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Telefonica Ecuador

Redirection from 3G to LTE after CS


fallback
Analysis of non fast return case
• 24-02-2016

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Analysis of traces collected
during tests

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Redirection from 3G to LTE after CS fallback - Analysis of non
fast return case

Problem Summary:
In some occasions, the redirection back to LTE after a CS fallback procedure
delays more than expected.
Collected information:
• Planned tests were carried out with the collaboration of Telefónica. Traces
were collected at the same time the tests were executed.
• One user was making tests with his UE to reproduce the scenario under
analysis.
• Emil traces were collected in eNB LPI_PUCARA.
• Traces were collected also in SGSN, MME and SAEGW.
• Also Traffica News events were checked for SGSN and MME.

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Redirection from 3G to LTE after CS fallback - Analysis of non
fast return case
EPC analysis:

• In Traffica News event check all the mobility events for 3G and 4G (RAU
and TAU) were successful.
• In the SGSN trace all the events are successful and no rejected or failed
procedure in SGSN and MME.
• In the FNG trace, all the requests are accepted for 3G and 4G and even it
can be checked that the UE is keeping the same IP address during all the
tests.

In summary: from SGSN, MME and SAEGW side, all the registered mobility
events are normal in the CSFB procedure and all of them are successful. During
the time the UE remained in 3G not coming back immediatly to LTE, there are
no request messages to packet core network.
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Redirection from 3G to LTE after CS fallback - Analysis of non
fast return case
eNB trace analysis:

• All the UE requests coming to eNB are processed and successfully completed
in the eNB trace collected during the tests.

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Redirection from 3G to LTE after CS fallback - Analysis of non
fast return case
eNB trace analysis:
• Every time the UE is requesting a voice call, the Message of Extended
Service Request requesting CS fallback is received in eNB and forwarded to
MME.
• After CS fallback is requested, the eNB releases RRC connection indicating to
the UE the preferred layer to register: utra-FDD and 4412 carrier (this
frequency carrier is matching with UARFCN of first carrier cells of 3G-NBs
UPI-PUCARA and UPI-PUCARA2).

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Redirection from 3G to LTE after CS fallback - Analysis of non
fast return case
eNB trace analysis:
• When UE is redirected from 3G to 4G, a Tracking Area Update request is
expected in LTE side.
• TAU request is completed successfully.

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Redirection from 3G to LTE after CS fallback - Analysis of non
fast return case
eNB trace analysis summary:

• All the requests, both CSFB to go 3G layer and TAU requests to come back to
LTE, are completed successfully.
• There are no rejected procedures in LTE side.
• Considering these results, it’s needed to check 3G side in order to figure out
the reasons of the delay of return from 3G to 4G.
• It’s remarkable that, during the tests, in 3G side the UE continues camping
in 3G and with available services (voice or data). This means that RNC is not
commanding the redirection to LTE for any reason.

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Analysis of 3G configuration
to return from 3G to LTE

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Redirection from 3G to LTE after CS fallback - Analysis of non
fast return case

Description of the scenario:


• UE camping in LTE is redirected to 3G because of a CS fallback service
request in order to attend MOC or MTC.
• UE has to register in 3G and the voice call is established so the UE is in
Cell_DCH state in 3G network.
• As UE is in Cell_DCH state, in order to return to 3G it’s needed to consider
the configuration of Smart LTE layering feature.
• This feature allows one user in Cell_DCH state in 3G network to go back by
redirection to LTE network.
• There are some triggers for this Smart LTE layering.

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Redirection from 3G to LTE after CS fallback - Analysis of non
fast return case
Description of the Smart LTE layering triggers:
:
State
State change
change (inactivity)
(inactivity) Channel
Channel type
type switch
switch CS
CS call
call release
release

• State transition from Cell_DCH to Cell_FACH, • Channel type switch from HS-DSCH to DCH • CS RAB release trigger means case where an
Cell_PCH, URA_PCH due to inactivity. • Instead of waiting for resources in WCDMA, the UE has CS RAB and at least one active PS
• LTE Interworking allows to reselect when the UE UE is redirected to LTE layer RAB and then CS RAB is released (UE would
is in Idle, Cell_PCH and URA_PCH – now stay in CELL_DCH state in WCDMA).
• This trigger is used only if UE has no CS RAB
layering to LTE is even quicker.

