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COMPUTERS AND

ETHICS
ETHIC
 - the principles and
standards that guide our
behavior toward other
people.
GOLDEN RULE
Do unto others as
you would have
them do unto you
MORAL ISSUES RELATED TO THE
DIRECT AND INDIRECT USE OF
COMPUTER RESOURCES

COMPUTER CRIMES
SAFE COMPUTING
TIPS
COMPUTER CRIMES
Stealing
Hardware
Software
Computer time
THE BIG BROTHER SYNDROME
- A fear brought about by the idea that
someone- be it in a government or other
entities – are using information stored
in computer systems for their own
intentions.
Example:
Kidnap gangs can use the information
stored in the computer systems of banks
in choosing their victims.
ROGUE SOFTWARE
- any program that
runs on a computer
without prior consent
or knowledge of the
user.
SUB-CLASSIFICATION OF ROGUE
SOFTWARE
Back Door (Trap Door)
 refersto a special
password or code which is
used to bypass the normal
security measures of
computer systems.
CHAMELEONS
A chameleon program can
imitate another program in
order to gather user
information.
Example: a chameleon can
imitate a network log-in text in
order to gather the password of
different users.
LOGIC BOMBS
Program which can
destroy programs
and/or data when a
certain trigger is
encountered.
TROJAN HORSE
A rogue software that
is readily accepted by
a user because it
present itself as
something useful.
ANSI BOMBS
Programs which makes the
keyboard act in a peculiar
way.
For example, if the “A” key is
pressed, the computer will
interpret it as a different
letter.

COMPUTER VIRUS
The most popular and widely distributed rouge software.

It is an acronym which stands for Vital


Information Resource Under Siege.
A program which can replicate itself
without infecting any host program.
A program that duplicates itself by
infecting other programs.
REASONS FOR CREATING
VIRUS
Revenge
Fame
A VIRUS CAN BE TRIGGERED TO CAUSE DESTRUCTION
IN SEVERAL WAYS:

Randomly-Triggered viruses are


designed to attack at random.
Example: Ambulance Car Virus
Date-activated viruses wait for a
pre-defined date before it
strikes.
Example: Michelangelo
Boot-count viruses will count the
number of times the computer is
booted.
 Example: Telecom virus
Time since viruses attacks after the
computer is left open for a specified
period of time.
 Example: Jerusalem virus
• Keystroke-triggered viruses will activate
itself after a predefined number of
keystrokes.
HOW TO KNOW IF YOUR
COMPUTER IS INFECTED
System slowdown
Unexpected display of messages or
encrypted files
Unexpected graphics on screen
Unexpected file data or time
change
Unexpected music
Corruption of system and data files
SAFE COMPUTING TIPS
Never boot from a diskette unless
you are sure that is virus free.
Check all new software for the
presence of viruses.
If you own laptop, make sure that it
is stored in safe place.
Keep diskettes containing important
information in a safe place. Protect it
against theft and the elements.
Make it a habit to back-up regularly.
Know the computer you are using.
Keep your password secured.
Avoid letting just anyone use your
computer.
SOFTWARE PIRACY
refers to the illegal use and/or
distribution of copyrighted
computer programs.
Shareware – a program that is
distributed free on a trial basis.
Freeware – programs are distributed
free
ENVIRONMENT-FRIENDLY COMPUTING
1. Recycle paper
2. Get used to the idea of editing
your document on screen, rather
than generating printed copy.
3. Maximize the use of email and
other means of sending messages
without having to use paper.
4. Turn off your computer when it is
not going to be used for several
hours.
5. If you are using a printer, have old
ribbons and toner cartridges
refilled before buying new ones.
6. Support computer manufacturers
who make use of recycled
materials for items such as carton
boxes, manuals and the like.
THE TEN COMMANDMENTS
FOR COMPUTER ETHICS
from the Computer Ethics Institute

 Thou shalt not use a computer to harm


other people.
 Thou shalt not interfere with other people's
computer work.
 Thou shalt not snoop around in other
people's files.
 Thou shalt not use a computer to steal.

 Thou shalt not use a computer to bear false


witness.
THE TEN COMMANDMENTS
FOR COMPUTER ETHICS
from the Computer Ethics Institute

 Thou shalt not use or copy software for


which you have not paid.
 Thou shalt not use other people's computer
resources without authorization.
 Thou shalt not appropriate other people's

intellectual output.
 Thou shalt think about the social
consequences of the program you write.
 Thou shalt use a computer in ways that
show consideration and respect.
NETIQUETTE
 Netiquette is etiquette on the Internet
1.Be responsible enough not to waste other
people’s time or bandwidth by posting
unnecessarily long messages or unimportant
messages and sending large attachments
2.Be pleasant and polite.
3.Use descriptive subject lines for your
messages as a courtesy to your reader - to
help people organize and prioritize their
messages.
4.Let the recipient know who is sending the
message
NETIQUETTE
5.When forwarding messages:
 Check the reliability of the source of a forwarded
message and the accuracy of the message or story
before passing it on
 Clean up your messages before you forward them.

