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Instructor©Philip Lin
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-hat are primary differences between a
behaviorist¶s, a cognitivist¶s and a
Constructivist¶s understanding of
language and language learning? Name
some scholars and teaching techniques
associated with each approach.

ÿ aehaviorism
ÿ Cognitivistism
ÿ Constructivistism
ÿ Comparative
ÿ Discussion
a 
ÿ aehaviorism is a study of the behavior of organisms
(including humans) by focusing centrally on publicly
observable responses that can be objectively and
scientifically perceived, recorded, and measured.

ÿ Typical behavioral models were classical and operant


conditioning, rote verbal learning, instrumental learning,
discrimination learning, and other empirical approaches to
studying human behavior.

ÿ A behaviorist might consider effective language behavior to


be the production of correct responses to stimuli. If a
particular response is reinforced, it then becomes habitual,
or conditioned.
a 

ÿ a.F. Skinner¶s classic, Verbal behavior (1957) ©

ÿ Skinner¶s theory of verbal behavior was an extension of his


general theory of learning by operant conditioning. Operant
conditioning refers to conditioning in which the human
being gives a response, or operant without necessarily
observable stimuli; that operant is maintained (learned) by
reinforcement.
ÿ According to Skinner, verbal behavior, like other behavior,
is controlled by its consequences. -hen consequences are
rewarding, behavior is maintained and is increased in
strength and perhaps frequency.
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ÿ The Audiolingual Method©
    
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ÿ Cognitive psychologies asserted that meaning,
understanding , and knowing were significant
data for psychological study and tried to discover
psychological principles of organization and
function.

ÿ Discover underlying motivations and deeper


structures of human behavior by using a rational
approach.

ÿ They freed themselves from the strictly empirical


study typical of behaviorists and employed the
tool to derive explanations for human behavior.
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