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You are on page 1of 32

32 For the Gentiles seek after all these things, and your heavenly Father

knows that you need them all.

33 But seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these

things will be added to you.

Mathematical Operation

Order of operation

When carrying out computations, it is important to understand the

order of operations. This is because some operations may have

different answers depending on the operation that is carried out. For

example, 12 + 9 × 3. Depending on the operation, the answer can be

39 or 63. But the correct answer is 39.

Example(S)

• Calculate the following:

I. 4 × 6 + 2

II. 20 ÷ 4 + 2

III. 16 + 7 − 3 × 2

1

IV. 2

÷2 ×4

Solution

1. 4 × 6 + 2 = 26

2. 20 ÷ 4 + 2 = 7

3. 16 + 7 − 3 × 2 = 17

We can see that depending on the operation that we take, the answers

can be different.

Exercise

1. Evaluate each of the following:

I. 20 − 4 ÷ 3

II. 20 − 4 ÷ 2

1

III. 1 ×8

3

÷6

1 1

IV. 2

+

3

÷ 12

Rounding-off

• Most calculations performed do not produce nice round numbers and

they need to be rounded-off to whatever degree seems reasonable.

Rounding-off is a method of determining a required level of accuracy

of any number. Rounding-off can be done in two ways: rounding to a

chosen value and rounding to a certain number of significant figures.

The common thing in these two methods is that, the process consists

of two steps: deciding where the rounded value should stop and look

at the next digit and if it is 5 or more, then increase the last digit

required of the number by one, otherwise leave it as it stands.

Example(s)

1. Round off 5473.835

a. To the nearest 10

b. To the nearest 100

c. To the nearest unity

d. To the nearest decimal place

e. To the nearest two decimal places

Solution

I. 5473.835 = 5470. Because 3 the nearest digit to 7 is less than 5.

II. 5473.835= 5500. Because the number in the tens place is 7 and is

greater than 5 hence 4 increase by 1.

III. 5473.835= 5474. The number in the ones place is 3 and the nearest

in the tenths place is 8 which is greater than 5.

IV. 5473.835=5473.8. The number of the second decimal is 3, less than

5.

V. 5473.835= 5473.84. The number of the third decimal is 5.

Mathematical operations and rounding-off

• Example(s)

I. 12.43(9.2 – 7.65) = 19.27

II. 4.32 ÷ 2.5× 7.2 = 12.44

III. 2.57 + 4.3 × 9.6

Exercise

Evaluate each of the following, rounding answers to the second and

third decimal place where required.

Cont’d

i. 512.6 + 302.8

ii. 108.4 – 273.9

iii. 72.65 ÷ 19.4 × 7.4 ÷ 22

iv. 5937 + (410 × 12.89 - 3720)

v. (2.5)(3.2 – 1.47)

vi. 0.658 – 12.414

Significant figures

Examples

Write down the number of significant figures in each of the following.

a. 0.0874 Three significant figures

b. 5.009 Four significant figures

c. 0.750 Three significant figures

d. 12000 Two significant figures

Cont’d

Note:

Leading zeros are ignored

Zeros between numbers are significant

If a zero is included after the last fractional digit, it is significant

Trailing zeros for numbers greater than one are not significant

Exercise

Write down the number of significant figures in each of the following.

i. 1.0025

ii. 0.0101

iii. 153010

iv. 17023

v. 1000000

vi. 62.01

vii. 2.001

Cont’d

• Round off the following to the number of significant figures indicated

in brackets.

• 672.102 (four)

• 312.9093 (four)

• 37.916 (two)

• 21.69 × 4.325 (3)

• -21.25 × -4.386 (3)

Directed numbers

Note: The following operations are true;

i. -÷ - = +

ii. - ÷ + = -

iii. + ÷ + = +

Addition and subtraction

Addition: If all the signs are the same, simply add the terms and give

the answer with the common overall sign.

Subtraction: When subtracting any two similar terms, give the answer

with the sign of the largest term

Cont’d

If the terms are identical, then they may be added or subtracted. e.g.

𝑥, 𝑥 2 , 𝑥 3 , 𝑥𝑦, … may be added or subtracted with terms similar to

them.

Examples

Perform the following operations:

12 + 4 = 16

-15 -5 =-20

-17 + 7 = -10

10 + -12 = -12

Cont’d

Multiplying and dividing.

