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HAMDARD UNIVERSITY BANGLADESH

Presented by
 Zuma Akter
 ID : 555141017
 Dept. of electrical &
Electronics Engineer
 4th Batch, 4th Semester
Topics

 Single phase induction motor


Outline
 Induction motor
 Single phase induction motor
 Types of single phase induction motor
 Making single phase induction self-starting
 Split phase induction motor
 Capacitor induction motor
 Types of induction motor
 Capacitor start induction run motor
 Capacitor start and run motor
 Shaded pole motor
 Repulsion motor
 Speed control of single phase motor
Induction motor
 Induction motor is a type of electrical motor in which alternating
current from a power source is fed through a primary winding and
induces a current in a secondary winding ,with the parts arranged so
that the resulting magnetic field causes a movable rotor to rotate with
respect to a fixed stator.
Single phase induction motor
 Single-phase motors are used mostly to operate home appliances
such as air conditioners, refrigerators, pumps, and fans.
 They are designed to operate on 120 V or 240 V.
 They range in capacity from fractional horsepower to several
horsepower depending on the application.
 Voltage is induced in the rotor as a result of magnetic induction,
and a magnetic field is produced around the rotor. This field will
always be in opposition to the stator field (according to Lenz’s law).
Single phase induction motor
 In single phase induction motor, its stator is provided with a single
phase winding and a centrifugal switch which is used only for
starting purposes. It has distributer and squirrel case rotor. when
fed from a single phase supply, it’s stator winding produces flux
which is alternation. However , if the rotor of such such a machine
is given an initial start by some motor in either direction , then
immediately a torque arises and the motor accelerates to its final
speed. This peculiar behavior of the motor has been explained in
two way :
1.By two field or double –field theory
2.By cross-field theory
Types of single phase induction motor
 Single phase induction motor classification depends on the
construction. There are three types of single phase induction
motor. There are given below-
1.Split phase induction motor
2. Capacitor induction motor
3.Shaded –pole induction motor
Making single phase induction motor self-starting
 A single phase induction motor is not self starting. To
overcome this drawback and make the motor self starting, it
is temporarily converted into two phase motor during starting
period. For this purpose , the stator of a single phase motor is
provided with an extra winding, known as starting or auxiliary
winding , in addition to the main or running winding. The two
winding are separated 90 degree electrically apart and are
connected in parallel across the single phase supply.

Fig .1:self-starting of single phase


motor
Split phase induction motor
 In the split phase induction motor, the main winding has low
resistance but high reactance whereas the starting winding has a
high resistance but low reactance. The resistance of the starting
winding may be increased either by connected a high resistance R in
series with it or by choosing. high resistance fine winding purposes .

Fig.2 : Split phase induction


motor
Split phase induction motor
 In fig.3 the current Is drawn by the starting winding lags the applied
voltage V by a small angle whereas current Im taken by the main
winding lags behind V by a very large angle. Phase angle between Is
and Im is made as large as possible because the starting torque of a
split phase motor is proportional to sin . A centrifugal switch S is
connected in series with the starting winding and is located inside
the motor.

Fig.3: phasor diagram of split phase


motor
Capacitor induction motor
 Capacitor induction motor has two types. There are given below-
1.Capacitor start induction motor
2.Capacitor run induction motor
2.Capacitor start and run motor
Capacitor start induction motor
 In capacitor start induction run motor, the necessary phase
difference between Is and Im is produced by connecting a capacitor
in series with the starting winding as shown in fig(4). The capacitor
is generally of the electrolytic type. The capacitor is designed for
extremely short dirty short-duty service and is guaranteed for not
more then 20 period of operation per hour. When the motor reaches
about 75 percent of full load speed , the centrifugal switch S opens
and cut out both the starting winding and the capacitor for the
supply ,thus the leaving only theI running winding across the lines.
s S

Im
Cs

Fig.4 : capacitor start


Capacitor start induction motor
 In this fig .5 show that current Im drawn by the main winding lags
the supply voltage V by a large angle whereas Is leads V by a certain
angle . The two current are out of phase with each other by the
angle 80 degree as compared to nearly 30 degree for a split phase
induction motor. Their resultant current I is small and is almost in
phase with V . Since the torque developed by a split phase motor is
proportional to the sine of the angle between Is and Im , it is
increase in the angle alone increases the starting torque to nearly
twice the value developed Is by a standard split phase induction motor.

Im
Fig.5 : phasor diagram of capacitor start
motor
Types of capacitor start motor
 Some of the important types of such motors are given below :
1.Single-voltage , externally-reversible type
2.Single-voltage ,non-reversible type
3.Single-voltage , reversible and with thermostat type
4.Single-voltage , non-reversible with magnetic switch type
5.Two-voltage , non-reversible type
6.Two-voltage , reversible type
7.Single-voltage , three-lead reversible type
8.Single-voltage , instantly-reversible type
9.Two speed type
10.Two speed with two capacitor types
Capacitor start and run motor
 capacitor start and run motor is similar to the capacitor start motor.
In capacitor start and run motor , starting capacitor may be a
double-anode non-polar electrolytic capacitor which could be two +
to + (or - to -) series connected polarized electrolytic capacitors.
Such AC rated electrolytic capacitors have such high losses that
they can only be used for intermittent duty (1 second on, 60
seconds off) like motor starting. A capacitor for motor running must
not be of electrolytic construction, but a lower loss polymer type.
Is S

Im Cm Cs

Fig.6:capacitor start and run


Shaded pole induction motor
 In such motors, the necessary phase splitting is produced by
induction. These motors have salient poles on the stator and a
squirrel cage type rotor Fig.7 shows a four pole motor with the field
poles connected in series for alternate polarity. The laminated pole
has a cut across the laminations approximately one-third distance
from one edge. Around the small part of the pole is placed a short
circuited Cu coil known as shading coil. The part of the pole is known
as shaded part and the other as unshaded part. When an alternating
current is passed through the exciting winding surrounding the
whole pole , the axis of the pole shifts from the unshaded part a to
shaded part.

Fig .7 :Shaded pole induction


Repulsion motor
 The machine is often converted into an induction motor during the
period of running by arranging that all the commutator segments are
short-circuited by a centrifugally-operated device when the motor is
up to speed. The brushes are also lifted in same cases to reduce wear.
To avoid the complication of the short-circuiting device, the rotor may
be arranged with a squirrel-cage winding at the bottom of the slots.
This takes over at speed and gives induction-motor characteristics.

Fig.8:Repulsion motor
Speed control of single induction
motor
Motor speed may be varied by putting variable resistance back
into the rotor circuit. This reduces rotor current and speed. The
high starting torque available at zero speed, the down shifted
break down torque, is not available at high speed. See R 2 curve at
90% Ns, Resistors R0R1R2R3 increase in value from zero. A higher
resistance at R3 reduces the speed further. Speed regulation is
poor with respect to changing torque loads. This speed control
technique is only useful over a range of 50% to 100% of full speed.
Speed control works well with variable speed loads like elevators
and printing presses.
Speed control of single induction
motor
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