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Emerging Wireless Technologies

and the Future Internet


PIMRC 2009 Keynote Talk
Sept 16, 2009

WINLAB

Prof. D. Raychaudhuri
ray@winlab.rutgers.edu
www.winlab.rutgers.edu

1
Future Wireless
Network Scenarios

2
Introduction: Wireless as the key driver for
the future Internet
 Historic shift from PC’s to mobile computing and embedded devices…
 >3 B cell phones vs. 600M Internet-connected PC’s in 2008
 >500M cell phones worldwide with IP service, rising rapidly
 Cellular data devices serve as primary access to Internet in India and China
 Sensor deployment just starting, with some estimates ~5-10B units by 2015

~1B servers/PC’s, 10B notebooks, PDA’s, cell phones, sensors

~500M server/PC’s, ~100M laptops/PDA’s

Wireless
Wireless
Edge
Edge
Network
Network

INTERNET INTERNET
INTERNET
INTERNET
Wireless
Wireless
Edge
Edge
Network
Network

~2005
~2015
WINLAB 3
Emerging Wireless Scenarios: Dynamic Spectrum
& Cognitive Radio  Emerging DSA techniques
for future wireless access
Maximum Amplitudes  White space WLAN,
Atlanta
Heavy Use Heavy Use femtocell,etc.
Less than 6% Occupancy  Spectrum markets,
New
subleasing, ..

Amplidue (dBm)
Orleans Time
Sparse Use Medium Use
 Future network support for
San
Diego
spectrum assignment as
an integrated feature …
Frequency Frequency (M Hz)

Spectrum Data Signal


Policy Server
Spectrum Coordination

Dynamic Spectrum Protocols


Wired For Coordination
Internet

Next-gen wireless devices with dynamic


spectrum capability
(fast RF scan, agile, adaptive PHY/MAC)

WINLAB 4
Emerging Wireless Scenarios: Network MIMO &
Cooperative PHY
 Current radio transmission methods reaching capacity limit
 Today’s capacity of ~1Mbps/Mhz/Km**2  needs to increase to ~100 Mbps/Mhz/Km**2
 Network MIMO and cooperative PHY offer significant potential for scaling radio capacity
 New access network features (packet diversity, multipath routing) needed to support network MIMO feature ….

MIMO Processing

Theory result on network MIMO,


Karayakali and Yates, WINLAB, 2006

WINLAB 5
Emerging Wireless Scenarios: Mesh Networks &
Relay
 Multi-hop modes will be important
Wired Internet
for wireless access networks Infrastructure

despite failure of many 1st gen Mesh GW or AP

metro mesh services


 Multi-hop mesh useful for extending range of
802.11 or 16 networks
 Forwarding relays for ~30-40% increased
capacity in 3G/LTE; also power savings
 Need protocol features for self-organization, Mesh
router mobility, etc ( MANET standards) Router

 Serious TCP problems in multi-hop radio 


solutions require cross-layer protocols
Hierarchical Mesh Network

The $99 Mesh Router from


Meraki Networks

WINLAB 6
Emerging Wireless Scenarios: P2P and DTN
 P2P and DTN modes for content delivery expected to become
mainstream in next 2-3 yrs
 Key technique for scaling wireless access network capacity ~10x or more
 Network may be disconnected at times …delay tolerant protocols
 Caching and opportunistic data delivery …. In-network storage
 Content- and location- aware protocols
 Both terminal and router mobility

Internet
Mobile DTN Router

Opportunistic
High-Speed Link
Ad-Hoc
(MB/s)
Network

Mobile DTN Router

Roadway Sensors
Static DTN
Router

Mobile P2P User WINLAB 7


Emerging Wireless Scenarios: Vehicular
Applications
 Vehicle safety and media
delivery services
 Potentially high density
 Networking involves location
awareness…
Irrelevant vehicles
in radio range for few seconds
 Ad hoc network formation
and disconnections
Following vehicle,
 Network (group) mobility
in radio range for minutes
 V2V and V2I modes
 Privacy issues
Passing vehicle,
in radio range for tens of seconds