 Choose the recipients of your forwarded message.

6.When replying to a mass email, avoid hitting


Reply to All.
7.When sending mass email, it would be better
to use BCCs (Blind Carbon Copies)
OCCUPATIONAL HEALTH AND
SAFETY (OH&S)
ERGONOMICS – Laws of work
- Design of the workplace,
equipment, machine, tool,
product, environment and
system, taking into
consideration your physical and
psychological capabilities.
OH&S, THE ENVIRONMENT, AND THE LAW

 employers and employees must


provide a healthy and safe
workplace for everyone within
the workplace.
 proper disposal of damaged/not
functional computer
parts/peripherals
EQUIPMENT SAFETY
The safety of your computer is nearly
as important as your personal safety.
Don’t go inside the box or do other
work on your PC if you don’t feel
comfortable with what you are doing.
If your PC is under warranty, you
should understand that the warranty
can be avoided if you open you system
case during the warranty period.
ELECTRICAL PRECAUTIONS
Ensure all cords and plugs are in good
working condition, with the plugs
securely positioned in the power
points.
If you intend to open the system box,
pull the plug out all times. Never work
on your computer while it is plugged
in, as just turning it off at the power
point may not be enough.
ELECTRICAL PRECAUTIONS
Stay out of the power supply box at all
times; this is possibly most dangerous
part of the PC.
The second most dangerous part
would have to be the monitor, so keep
out here as well.
Finally, be careful not to leave any
components behind when you close up
the system case.
PERSONAL SAFETY
Occupational Overuse Injury
- not a disease; it is a bodily
response to excessive and repetitive
demands placed on it. It starts from
doing the same tasks over and over
again, from clicking a mouse to
craning to see the computer
monitor.
PERSONAL SAFETY
IT COVERS THE FOLLOWING:
Tenosynovitis – an inflammation of
the tendon sheath
Tendonitis – an inflammation of a
tendon
Carpal Tunnel Syndrome – a
condition which develops when the
median nerve is compressed within the
carpal tunnel.
The importance of workstation setup
and regular breaks reduce dangers of
OOI.
The individual needs to be aware of
correct techniques to protect
themselves.
REST BREAKS
 Fatigue can be dangerous to your body, so
it is important to take regular frequent rest
breaks.
EXERCISES
RADIATION
 CRT (Cathode Ray Tube) computer
monitors work by discharging electrons
from a ‘gun’ at the rear of the monitors
aimed at the back of the monitor screen.
The inside of the screen is coated with a
sensitive material that glows when it is
struck by one of these electrons.
 During this process radiation is produced
which can be harmful to the operator.
WHAT PRECAUTIONS CAN WE
TAKE TO MINIMIZE EXPOSURE?

Never sit to the side or


back of a computer
monitor – fields are far
stronger here than in
the front of a monitor.
WHAT PRECAUTIONS CAN WE
TAKE TO MINIMIZE EXPOSURE?

Always sit at least 2 feet from


your computer monitor’s
screen – the strength of an
electromagnetic field
decreases with the size of the
distance from its source.
VISUAL COMFORT
 Your eyes are also at risk when working with
computers.

 LIGHTING

- The lighting around your work area needs to have


a good distribution with all objects in your field of
view having approximately equal brightness.

o SCREEN FLICKER
- Turndown the brightness, or use a dark
background instead of a light one.
- SCREEN RESOLUTION
WORKSTATION FURNITURE AND
ARRANGEMENT
The table your system is resting
on should allow for adjustment in
the keyboard height, as well as
have adequate space for both the
monitor, system case, keyboard
and reference material.
WORKSTATION FURNITURE AND
ARRANGEMENT
Your chair should be easily
adjustable in height, and
ideally provide adjustable
lower-back support.
WORKSTATION FURNITURE AND
ARRANGEMENT
The height of your monitor should
also be adjustable with the center of
the screen being 20-30 degrees below
your ‘straight ahead’ gaze.
You should also have an adjustable
document holder which reduces the
strain on your neck while you are
typing.
KEYBOARDING GUIDELINES
 *Speed and Accuracy are expected
1. Stop and relax regularly – 10
minutes in ever hour of
continuous typing.
2. Tilt head slightly down, chin
tucked in.
3. Bend elbow 90 degrees. Tuck
arms in to body.
KEYBOARDING GUIDELINES
4. Adjust back rest to support
the curve in your lower
back.
5. Use a movable chair
6. Sit with space of one hand-
width between front of seat
and back of knee.
KEYBOARDING GUIDELINES
7. Place a feet flat on floor or on a
footrest.
8. Adjust seat height for 90 degree
knee angle.
9. “Drop fingers onto keys, wrists
slightly bent, with you touch just
right – not too heavy, not too light.
KEYBOARDING GUIDELINES
10. Lower screen brightness for a
sharp image. Position screen to
avoid reflections from windows or
lights.
11. Monitor should be angled for
the best view.
12. Copyholder and screen should
be within 30 degrees viewing angle,
50-70 cm from eyes.
….END….
THANK YOU FOR
LISTENING