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COMPRESSORS

for
INDUSTRIAL
APPLICATIONS

R.B.Prasad
Topics

 Compressor Classification & Application


 Models, Design Features, Basic Sizing
 Input for proper design, Performance
Characteristics
 Major components
 Maintenance & Trouble shooting
COMPRESSOR
• The compressor is a machine, which
compresses gases from low pressure to
required high pressure. In compressors,
mechanical energy is converted into
kinetic energy and imparted as
thermodynamic energy to the fluid in
compression, and is exhibited in form of
high pressure and temperature of the
gases after the compression phenomena.
COMPRESSORS
CLASSIFICATION
&
APPLICATION
COMPRESSORS
CLASSIFICATION
Compressors are broadly divided into two main
classes

i) Positive displacement compressor (Reciprocating,


screw compressors)
ii) Dynamic compressor. (Centrifugal Compressors)

Positive displacement compressors are further divided


in two groups namely
i) Rotary type and
ii) Reciprocating type
Positive displacement compressor
(Reciprocating Type)
• Reciprocating compressors are generally made as per
API 618, for general purpose compression services in
refinery and petrochemical industries. API 618 covers all
general minimum requirement and specifications of the
compressor parts for the specific services.
• This standard covers related lubrication system, controls,
inter and after coolers, pulsation suppression devices
and other auxiliary equipments.
• In reciprocating gas compressor the fluid (air/gas) is
compressed in a cylinder with the help of piston. This
compression of fluid can be done in a single cylinder or
through consecutive multi stage cylinders in series or
parallel, depending upon the process requirement of final
discharge pressure and flow.
Dynamic compressor
(CENTRIFUGAL COMPRESSOR)
• Centrifugal compressors are fluid flow dynamic machines for
the compression of gases according to the principals of
dynamics. The bladed impeller with its continual internal
flow serves as an element of energy transfer to the gas.
• Pressure temperature and velocity of the gas leaving the
impeller are higher than at the inlet. Diaphragms or diffusers
arranged after the impeller helps in diverting the gas
velocity, thus further increase in pressure and temperature
is achieved by the conversion of the kinetic energy into
pressure energy.
• Generally centrifugal compressor are used for high capacity
and low pressure and though initial cost is high but, lower
maintenance and running cost places these compressors to
compare with high efficiency reciprocating compressor.
Manufacturing, testing and accessories for Centrifugal
compressor for petro-chemical plants are manufactured
according to API 617 codes.
CLASSIFICATION

 POSITIVE DISPLACEMENT
COMPRESSOR: (Volume Compression)

 RECIPROCATING COMPRESSORS
Piston Type (
A. Single Acting
B. Double Acting
Membrane Type
A. Single Acting
B. Double Acting)
DYNAMIC COMPRESSOR: (On the
basis of Kinetic theory of gases)
ROTARY COMPRESSOR
– Turbo Compressor
– Centrifugal Compressor or Radial Flow
Compressor (Single and Multi Stage)
– Axial Flow Compressor (Single and Multi Stage)
– Mixed Flow Compressor (Single and Multi Stage)
• Jet Compressor
• Bull Gear Compressor
• Screw Compressor
• Vane Type
• Lobe Type
• Gear Type
General application Range of
Compressor Cross section

Positive Displacement Compressors below 3000m3/hr


3000 - 12000 m3/hr overlapping between
Positive displacement and Centrifugal compressors

Centrifugal compressors above 3000 m3/hr


30000 -120000 m3/hr overlapping between
centrifugal and Axial compressor
Rotary positive Displacement Compressors
Rotary positive Displacement Compressors
Rotary Compressor
Small mobile
Compressor
for
Pneumatic
Hammers
FANS, BLOWERS AND COMPRESSORS IN IFFCO
PHULPUR
FANS, BLOWERS AND COMPRESSORS IN IFFCO
PHULPUR
Revamp of Process Air
Compressor (101J) LP&HP case
for higher flow requirement
• Process Air flow requirement is increased
from 42000 Nm3/hr to 48000 Nm3/hr.
• Work load has increased from 7840 kW to
9764 kW.
• Speed has changed from 6615rpm to
6816 rpm
Revamp of Process Air
Compressor (101J) LP&HP case
PARTS REPLACED:
• Both rotors of LP&HP case were replaced
• All diaphragms were replaced
• All labyrinth seals, oil seals and end seals
were replaced
• Gearbox between LP and HP was
replaced due to increased power
requirement of HP. (Flender make)
Revamp of Synthesis Gas
Compressor (103J)

• Make : Dresser Rand


• Output power has reduced from14575
kW to 12487 kW
• Flow has reduced from 620000Nm3/hr.
to 460000Nm3/hr.(Reduced flow =
160000Nm3/hr.)
Benefits of Retrofit of
Synthesis Gas Compressor

• Decrease in Recycle flow of


compressor by about 25% from
6,20,000 NM3/h to 4,60,000 NM3/h.
• Reduction in recycle gas flow, saving
of power about 2088 kW in synthesis
gas compressor train.
• Increase in Ammonia conversion from
14% to 19 % in Ammonia converters.
Synthesis Gas Compressor (103J ) Rotor New
Compressor Comparisons
• Reciprocating
• Cost advantage as a single-acting, air cooled unit below 30 hp.
• Double-acting units used above 250 psig and in non-lubricated applications.
• Normally used for heavy-duty, continuous service.
• High overall efficiency.
• Operates efficiently at partial loads.
• Saves horsepower in no-load conditions.
• High initial and maintenance costs.
• Large sizes require heavy foundations.
• Rotary Screw
• Used more in 150 psig, lubricated air systems above 30 hp.
• Used for constant-volume, variable-pressure applications.
• Oil or water is used for sealing and cooling.
• Must vent reservoir to lower power consumption when unloaded.
• Delivers high air volume in a compact space.
• Smooth, pulse-free output.
• Easy to install and maintain.
• Low vibration.
Compressor Comparisons
Centrifugal versus Reciprocating Compressors
• Integrally geared centrifugal compressors can
operate at many times higher speeds than
reciprocating compressors. The higher speeds
ultimately result in smaller package sizes as
compared to a reciprocating compressor.
• The operating speed of a reciprocating
compressor is very slow due to mechanical and
dynamic limitations. The lower speed of
reciprocating compressor lends itself to larger
compressor size, heavier weight, and larger plot
plan size.
Centrifugal versus Reciprocating
Compressors
• In the reciprocating compressor, the physical contact and
relative movement causes wear and tear of both moving
and stationary components, which requires frequent and
regular maintenance.
• However, a centrifugal compressor operates for many
years with continuous service without overhaul
maintenance, resulting in less plant down time. This
eliminates loss of product, provides more profit, lowers
risk, and results in lower maintenance cost. Hence,
higher reliability is fully attainable with centrifugal
compressors.
• The dynamic loads placed on a centrifugal compressor
foundation would typically be in the order of 10-lbf (44.5
N) as compared to 400-lbf. (1780N) for a reciprocating
compressor, in a similar services.
Thank You