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Highest electronegativity

Lowest electronegativity
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CHEMICAL
BONDING

Cocaine
Chemical Bonding
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How do atoms
combine?
IONIC BOND
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• What is an Ionic Bond?


- it is a chemical bond resulting from
the TRANSFER of electrons from one
bonding atom to another.
• When is an ionic bond formed?
- ionic bond is formed when a cation
(positive ion) transfer electrons to an
anion (negative ion).
- always formed between metals and
non-metals.
What is an ion?
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•Ions are atoms or group


of atoms that are
electrically charged.
•Ionic compounds are
made of ions.
Properties of Ionic 6

Compounds
• They have very high melting point and
boiling points.
Example: NaCl boiling point = 1413 °C
NaCl melting point = 801°C
• Non-conductors of electricity in solid
phase.
• Good conductors in liquid phase or
dissolved in water (aq).
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The Octet Rule


• The interaction of ionic bonds
is when atoms gain or lose
electrons until the outer shell
of electrons is full and stable
with 8 electrons. This is part
of the octet rule.
• All atoms trying to achieve a
stable octet
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Valence Electrons
• Valence electrons are the
electrons in the highest
occupied energy level of the
atom.
• Valence electrons are the only
electrons generally involved in
bond formation.
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The Lewis Structure


• A useful tool for applying the
octet rule is the Lewis
structure also called electron
dot structure.
• It is used to indicates the
number of valence electrons in
an atom.

G. N. Lewis
1875 - 1946
It was named after Gilbert
Newton Lewis, a famous
American physical chemist.
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Example

+ -
Na + Cl [Na] [ Cl ]
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Al + O
3+ 2-
Al O [Al] [O ]

O
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Exercises
• Show the transfer of electrons
in the following combinations.
1.K + F
2.Mg + I
3.Al + Br
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