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TEAM MEMBERS:

T.MRUDULA
B.SWATHI
A warehouse is a commercial building for storage
by manufacturers, wholesalers, business, customs,
etc. It is a usually large plain building in industrial
area of cities, towns and villages.
The main aim of our project is to construct a
warehouse in Ambattur area, free from improper
ventilation and increase the lighting with natural
sunlight. This is done by providing glazing on one
side instead of covering two sides of the truss by
roofing material. The project deals with the design
of roof truss, purlin, steel column, pedestal, base
plate, lacing and footing designed according to IS
456-2000, STEEL TABLE and using AUTO CAD
software.
 A warehouse is a commercial building for
storage of goods. Warehouses are used
by manufacturers, importers, exporters, w
holesalers, transport businesses, customs,
etc. They are usually large plain buildings
in industrial areas of cities, towns and
villages.
Private Warehouses:
The private warehouses are owned and
operated by big manufacturers and merchants to
fulfill their own storage needs.
Public Warehouses:
A public warehouse is a specialised business
establishment that provides storage facilities to
the general public for a certain charge.
Bonded Warehouses:
Bonded warehouses are licensed by the
government to accept imported goods for storage
until the payment of custom duty. They are located
near the ports. These warehouses are either
operated by the government or work under the
control of custom authorities.
 Display of goods for sale
These displayed goods for the home trade. This would be
finished goods- such as the latest cotton blouses or fashion
items.
 Overseas warehouses
These catered for the overseas trade. They became the
meeting places for overseas wholesale buyers where printed
and plain could be discussed and ordered
 Packing warehouses
The main purpose of packing warehouses was the picking,
checking, labelling and packing of goods for export
 Railway warehouses
Warehouses were built close to the major stations in railway
hubs
 Canal warehouses
All these warehouse types can trace their origins back to the
canal warehouses which were used for trans-shipment and
storage
The various components of warehouse are:
 Roof truss- saw tooth truss
 Column member-mild steel column
 Footing-base plate with pedestal column and
anchorage bolts
 Covering- G.I. sheets
A saw tooth roof comprises of a series of
ridges and dual pitches on either side.

ADVANTAGES
 Glass panels facing north is designed to
provide uniform, natural light over large area
without problem of direct sunlight and its
heat
 Design of various components of warehouse
including roof truss, purlin, compression
member(steel column), single lacing to
connect channel section, pedestal, base plate
and footing.
 Provide saw tooth roof truss to admit natural
light into a deep plan building or factory
Details of general description of the WORKSHOP

Manual design of elements

Section particulars using Auto CAD

Interpretation of Results, preparation of final report


and conclusion
Type of truss: SAW TOOTH TRUSS
Overall length of the building = 50m
Overall width of the building = 25 m
Span of truss= 25m
Rise of truss = 1/5 of span
Self weight of purlin = 150 N/m
Height of column = 11 m
Roof covering= GI sheets
Location: Chennai
Steel of grade Fe415
Dead load calculation
Weight of sheeting including connectors= 125N/m2
Self weight of purlin= 150N/m2
Total dead load= 125+150= 275N/m2
Spacing of purlin= 1.3m
Dead load of purlin= 275*1.3= 357.5N/m

 live load calculation


span of truss= 25m
pitch=1/5
rise=25/5= 5m
tan ⱺ=3/10=16.69
live load on purlin= 750-(16.69-10)*20= 616.2N/m2
spacing of purlin=1.3m
live load=616.2*1.3= 801.06KN/m
 Wind load calculation
Roof truss shed for storage purpose built in Ambattur: size of
shed= 25*50m
Pz=0.6*Vz2
Vz=k1*k2*k3*Vb
Wind pressure, Vb= 50m/s
K1=0.90, K2=0.8, K3=1
Vz=36 KN/m2
Pz,Wind load=0.77 KN/m2
h/w = 11/25 = 0.44
½ h/w = 3/2
From table 12.3
When wind load angle 00 for rafter slope 16.690 on wind ward
side
Cpe=-0.7+ (1.1/10) x (0.5)
=-0.61
Similarly, on leeward side, Cpe=-0.5
Wind angle 90o and for rafter slope 16.69o:
On windward side, Cpe=-0.8
On leeward side, Cpe=-0.636
Internal air pressure coefficients:
For a building with medium permeability
(Cpi) = ± 0.5
Design wind pressure on windward side = [-0.8-0.5]*Pd
=-1.3*777.7
=-1011.01 N/m2
Wind pressure on leeward side = [Cpe – Cpi] × pd
= [-0.636-0.5] x 777.7
=-615.34 N/m2