Multiplying or dividing terms with like signs gives an answer with a positive sign.

Multiplying or dividing terms or quantities with different signs gives an answer with

a negative sign.

Examples

Perform the following operations:

i. 5 × 8 = 40

ii. -5 × -8 = 40

iii. -5 × 8 = -40

iv. 5 × -8 = -40

Cont’d

Perform the following operations:

i. 35 ÷ 5 = 7

ii. -35 ÷ -5 = 7

iii. -35 ÷ 5 = -7

iv. 35 ÷ -5 = -7

Perform the following multiplication problems:

i. 𝑥 − 𝑦 × 𝑥 + 𝑦

ii. (𝑥 + 𝑦)2 × 2𝑥

Cont’d

-20 ÷ -4 = 5

72 ÷ 9 = 8

Exercise.

Perform the following operations;

25 ÷ (-5) =

-105 + (-30) =

-15 – 10 =

-8 - -6 =

Subtraction and evaluation

Examples

1. Given the following relationship 𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑐. Find y when;

i. M=-5, x= 2 and c = -20

ii. M = 4, x = 3 and c = -6

2. Find x when;

i. Y = 12, m = 4 and c = 2

ii. Y = 25, m = 3 and c = -5

Solution

1. Y = mx + c.

i. Y = -5(2) + - 20

= -30

ii. Y = 4(3) + -6

=6

2. Y = mx + c

i. 12 = 4x + 2

5

10 = 4𝑥 =

2

Cont’d

Exercise

An equation representing a straight line has the form y = 5x + c.

Determine the value of y for each of the following conditions:

i. X = 2, c= 5

1 1

ii. 𝑥 = 2

,𝑐 =

4

1

iii. 𝑥 = −2 , 𝑐 =

2

0

iv. X = 0, c = 5

Cont’d

Evaluate 𝛼𝛽 − 3 + (𝛼𝛾 + 𝛽)2 , when:

i. 𝛼 = 2, 𝛽 = 4 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝛾 = 1

1

ii. 𝛼 = 2

,𝛽 = 6 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝛾 = 3

Mental methods (Use of memory)

Calculate the following:

i. 5.72 × 3.45

ii. 2.1 + 3.24 × 5

iii. 5.5 ÷ 1.5

Percentage calculation

Calculation involving percentages are the most common type of

problems in business mathematics; it is therefore essential that you can

perform them.

Examples

Find

a. 25% of 64

b. 16.5% of $2560

c. 15% of 32

Solution

25

a. 25% of 64 means × 64 = 16

100

16.5

b. 16.5% of $2560 means × 2560 = $422.40

100

Percentage increase and reduction

Example

The money allocated to a particular school is to be reduced by 5%. If

the school normally receives $79500, how much would it receive after

the reduction?

Solution

Reduction = 5% of 79500

5

This means × 79500 = $3975

100

The new allocation will be $79500 take away $3975

i.e. $79500 - $3975 = $75525

The other way of looking at it could be subtracting 5% from 100%

which gives 95%. Then find 95% of%79500.

Cont’d

A regular customer receives a discount (reduction) at a clothing store.

How much would she pay for the following if the discount is 12%?

i. Six pairs of stockings at $2.95

ii. Bread at k10

iii. Three pairs of slacks at $29.00

Solution

12

i. 100

× 2.95 = $3.54

12

ii. 100

× 10 = 𝑘1.2

Powers roots and reciprocals

Examples

Work out the following:

i. 33 = 3 × 3 × 3 = 27

ii. 26 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 64

iii. 5(8)2 = 5 8 × 8 = 320

Square root

The square root of a number is a value that when multiplied by itself is

equal to the original number.

Example(s)

Find the square root of each of the following:

a. 16

b. 64

c. √121

Solution

a. √16 this means finding a number which can be multiplied by itself

twice to get 16. These numbers are 4 and -4. To check this, we

multiply positive 4 twice and -4 twice. i.e.

4×4 = 16

-4×-4 = 16

Reciprocal

A reciprocal of a number is found by dividing the number into one.

Cont’d

Example

Find the reciprocal of the following:

1

i. 5=

5

2 3

ii. 3

=

2

1

iii. 2.5 =

2.5

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