suitable ratio ( 1 ~ 2 in 20 ~ 50).
Chemical fluids
These are occasionally used fluids which
are water based where some organic and or
inorganic materials are dissolved in water to
enable desired cutting fluid action.
There are two types of such cutting fluid:
 Inactive type - high cooling, anti-rusting and
wetting but less lubricating.
 Active (surface) type - moderate cooling and
Types of additives present in cutting
S.No Additives Functions
1 Mineral oils and other Base oil
2 Polyglycoether Emulsifier
3 Aliphatic amines Neutralized agent
4 Sulfonates Corrosion protection
5 Fatly acid amides Lubricity improvement
6 Sulphur / Phosphorous Pressure additives
7 Aldehyde Derivatives Biocides