Desired message delivery zone

(Idealized) Broadcast range

WINLAB 8
Emerging Wireless Scenarios: Pervasive Systems
 Integrating physical world with Internet the next major challenge..
 Heterogeneous short-range wireless access with wide-area cellular as “control plane”
 Context-, content- and location-awareness in network services  real-time binding of
sensors with computing services or agents
 Integrated computation and storage needed in the network for latency & scale
Ambient interfaces

“Human in the Loop” Application Management &


Control Software

Global Pervasive Network


Computation
(Future Internet) & Storage
To Actuators Protocol
module Content & Location
Aware Routers Network Connectivity
& Computation

Smart Public Space Hospital with


Embedded Monitoring
Vehicles with
Sensors & Wireless
Virtualized physical
world object
From Sensors
Multiple radio standards,
 Cognitive radios
Autonomous Wireless Clusters
(“ecosystems”) Robotics Application
WINLAB 9
Architectural
Considerations

10
Architectural Considerations: What does
this mean for future Internet
requirements?
 Basic transport services should reflect intrinsic radio
properties (spectrum scarcity, mobility, varying link quality,
heterogeneous PHY, diversity/MIMO, locality…)
 Integrated protocol support for dynamic spectrum allocation
 Multipoint, high-bandwidth connectivity for co-operative PHY
 Cross-layer protocol support for radio network performance
 User & router mobility at scale  separation of naming and addressing
 Integration of geographic location into routing/addressing

WINLAB 11
Architectural Considerations: Future
Internet Requirements? (contd.)
 New network service and computing features to address the
needs of emerging usage scenarios
 Content- or context-aware routing for sensors and mobile data
 In-network storage for disconnections, opportunistic access
 In-network computation (“cloud computing” or other more network oriented
model) for real-time, pervasive applications
 Economic incentives, e.g. for forwarding and network cooperation

 Difficult to integrate all these requirements into a single


network protocol …..
 Need an evolvable multi-protocol architecture

WINLAB 12
Architecting Future Networks: Multi-
Protocol Virtual Mobile Network Concept
 Network programmability and
virtualization make it possible Virtual Network 2
(Protocol B = GEO)
End User Device

to offer multiple optimized


Connected to VN1,2
Using GEO & CNF protocols

transport services
 Vastly differing requirements for
voice, SMS, web, content file Virtual Network 1
(Protocol A = CNF)

delivery, video streaming End User Device


Connected to VN1,
Using GEO protocol

 Not always feasible to integrate all Hardware mapped to multiple VN’s

these into a single protocol Virtual Network Control Software (VNCS)

 Clean-slate protocols introduced on Router

separate virtual networks (VN)


 Legacy protocols on their own VN Wired Network

Ad Hoc Cluster
Base Station
AP
Open Programmable Network Elements

WINLAB 13
Architecting Future Networks: Wireless
Virtual Net Embedding Problem
 Given a virtual network graph Gv(Vv,
Ev, Cv) and a physical network Gp(Vp, I
A D L
Ep, Rp) where Virtual 2 H
3
2 2 2 3
 V  Vertices Networks
 E  Edge set Gv B 3 C E 3 G J K
 C  Constraints 5 F 4
 R  Resources

 The mapping problem is defined as

(G, K) (A, L)
12
(F, I) 10
Mapping To
 Where, Physical 9
9 (B)
Network Gp (E) 10 14 12

(D) 3 (H, J) (C)


7
 And all constraints are satisfied

Resource assignment in wireless networks can be more difficult due to interference between nearby links

WINLAB 14
Architecting Future Networks: Wireless
Virtual Net Embedding Problem (cont.)
Node # Residual time Residual time Residual time
VN1 VN2 1st mapping VN2 2nd
mapping

A 0.8 0.6 0.8


VN Assignment Heuristics
B 0.6 0.2 0.4 • Min residual time across network
C 0.6 0.2 0.4 • Balanced residual time across nodes
D 0.8 0.6 0.4
• Minimize total cost (assigned time) across
E 1.0 1.0 0.8 all nodes
More
Balanced Assignment
VN1
2 Mbps 2M
1 2 bps VN2 mapping:
3 1st option: 4->A, 5->B, 6->C
VN2
2 Mbps
0.6 2 option: 4->E, 5->D, 6->B
nd