Wind load = wind pressure*spacing of


purlin=0.615.3*1.3= 0.81KN/m2
tan Ө =16.690
Span of truss= 10 m
Spacing of whole purlin = (102+32)0.5=10.44 m
Assume 8 number I-section purlins
Spacing of each purlin = 1.3m

load calculation
Dead load from roofing material including = 125 N/m2
connector (G.I sheets)
Assume weight of purlin = 150 N/m2
Total dead load = 225 N/m2 = 0.225 KN/m2
Live load = 0.5 KN/m2
Total load = 0.725 KN/m2
Total factored load = 1.5*0.725
= 1.0875 KN/m2
Load acting vertically downward = W x spacing of purlin
= 1.0875 * 1.3
= 1.413 KN/m
Load acting along the sheet = W x cos Ө
= 1.413*cos16.69= 1.354 KN/m
Load acting parallel to the sheet= 1.413*sin 16.69=0.405KN/m
Shear force and bending moment calculation:
Maximum moment at z axis
=Mz=Wl2/8=1.353x102/8=16.91 KNm
Shear force at z axis = Fz = Wl/2=1.353 x 10/2= 6.765 KN
Maximum moemt at y axis = My = Wl2/8
= 0.405 x 102/8
= 5.062 KNm
Shear force at y axis = Fy = Wl/2
= 0.405 x 10/2
= 2.025 KN
Assume I section from steel table ISMB 250
D = 250 mm
Width of flange, bf = 125 mm
Thickness of flange,tf = 12.5 mm
Thickness of web, tw = 6.9 mm
Zex = Zez = 410.5x103 mm3
Zey = 53.5x103 mm3
Zpz=465.71 cm3

Depth of web, d = D-[2xtf]


= 250-[2x12.5]
= 225 mm
Check for shear
Vdy = (fy/√3 / 𝜸m) x Area of web = 203.712 KN
Vdz > Fz
203.712 KN > 6.76 KN
𝜸dy = (fy/√3 / 𝜸m) x Area of flange = 410.049 KN
Vdy > Fy
410.0.49 KN > 2.02 KN

Calculate design capacity


b = bf / 2 = 125/2 = 63.5 mm
d/tw = 225/6.9 = 32.6
b/tf <9.4 , d/tw = 84€ (table 2 IS800)
βb = 1, plastic section
Mdz1 = βb x fy x Zpz / 𝜸m= 1x250x174.631x103/1.1 = 39.68 KNm
Mdz2 = 1.2 x Zez x fy / 𝜸m= 1.2 x 410.049x103x250/1.1= 111.95
KNm
Mdy1 = βb x fy x Zpzy / 𝜸m = 1x97.676x103x250/1.1= 22.194 KNm
Mdy2 = 1.5 x Zey x fy / 𝜸m= 1.5x53.5x103x250/1.1= 18.23 KNm
Mdz1 & Mdz2 > Mz
Mdy1 & Mdy2 > My
Hence it is safe
Check for moment
(Mz/Mdz) + (My/Mdz) < 1
= [16.91x106/39.68x106 ] + [5.069x106/18.23x106]
=0.703
(Mz/Mdz) + (My/Mdz) < 1
So it is safe

Check for deflection


Deflection = [5Wl4/384EI]
L = 10000 mm
E = 2x105 N/mm2
Ixx = 2x105 mm4
Wx = 1.353 N/mm
Deflection = (5x1.353x100004)/(384x 2x105x 2x105)
= 17.6 mm
Permissible deflection = L/150
= 10000/150
= 17.6 mm
17.6 < 66.667
So it is safe

Check for wind force
Factored dead load = 1.5x dead load x spacing of purlin= 1.5x0.225x1.3= 0.438
KN/m
Factored wind load = 1.5x wind load x spacing of purlin= 1.5x0.8x1.3= 1.56 KN/m
Load normal to sheeting Wx = -wind load +[Dead load x cos Ө] = -1.56 +[0.438 x
cos16.69] = -1.14 KN/m2
Load parallel to sheeting Wy = Dead load x sin Ө= 0.438 x sin16.69= 0.125 KN/m
Mzz = Wxl2/8= 1.14x102/8= 14.25 KNm
Myy = Wyl2/8= 0.125x102/8= 1.572 KNm
Assume both the ends are fixed
K1 = 1.2*L= 1.2x10= 12 mm
h/tf = 250/12.5= 20
Fcr = 17335 KN/mm2
From IS 800 2007 page 57
Fbd = 227.3 KN/mm2
Mdz = βb x fbd x Zp
= 1x174.631x103x227.3
= 36.69 KNm

Check for moment:


(Mz/Mdz) + (My/Mdy) < 1
= [16.91x106/36.689x106] + [5.062x106/18.23x106]
= 0.738
(Mz/Mdz) + (My/Mdz) < 1
HENCE ADOPT ISMB 250
IT IS SAFE
Load from sheet = 0.125 x 50 x 25= 156.25 KN
Live load =0.5x50x25=625 KN
Load from purlin =0.15x50x25=187.5 KN
Load from rafter = 0.2x50x20= 62.5 KN
Total load = 1800 KN
Assumed fcd =180 N/mm2
Agross =Pu/fcd = (1800x103)/180 = 10000 mm2
Adopt ISMC 350 channel section back to back
connected
A=5366 mm2
D=350 mm
bf=100 mm
tf=13.5 mm
tw=8.1 mm
Cxx=24.4 mm
Ixx=100.8x104 mm4
Iyy=430.8x104 mm4
ryy > rxx
Iyy=Ixx for back to back
430.6+[5366x(Cyy+S/2)2] = 100.08 x 106
( 24.4+0.58)2 = 1062.6
S = 219 mm

