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Matthew 6:32-33

32 For the Gentiles seek after all these things, and your heavenly Father
knows that you need them all.
33 But seek first the kingdom of God and his righteousness, and all these
things will be added to you.
Mathematical Operation
Order of operation
When carrying out computations, it is important to understand the
order of operations. This is because some operations may have
different answers depending on the operation that is carried out. For
example, 12 + 9 × 3. Depending on the operation, the answer can be
39 or 63. But the correct answer is 39.
Example(S)
• Calculate the following:
I. 4 × 6 + 2
II. 20 ÷ 4 + 2
III. 16 + 7 − 3 × 2
1
IV. 2
÷2 ×4
Solution
1. 4 × 6 + 2 = 26
2. 20 ÷ 4 + 2 = 7
3. 16 + 7 − 3 × 2 = 17

We can see that depending on the operation that we take, the answers
can be different.
Exercise
1. Evaluate each of the following:
I. 20 − 4 ÷ 3
II. 20 − 4 ÷ 2
1
III. 1 ×8
3
÷6
1 1
IV. 2
+
3
÷ 12
Rounding-off
• Most calculations performed do not produce nice round numbers and
they need to be rounded-off to whatever degree seems reasonable.
Rounding-off is a method of determining a required level of accuracy
of any number. Rounding-off can be done in two ways: rounding to a
chosen value and rounding to a certain number of significant figures.
The common thing in these two methods is that, the process consists
of two steps: deciding where the rounded value should stop and look
at the next digit and if it is 5 or more, then increase the last digit
required of the number by one, otherwise leave it as it stands.
Example(s)
1. Round off 5473.835
a. To the nearest 10
b. To the nearest 100
c. To the nearest unity
d. To the nearest decimal place
e. To the nearest two decimal places
Solution
I. 5473.835 = 5470. Because 3 the nearest digit to 7 is less than 5.
II. 5473.835= 5500. Because the number in the tens place is 7 and is
greater than 5 hence 4 increase by 1.
III. 5473.835= 5474. The number in the ones place is 3 and the nearest
in the tenths place is 8 which is greater than 5.
IV. 5473.835=5473.8. The number of the second decimal is 3, less than
5.
V. 5473.835= 5473.84. The number of the third decimal is 5.
Mathematical operations and rounding-off
• Example(s)
I. 12.43(9.2 – 7.65) = 19.27
II. 4.32 ÷ 2.5× 7.2 = 12.44
III. 2.57 + 4.3 × 9.6
Exercise
Evaluate each of the following, rounding answers to the second and
third decimal place where required.
Cont’d
i. 512.6 + 302.8
ii. 108.4 – 273.9
iii. 72.65 ÷ 19.4 × 7.4 ÷ 22
iv. 5937 + (410 × 12.89 - 3720)
v. (2.5)(3.2 – 1.47)
vi. 0.658 – 12.414
Significant figures
Examples
Write down the number of significant figures in each of the following.
a. 0.0874 Three significant figures
b. 5.009 Four significant figures
c. 0.750 Three significant figures
d. 12000 Two significant figures
Cont’d
Note:
 Leading zeros are ignored
 Zeros between numbers are significant
 If a zero is included after the last fractional digit, it is significant
 Trailing zeros for numbers greater than one are not significant
Exercise
Write down the number of significant figures in each of the following.
i. 1.0025
ii. 0.0101
iii. 153010
iv. 17023
v. 1000000
vi. 62.01
vii. 2.001
Cont’d
• Round off the following to the number of significant figures indicated
in brackets.
• 672.102 (four)
• 312.9093 (four)
• 37.916 (two)
• 21.69 × 4.325 (3)
• -21.25 × -4.386 (3)
Directed numbers
Note: The following operations are true;
i. -÷ - = +
ii. - ÷ + = -
iii. + ÷ + = +
Addition and subtraction
 Addition: If all the signs are the same, simply add the terms and give
the answer with the common overall sign.
 Subtraction: When subtracting any two similar terms, give the answer
with the sign of the largest term
Cont’d
 If the terms are identical, then they may be added or subtracted. e.g.
𝑥, 𝑥 2 , 𝑥 3 , 𝑥𝑦, … may be added or subtracted with terms similar to
them.
Examples
Perform the following operations:
12 + 4 = 16
-15 -5 =-20
-17 + 7 = -10
10 + -12 = -12
Cont’d
Multiplying and dividing.