4 5
0.8 A B 0.8
10 Mbps D 2 Mbps
links
6
E
1.0
C Residual Channel time
0.6
WINLAB 15
Design Examples from
WINLAB Research

16
Protocols for DSA & Cross-Layer: “CogNet”
Stack
 NSF FIND Clean-Slate Project (2006-09) involving WINLAB, CMU, U Kansas, Blossom
 Project aims to design a general purpose cognitive radio protocol stack and open source GNU radio/ORBIT implementation
 Global Control Plane (GCP)
 Decentralized control framework for dynamic spectrum access
 PHY/MAC bootstrap, network formation and cross-layer routing
 Data plane
 Dynamically linked spectrum assignment, PHY, MAC, Network modules and parameters as specified by control plane
protocol

Data Plane

Global Control Plane

Control Plane Data Plane


Control API
Application
Network Naming
- PHY/MAC Discovery
Spectrum & Transport
Mgmt Adaptation & Path Addressing
Setup Network
Control MAC MAC
Control PHY PHY
WINLAB 17
CogNet Protocol: Common Spectrum
Coordination Channel (CSCC)
 CSCC function is an integral part of the CogNet global control plane (GCP)
 Protocol enables mutual observation between heterogeneous nodes to
explicitly coordinate spectrum usage

• Exchange of CSCC
messages by an extra
narrow-band (low bit-
rate) radio
• Periodically broadcast
spectrum usage
parameters to neighbors
• Enables distributed
algorithms for spectrum
co-existence

WINLAB 18
CogNet Protocol: SOHO Scenario for Evaluating
Dynamic Spectrum Algorithms
 Devices: Multi-radio laptops, handheld, Bluetooth headset, sensors, etc.
 Clustered distribution in conference rooms, Small office/home office
(SOHO) setups
 Types of Interference
 Inter-Node Interference (due to proximity located heterogeneous radios)
 Intra-Node Interference (due to in-platform located heterogeneous radios)

WINLAB 19
CogNet Protocol: ORBIT Experiments on
GCP-based Spectrum Coordination

ORBIT Testbed Configuration with 14 dual WiFi/BT nodes


Wifi and Bluetooth Performance | Topo 4 |
Fixed Rate 36Mbps

90
BT-Throughput
80 802.11g-Throughput

70

Percent throughput
60

50

40

30

20

10

0
No-Coord BT-Bo BT-RT SIR-9.5 SIR-12 sir-16 sir-22
Coordination Scenarios

Design Space for Co-existence Algorithms

WINLAB 20
Protocols for Content Delivery: CNF
Architecture for Mobile Content
 NSF FIND collaborative clean-slate project at Rutgers & UMass (2006-09)
 Architecture designed to optimize efficient delivery of content to mobile users,
but should work well for both wired and wireless devices
 Concept based on strict hop-by-hop transport, in-network storage and caching

ORBITAP/Gateway
ORBIT
Wireless Access Gateway(CNF “P.O.”)
Radio Grid
Network
Hop-by-hop File
Hop-by-hop Transfer
File Transfer Reliable Link Media file
Layer (~10MB-GB)

Storage
Caches

PlanetLab Slice Media


Wired Internet with Server
File sent to multiple Cache & Forward Routers
destinations

WINLAB 21
CNF Architecture: CNF Router Storage
 Buffer for data files in
transit under normal
conditions
Buffer ~
 Hold for temporary
100MB storage during
disconnection or poor
Hold~ 1GB link quality

 Cache for content-


addressable long-term
Cache ~ 1TB storage of files

CNF Protocol Stack at Router:


- Reliable link layer for hop-by-hop transport
- Integrated storage-aware routing protocol
- TP protocol supports in-network storage & end-to-end ACK
- Content address resolution and query/retrieval protocol
- Cache storage and replacement protocol
WINLAB 22
CNF Architecture: Storage-Aware Routing
COST METRICS
• Expected transmission time
 Maintain long and short term based on MAC layer data rate,
queuing delay, congestion (ETT)
routing costs • Expected transmission count
o Short term (S): instantaneous view of the cost • Load, energy, traffic balancing
to reach a destination
o Long term (L): Historical perspective of the
cost to reach the same destination
o Collect and “remember” multiple such routes

 Also maintain view of available


storage at routers
o Available “store”, “hold” & “cache” buffers

WINLAB 23
CNF Architecture: Routing Results
MAC and channel
parameters:

Adaptive Auto-rate
802.11 MAC protocol
with supported rates
1Mbps, 2Mbps,
5.5Mbps, 6Mbps and
11Mbps

Rate adaptation,
collision and capture
1) CNF TP with storage effects are
aware routing implemented based
2) CNF TP with OLSR upon received SINR.
3) TCP with OLSR
2- ray ground channel
Traffic model and parameters
model
• Each source selects a random destination and starts a file transfers.
• The file transfers follow a bursty on-off arrival model.
• On period = 100s, off period = 200s, arrival rate during the on period is
exponentially distributed with mean 1 file per second

WINLAB 24
Geometric Stack: Implementing Location
Aware Networks
 Location-aware architecture project at WINLAB (FIND, 2006--)
 Intended to study impact of location on future Internet protocols
 Evaluation of alternative methods, e.g. overlays vs. integrated
ORBIT Radio Grid

AP1
AP1

Mobile node trajectory


Location
aware
AP2 routing
protocol
AP2

WINLAB 25
Geometric Stack: Geo Cooperative
Forwarding (“GeoMAC” Protocol)
1st packet transmission (S  D)
 Highly-time varying channels (shadow
fading)

2nd packet transmission


(closest node forwards)

 Traditional routing selects next hop


prior to transmission
 May be too slow for fast link changes
 Does not account for multicast inherent to radio
 Geo-backoff for selecting next-hop – 3rd packet transmission

takes advantage of multicast and (backup transmission from next


closest node)
location information; opportunistic.

WINLAB
Courtesy of Prof. Marco Gruteser, WINLAB
Geometric Stack: GeoMAC Results

 Comparison of GeoMAC routing


with AODV and GPSR
Courtesy of Prof. Marco Gruteser, WINLAB
 GeoMac opportunistically uses
neighboring vehicles to forward
messages.
 Geo MAC achieves lower delay
and more reliable transmission
than ad hoc routing protocols

WINLAB 27
Geometric Stack: Geocache for mobile
sensing (Geotag)
 Goal: Reduce cellular comm Traffic Jam
cost while maintaining location- Geotag (x,y,z)
Pothole
specific information around a (x,y)
geographic reference point
 Geotag approach: P2P
communication protocols that
hand off information between
mobile nodes

Courtesy of Prof. Marco Gruteser, WINLAB

WINLAB 28
Experimental Networks
for Future Internet
Research

29
Experimental Networks: ORBIT Radio Grid
Testbed for Next-Gen Wireless Research
 Experimental validation & deployment critical to future Internet research
 ORBIT radio grid testbed (released Oct 2005) is a community resource
which supports at-scale and reproducible experiments
 Open WiFi and SDR (GNU/USRP) radio nodes for experimentation
 Also, outdoor extensions to testbed – open WiFi, vehicular and WiMAX

Suburban ORBIT Radio Grid

Current ORBIT sandbox with GNU radio


20 meters
500 meters
Urban
Office

400-node Radio Grid Facility at WINLAB Tech Center


30 meters 300 meters
Planned upgrade
Radio Mapping Concept for ORBIT Emulator
(2007-08)

URSP2
Programmable CR board
ORBIT radio node
WINLAB 30
Experimental Networks: ORBIT Outdoor
Testbed Infrastructure
RF Module
( sector)

Base
Module Outdoor Unit (ODU)

Omni-directional antenna
(elev. < 6ft above roof!)