One end fixed and other end hinged:


Effective length =0.8xlength=0.8x11=8.8 mm
Rmin built up 136.57 mm
Kl/rmin=8800/136.57=46.86
According to builtup, clause 7.6.1.5
1.05[kl/rmin]=1.05x46.86 =49.2 mm
From built up section, adopt buckling class c, table 9(c)
Fcd=184.92 N/mm2
Pcd=fcdxAg=184.2x5366=1976.83 KN
Pu < Pd
Hence design is safe
ISMC 350 two channel section are connected back to back to
resist factored moment of 1800 KN and connected by lacing
horizontal length h=220+40+40mm
Assume e=40mm
tanⱺ=Lv/(s-2g) =>Lv=300mm
Length of lacing , llacing = √ ( lh2 + lv2)
= √ ( 3002 + 3002 )
= 420mm
Thickness of single lacing > length of lacing / 40
>420/40 =10.5mm
Assume tlacing = 12mm
Width of lacing:
Blacing > 3x diameter of bolt >3 x 20 =60mm
Adopt breadth of lacing = 70mm
Ө = 45o
c/c = 300 + 300 = 600mm

check for local buckling, clause 7.6.5.1


C/rmin < 0.6 x [ 1.05 x kl / rmin ] for channel section back to back
C / √ ( Iyy / Ac < 0.6 [ 1.05 x 6400 / 136.57]
C /√ 4.306 x 5366 < 29.5
600 / 28.3 <40mm
Channel section ISMC 350 is safe against local buckling
LOAD CARRYING CAPACITY OF LACING
Rmin = t / √12 = 3.46
If connection is done with one bolt, k=1
Kl / rmin = 1 x 420 / 3.46 = 121.38mm< 145mm
It is safe
From IS 500 buckling class c
Fcd = 82.4 N/mm2
Fl = fcd loading x Ag loading= 82.4 x 70 x 12= 69.2 KN
From IS 800,
Transverse shear for 2 way lacing = 0.025 x 1800=45KN
For single lacing = 45 / 2 = 22.5 KN
Fu lacing = 31.82 KN < 69.2 KN
Connection between built up section and base plate
Number of bolts = factored load on lacing / bolt value
= 31.8 / 45.24
= 0.7
Hence provide 1 number bolt
For limit state method,
According to IS 456-2000
Wcc = 0.45*fck =9MPa
Assume square plate and M20 concrete grade for
pedestal
Pu/(L*B)=Wcc
1800*103/L2=0.45*20
L=447.2 mm
L=B=500 mm

For limit state design IS 800, clause 7.4.3.1


Tb=√[2.5*W*(a*a-b*b)* γmo]/fy >tf
a=(b-d)/2=(500-350)/2=100 mm
b=(b-l)/2=(550-420)/2=65 mm
Tb=√[2.5*(0.45*20)(1002-0.3*652)*1.1]/250
Tb=24. 4mm
Tf=13.5 mm, ISMC 350
Tb>Tf
Width of beam=(2 x width of flange )+spacing of 2 channel
=(2x100)+220
=500mm
Assume it is a simply supported
Span =10m
Pg 37 clause 23.12.1, IS 456-2000
For longer span
Effective depth =span/20
=10/20
=0.5 m
Effective depth =0.5 m
Overall depth=600mm
Load from 1 column =1800/24
=75KN
Load from column per m length =(2x75)/10
=15KN/m
W=15KN/m
Assume it is simply supported
Mu=1.5x(wl2)/8
=1.5x(15x10x10)/8
=281.25KN.m
Mu=0.87 xAstxfyxdx(1-[Astxfy]/[fckxbxd])
Ast=1674.289mm2
Provide 12mm dia at 200mm spacing at long span in two face
Similarly fo short span , provide 8mm dia at 100mm spacing
Safe bearing capacity = [ weight of column +
weight of footing ]/ Area of pedestal
200 = [(1800/1.5) +0.15 *1800)] / Area of
pedestal
L * B = 1380/200 KN
L = B = 2700 m
Page no.63, IS 456-2000
100∗𝑄𝑜
Tan Ө <0.9 +1
𝑓𝑐𝑘
Tan ⱺ<1.2
D/x<1.2
x=1025mm
D/x<1.2
D<1.2*1025
Dpedestal =1250 mm
Design of anchorage bolt
Td=0.9fu/γml*0.78*db2
=0.9*410/1.25*0.78*202
Td=72.34 KN
T=0 due to axial load
T<Td
External force=internal resisting force
Fy/𝛾m Ag=bd[dlb]
250/1.1*2002=1.2[20*lb]
Lb=445mm
 Thus the project as per objective, has been
analyzed and designed using AUTOCAD.
 The analysis is done by considering Dead
Load, Live Load, Wind Load and combination
of loads acting on the entire structure
 The design is based on the Indian Standards
Codes, such as IS 800: 2007, IS 875-Part 3,
IS 875-Part 1 and Steel Table
 The result of this design is safe against all the
loading conditions