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CECE 2210

Mechanic of Materials
Chapter-4
(Calculate the deflection of beams using different methods)
Nature of Distribution of Bending Stress:

The bending moment at a section tends to bend or deflect the beam and the internal
stresses resist its bending. The process of bending stops when every cross section sets up
full resistance to the bending moment. The resistance offered by the internal stresses to
the bending is called the bending stress.
Difference between direct stress and bending stress:

Direct tensile and compressive stress is set up due to load applied parallel to the
length of the object, and direct shear stress is set up in the section which is parallel to the
line of action of the shear load. But bending stress is set up due to load at right angles to
the length of the object subjected to bending.
Bending Moment Equation:

Differential equation of the elastic line:


Maximum Slope and deflection of beams :

Load is denoted by ‘W’ or ‘P’

S.No. Type of Beam Max. Slope, (θ max) Max. Deflection, (y max)

Simply Supported beam with Central point


1 𝑊𝑙 2 𝑊𝑙 3
load. 16𝐸𝐼 48𝐸𝐼

2 Simply Supported beam with UDL 𝑊𝑙 3 5𝑊𝑙 4


24𝐸𝐼 384𝐸𝐼

3 Cantilever beam with Point load at free end. 𝑊𝑙 2 𝑊𝑙 3


2𝐸𝐼 3𝐸𝐼

4 Cantilever beam with UDL 𝑊𝑙 3 𝑊𝑙 4


6𝐸𝐼 8𝐸𝐼
Double integration method: (for slope deflection)

We know B.M. at a point Ref: R.S.Khurmi and N.Khurmi, Strength of


Materials,2013
d2y
M  EI 2
dx
Integrating this equation
d2y dy
 M   EI dx 2  EI dx
Again int egrating we get

 M  EIy
First int egration gibe the value of slope,
sec ond int egration give the value of deflection
Simply supported beam with central point load:

Maximum slope :
Wl 2
iA  (radian)
16 EI
Maximum deflection :
3
Wl
yc  
48 EI
[ sign shows that the
deflection is downward ]
Problem #1.
A simply supported beam of span 3m is subjected to a central load of 10kN.
Find the maximum slope and deflection of the beam. Take I=12x106mm4,
E=200GPa.

E  200GPa  200 103 N / mm 2


l  3m  3000mm, W  10kN  10000 N , I  12 106 mm 4
10000  3000 
2
Wl 2
Maximum slope  i A  
16 EI 16  200 103 12 106
 2.34 10 3  0.00234 rad
10000  3000 
3
Wl 3
Maximum deflection  yc  
48 EI 48  200 103 12 106
 2.34mm
Problem #2.
A wooden beam 140mm wide and 240mm deep has a span of 4m.
Determine the load that can be placed at it’s center to cause a deflection of
10mm. Take E=6GPa.
b  140mm, d  240mm, l  4m  4000mm
yc  10mm, E  6GPa  6 103 N / mm 2
bd 3 140  2403
I   161.28 10 mm
6 4

12 12
W  4000 
3 3
Wl 3
yc  10   1.377  10 W
48 EI 48  6 10 161.28 10
3 6

10
W  3
 7262.16 N  7.26kN
1.377 10
Simply supported beam with eccentric point load:

iA 
Wb 2
6 EIl
 l  b2 
iB 
Wa 2
6 EIl
 l  a2 
ymax 
Wa

l 2  a2 
3/ 2

Position of maximum 9 3  EIl


deflection:
l a2 2 yc  
Wab 2

l  a2  b2 
x 6 EIl
3
Problem #3.
A beam of uniform section of span l is simply supported at its ends. It is
carrying a point load of W at a distance l/3 from one end. Find the deflection
of the beam under the load.

l
a
3
2l
b  , Formula for deflection at C is
3
yc  
Wab 2
6 EIl

l  a2  b2 
l 2l
W. .
3 3 2  l  2  2l  2 
 l       
6 EIl   3   3  
2
W 2l 1 2 l  2
4l 
2
    l   
6 EI 9 l  9 9 

Wl 9l  l  4l
2 2 2
 
Wl 4l  2
     
27 EI  9  27 EI  9 
3 3
4Wl Wl
  0.01646 Ans.
243EI EI
Problem #4.
A steel joist, simply supported over a span of 6m carries a point load of 50 kN at
1.2m from left support. Find the position and magnitude of maximum
deflection. Take EI=14 x 1012Nmm2

l  6m  6000mm
W  50kN  50000 N
a  1.2m  1200mm
b  4.8m  4800mm
EI  14 1012 Nmm 2
Position of maximum deflection:

l 2  a2 6000 2  1200 2
x   11520000  3394.11mm
3 3
Now, a  1.2m  1200mm
b  6  1.2  4.8m  4800mm

ymax 
Wa
l a
2
2 3/ 2

9 3  EIl
50000 1200
  
6000  1200
2 2 3/ 2

9 3 14 10  6000


12

 4.58 10 11  345600003


 4.58 10 11  2.03 1011  9.30mm. Ans
Problem #5:
A simply supported beam of span 2.4m is subjected to a central point load of 15
kN. What is the maximum slope and deflection at the center of the beam. Take
EI=6 x 1010Nmm2

W  15kN  15000 N
Wl 2
l  2.4m  2400mm, Maximum slope i A 
16 EI
15000  (2400) 2
  0.09 rad
16  6 1010

Wl 3 15000  (2400) 3
ymax    72mm. Ans
48 EI 48  6 1010
Problem #6:
A beam of 3m long, simply supported at it’s ends is carrying a point load at
it’s center. If the slope at the ends of the beam is not exceed 10,find the
deflection at center. [10   rad ]
180

Wl 3
Weknow yc 
iA 48 EI
 Wl 2  l l
     i A 
 16 EI  3 3
 3000
   17.44mm
180 3
Problem #7:
A rolled steel beam simply supported over a span of 6m carries a point load of
40kN at a distance 4m from left end support. What is the position of maximum
deflection? Take E=200GPa,I=70 x 106 mm4.
W  40kN  40000 N
a  4m  4000mm, b  2m  2000mm
l  6m  6000mm
E  200GPa  200 103 N / mm 2
I  70 106 mm 4

Position of max imum deflection


l 2  a2 6000 2  4000 2
x   2581.98mm  2.58m
3 3
Problem#8:
A simply supported beam AB of span 4m is subjected to point load of 40kN at a
distance 1m from A. Determine the slope at both ends. Take EI=500x1012Nmm2
W  40kN  40000 N
l  4m  4000mm
a  1m  1000mm
b  3m  3000mm
EI  500 1012 Nmm 2
40000  3000
iA 
Wb 2

6 EIl

l b 
2

6  500 1012  4000



4000 2
 3000 2

 7 10 5 rad .
40000 1000
iB 
Wa 2
6 EIl
 
l b 
2

6  500 1012  4000


4000 2
 1000 2

 5 10 5 rad . Ans.