Multiplying or dividing terms with like signs gives an answer with a positive sign.
Multiplying or dividing terms or quantities with different signs gives an answer with
a negative sign.
Examples
Perform the following operations:
i. 5 × 8 = 40
ii. -5 × -8 = 40
iii. -5 × 8 = -40
iv. 5 × -8 = -40
Cont’d
Perform the following operations:
i. 35 ÷ 5 = 7
ii. -35 ÷ -5 = 7
iii. -35 ÷ 5 = -7
iv. 35 ÷ -5 = -7
Perform the following multiplication problems:
i. 𝑥 − 𝑦 × 𝑥 + 𝑦
ii. (𝑥 + 𝑦)2 × 2𝑥
Cont’d
-20 ÷ -4 = 5
72 ÷ 9 = 8
Exercise.
Perform the following operations;
25 ÷ (-5) =
-105 + (-30) =
-15 – 10 =
-8 - -6 =
Subtraction and evaluation
Examples
1. Given the following relationship 𝑦 = 𝑚𝑥 + 𝑐. Find y when;
i. M=-5, x= 2 and c = -20
ii. M = 4, x = 3 and c = -6
2. Find x when;
i. Y = 12, m = 4 and c = 2
ii. Y = 25, m = 3 and c = -5
Solution
1. Y = mx + c.
i. Y = -5(2) + - 20
= -30
ii. Y = 4(3) + -6
=6
2. Y = mx + c
i. 12 = 4x + 2
5
10 = 4𝑥 =
2
Cont’d
Exercise
An equation representing a straight line has the form y = 5x + c.
Determine the value of y for each of the following conditions:
i. X = 2, c= 5
1 1
ii. 𝑥 = 2
,𝑐 =
4
1
iii. 𝑥 = −2 , 𝑐 =
2
0
iv. X = 0, c = 5
Cont’d
Evaluate 𝛼𝛽 − 3 + (𝛼𝛾 + 𝛽)2 , when:
i. 𝛼 = 2, 𝛽 = 4 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝛾 = 1
1
ii. 𝛼 = 2
,𝛽 = 6 𝑎𝑛𝑑 𝛾 = 3
Mental methods (Use of memory)
Calculate the following:
i. 5.72 × 3.45
ii. 2.1 + 3.24 × 5
iii. 5.5 ÷ 1.5
Percentage calculation
Calculation involving percentages are the most common type of
problems in business mathematics; it is therefore essential that you can
perform them.
Examples
Find
a. 25% of 64
b. 16.5% of $2560
c. 15% of 32
Solution
25
a. 25% of 64 means × 64 = 16
100
16.5
b. 16.5% of $2560 means × 2560 = $422.40
100
Percentage increase and reduction
Example
The money allocated to a particular school is to be reduced by 5%. If
the school normally receives $79500, how much would it receive after
the reduction?
Solution
Reduction = 5% of 79500
5
This means × 79500 = $3975
100
The new allocation will be $79500 take away $3975
i.e. $79500 - $3975 = $75525
The other way of looking at it could be subtracting 5% from 100%
which gives 95%. Then find 95% of%79500.
Cont’d
A regular customer receives a discount (reduction) at a clothing store.
How much would she pay for the following if the discount is 12%?
i. Six pairs of stockings at $2.95
ii. Bread at k10
iii. Three pairs of slacks at $29.00
Solution
12
i. 100
× 2.95 = $3.54
12
ii. 100
× 10 = 𝑘1.2
Powers roots and reciprocals
Examples
Work out the following:
i. 33 = 3 × 3 × 3 = 27
ii. 26 = 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 × 2 = 64
iii. 5(8)2 = 5 8 × 8 = 320
Square root
The square root of a number is a value that when multiplied by itself is
equal to the original number.
Example(s)
Find the square root of each of the following:
a. 16
b. 64
c. √121
Solution
a. √16 this means finding a number which can be multiplied by itself
twice to get 16. These numbers are 4 and -4. To check this, we
multiply positive 4 twice and -4 twice. i.e.
4×4 = 16
-4×-4 = 16
Reciprocal
A reciprocal of a number is found by dividing the number into one.
Cont’d
Example
Find the reciprocal of the following:
1
i. 5=
5
2 3
ii. 3
=
2
1
iii. 2.5 =
2.5