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• Human beings have 23 pairs of chromosomes in their

body cells.

• 22 pairs of chromosomes play no part in sex


determination, called autosomes常染色体.

• 1 pair of chromosome play role in sex determination.

• The sex of a person is determined by the 23rd pair of


chromosomes, called sex chromosomes性染色体.
• There are 2 types of sex chromosomes, namely the X
chromosomes and the Y chromosomes.

• In humans, females have 22 pairs of autosomes and 1


pair of X chromosomes. ( 44 + XX )

• Males have 22 pairs of autosomes, one X


chromosome and one Y chromosome. ( 44 + XY )
Female

Male
• A female will produce only 1 type of ovum which contain
22 autosomes and one X chromosome ( 22 + X ).

• A male will produce 2 types of sperm.

• Each sperm either contain :


(i) 22 autosomes and one X chromosome ( 22 + X )
(ii) 22 autosomes and one Y chromosome ( 22 + Y ).
44 + XY 44 + XX
Parent :

22 + X 22 + Y 22 + X 22 + X
Gamete :
配子

Offspring: 44 + XX 44 + XX 44 + XY 44 + XY

Daughter Daughter Son Son

Ratio比例 of daughter : son is 1 : 1


1. What chromosomes can be found in a human sperm?
A. 44 autosomes + XY
B. 22 autosomes + XY
C. 22 autosomes + X or Y
D. 44 autosomes + X or Y
• Formation of identical twins involved one sperm,
one ovum.
•After fertilization, the single zygote undergoes
mitosis and develops into 2 embryos.
Identical twins
zygote

2 separate
embryos

Share one placenta


胎盘
Characteristics 特征 of identical twins :

•As dentical twins originate from 1 zygote, they have


(i) same genetic information 基因资料

(ii) same characteristics 特征

(iii) same sex ( 2 boys or 2 girls )

(iv) Same appearance 外貌


• A developing zygote which begins to split分裂 into 2
identical twins.

•If the zygote stops splitting half-way through,


Siamese twins 连体婴 will be formed.

•If they do not share vital 至关重要的 organs such as


the heart or brain, they can be separated by surgery.
• Non-identical twins are formed when 2 ovum
respectively fertilised by 2 sperms.
Zygote Zygote

Embryo Embryo

2 separate placentas
Non-identical twins
Characteristics 特征 of identical twins :

•As non-identical twins originate from 2 zygotes, they


have :

(i) different genetic information.

(ii) different characteristics.

(iii) may be of the same sex or different sexes.


Non-identical
Identical twins
twins

Similarities

•The twins are formed at the same time.


•Fertilization occurs in the Fallopian tube.
•Each ovum is fertilized by one sperm.
•Both types of twins develop in the uterus.
Non-identical
Identical twins
twins

Differences

Number of ovum Two


One involved

Number of sperms
One Two
involved

Number of
One placentas involved Two

Number of zygotes Two


One
involved
Non-identical
Identical twins
twins

Differences

Genetic information
Same Different
of twins

Same Characteristics Different

Always the Sex


May be the
same same or
different
1. Explain what sex chromosomes are.
Humans have 23 pairs of chromosomes, the 23rd pair
of chromosome determines sex of an individual.
They are called sex chromosome.

2. Explain the determination of sex of a baby in


humans.
If a baby has 44 autosomes and two X
chromosomes, the baby is a girl. Whereas, if a baby
has 44 autosomes, one X chromosome and one Y
chromosome, the baby is a boy.
3. What are Siamese twins?
A developing zygote which begins to split into 2
identical twins. If the zygote stops splitting half-way
through, Siamese twins will be formed.

4. State one difference between the formation of


identical twins and non-identical twins.
Identical twins involved one sperm and one ovum
but non-identical twins involved 2 sperms and 2
ovums.