UTRAN Connected Mode


DCH
Cell_PCH URA_PCH

HS-
DSCH
Cell_DCH Cell_FACH

• The operator can decide which events triggers LTE Layering via setting appropriate value for SmartLTELayeringEnabled parameter:
• Enabled for state change (1),
• Enabled for state change and channel type switch (2),
• Enabled for state change and CS RAB release (3),
• Enabled for all triggers (4) TELEFONICA ECUADOR CONFIGURATION
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Redirection from 3G to LTE after CS fallback - Analysis of non
fast return case

Counters used to check Smart LTE layering:


RRC_REL_LTE_REDIR_INACT (M1006C262): The number of RRC Connection Releases
triggered by Smart LTE Layering feature because of inactivity or PS RAB release. Updated
when the RNC sends RRC Connection Release message to the UE, triggered by Cell_DCH
to Cell_FACH, Cell_PCH, URA_PCH transition or Iu release. Basically this counter is updated
when the voice call is released in no multiRAB call or when there is no activity in PS NRT
RAB when the UE is with one HSPA session.
RRC_REL_LTE_REDIR_CH_SW (M1006C263): The number of RRC Connection Releases
triggered by switch from HSPA to Rel99 DCH transport channels. Updated when the RNC
sends RRC Connection Release message to the UE, triggered by HS-DSCH to Rel99 DCH
(DCH x/y) channel type switch. HS-DSCH switches directly to Rel99 DCH without any bit
rate (DCH 0/0) are not included in this counter.
RRC_REL_LTE_REDIR_CS_REL (M1006C291): The number of RRC Connection Releases
with LTE redirection information because of CS Voice Call release. This counter is updated
when the CS call is released in MultiRAB call.
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Redirection from 3G to LTE after CS fallback - Analysis of non
fast return case
The most triggering causes
Check of Smart LTE layering in eNB LPI_PUCARA: of Smart LTE layering, as
expected, are CS voice call
releases in MultiRAB and non
MultiRAB.

The least triggering cause


of Smart LTE layering, as
expected, are
reconfiguration from HSPA
to R99 channel.

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Redirection from 3G to LTE after CS fallback - Analysis of non
fast return case

When is not Smart LTE layering triggered?:


• There is a possibility to set a minimum time that the UE must be in WCDMA
system before redirection to LTE can be done SmartLTELayeringPrevT.
• Setting timer value to too low, may cause ping pong redirections.
• Setting timer value to too high, may cause that redirection to LTE is not
triggered as frequently as it would be most effective.
• This timer is set to value 5 seconds in Pucará sites.
• There is also a counter in RNC allowing to know when Smart LTE layering is
prevented: LTE_REDIR_PREV_TIMER (M1006C264): The number of times
when Smart LTE Layering is prevented by timer SmartLTELayeringPrevT.
Updated when Smart LTE Layering would trigger RRC Connection Release,
but it is prevented by timer SmartLTELayeringPreventionT
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Redirection from 3G to LTE after CS fallback - Analysis of non
fast return case

Check of Smart LTE layering prevention in eNB LPI_PUCARA:

There are some cases in


every period so there are
UEs prevented to return LTE
by Smart LTE layering.

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Redirection from 3G to LTE after CS fallback - Analysis of non
fast return case

What happens with UE when Smart LTE layering is prevented?:


• We can guess two options under CSFB scenario:
1) MultiRAB environment: when the voice call is released and Smart LTE layering prevented, there is
still a PS RAB. If this PS RAB is HSPA, it’s needed to wait until HSPA call is finished (change from
Cell_DCH to another UE state) or HSPA channel is decreased to R99 cannel.
2) Non MultiRAB environment: in this case, when the voice call is released, the UE doesn’t have any
other associated RAB. This means that the UE moves to another state different from Cell_DCH:
Cell_FACH, Cell_PCH, URA_PCH or Idle.
• When the UE is in this state, the feature controlling the redirection to LTE is RAN2067 LTE
interworking. This feature allows redirection for higher priority layers (in our case, LTE layer has
higher priority than 3G) when the target layer fulfills the requirements of RSRP measurements taking
by the UE during the configured timers (Cell reselection triggering timers are configured to 1s, 8s and
1.6s for Idle, Cell_PCH/URA_PCH and Cell_FACH).
• If before the cell reselection to LTE is completed, the UE is making a call, either voice call (not the
case under study) or data call, the state changes to Cell_DCH and again the return to LTE is under
control of Smart LTE layering feature. If the data connection is HSPA, again as in MultiRAB
environment, is needed to wait until HSPA call is finished (change from Cell_DCH to another UE state)
16 or HSPA channel
© Nokia is and
Solutions decreased to R99 cannel.
Networks 2014
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Conclussions

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Redirection from 3G to LTE after CS fallback - Analysis of non
fast return case

CONCLUSSIONS
• After analysis of the traces in EPC and LTE network collected during
the tests, it can be concluded that the system (LTE, EPC and 3G
core networkg) is working as expected and is not avoiding the
return to LTE of the UE after a CS fallback procedure.
• Analysis of 3G RAN configuration and counters collected by RNC
rises up cases of UEs not able to return to LTE because of a
prevention timer.
• All these prevented UEs can enter in scenarios (mainly because of
an HSPA call) that avoid its return to LTE until the HSPA call is
finished.

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