WINLAB 31
Experimental Networks: ORBIT Access
Network with OpenFlow Switching
LEGEND:
OpenFlow L3 -> L2
Enabled Switch
AR
OpenFlow
Enabled Router Rutgers Core Network
Access Router Cook Campus
AR (not OF) Busch Campus
NetFPGA
L2

NetFPGA To MEGPI PoP


(Philadelphia)
IP8800
IP8800 L2

IP8800
IP8800

2.) ORBIT
GENI Open Outdoor
Base Station ORBIT GENI
Outdoor RUOpen Outdoor Grid
(WiMax) Base Station
Wireless ORBIT 1.)Outdoor
SB9 RU
(WiMax) Wireless
3.) Rutgers
3.) Rutgers
Outdoor Network
Outdoor Network

WINLAB 32
Experimental Networks: Virtualization of
Radio Nodes – 802.11 Access Points
Sliver 1 Sliver 2
Access Access Virtual Virtual
Point Point Access Access
Point 1 Point 2

Essid:1 Ch. y
VMAC Concept
Essid:2
Ch. y
Ch. x
Essid:1 Essid:2

Exp. 1 Exp. 2
Exp. 1 Exp. 2

Experimental Results:
802.11 AP on ORBIT

WINLAB 33
Experimental Networks: Open Cellular/WiMax Base
Station
Virtual Router (at
PoP)

Open Access Open WiMAX/3G


Base Station
Network
Internet2/GENI
Backbone

NEC Profile A WiMAX Base Station


External Linux PC based
GENI Controller for Open BS

Open API mobile terminals

 “Open API” cellular BS a key enabling technology for


future cellular <-> Internet convergence
 BTS with open/programmable layer 2 and layer 3 protocols
 Support for virtualization of both computing and radio resources
 Consistent with open handset initiatives in cellular industry …

WINLAB 34
Experimental Networks: Virtualization
of WiMAX Networks

Physical 802.16e BS
 Design Goals:
 Multiple independent virtual
networks (VNs), each with specified
% of BS capacity
 Inter-slice fairness & isolation
 For GENI experiments, each VN
should be qualitatively equivalent to
a dedicated BS
 Each VN (slice) should support
multiple clients
 Intra-slice fairness

20 %

30 %
 Multiple traffic types

10 %
Slice1 Slice2 Slice3

WINLAB 35
Experimental Networks: Virtual WiMAX
Implementation for GENI
VNTS

• VN traffic shaping (VNTS) on external GENI


controller
No Shaping
• Maintains fairness & isolation between slices
• Uses SNMP status feedback (MCS, rate,..) from BS
WINLAB 36
Experimental Networks: Vehicular ORBIT
Nodes for V2V & V2I Evaluations

Sample Results
(Snapshot of RSSI)

Courtesy: Prof. Marco Gruteser

WINLAB 37
Experimental Networks: ORBIT/GENI – OMF
Support for Vehicular Mobility
 Extending OMF features to support mobile experiments
 Supporting federation of testbeds
 Disconnection tolerance
 Spatiotemporal experiment orchestration tools

Spatial
tripwire

WINLAB 38
Concluding Remarks

39
Concluding Remarks:
 Wireless service scenarios will be one of the most important
drivers for the future Internet
 Will the future Internet carry cellular traffic, or will the future cellular network carry
Internet traffic?
 How will additional requirements from mesh, sensor, DTN, etc. fit into a single
architecture? Or will there be a plurality of network protocols…?
 Network virtualization a possible solution for plurality and protocol evolution

 Radio research community at PIMRC has an important role to play


in Internet – wireless convergence
 New radio technologies will be a key enabler for the future Internet – higher speed,
spectrum efficiency, programmability …
 Specification of a generic API for the radio-network interface to migrate towards
general purpose (vs. today’s special purpose) wireless systems
 More interaction on requirements with the network protocol community ….

WINLAB 40
Web Sites for More Information:

 WINLAB: www.winlab.rutgers.edu
 ORBIT: www.orbit-lab.org
 GENI: www.geni.net

WINLAB 41