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HISTOLOGY DEPARTMENT

MEDICAL FACULTY
BANDUNG ISLAMIC UNIVERSITY
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1. Internal genitalia : testes ,Glands and ducts (produce
and transport the spermatozoa and the seminal fluid)
2. External genitalia : penis, scrotum
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Diagram of the

Bladder male genital system


Prostate (shown in color).
Ampulla

Seminal vesicle
The testis and the

Ejaculatory duct epididymis are


Urethra Bulbourethral
gland
Ductus deferens
shown in different
Penis
Corpus cavernosum of scales than the
the penis Ductus
epididymidis
Corpus cavernosum of other parts of the
the urethra Ductuli
efferentes
Prepuce reproductive
Glans penis
Epididymis
system. Observe
Testicular lobules
Mediastinum
the communication
Tunica albuginea testis
between the
Tunica vaginalis
Tubuli recti Rete testis testicular lobules.
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1. Testes

Located in scrotum
Function (exocrine, endocrine,
sprematogenesis)

a. Exocrine component
Seminiferous tubules
Intratesticular genital ducts
Excretory genital ducts
b. Endocrine component
Testosterone secreting interstitial cells
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2. Accessory Glands

Seminal vesicles
Prostate glands
Bulbourethral glands
Glands of Littre

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Ducts

1. Intratesticular ducts

Convoluted seminiferous tubules


Tubuli recti
Rete testis
Ductuli efferentes

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2. Excretory Genital Ducts
Ductus epididymidis
Ductus deferens
Ejaculatory duct
Urethra

External Genitalia
Penis and scrotum

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Testes
1. External Covering

a. Tunica vaginalis
Double layered mesothelial sac, covers the
anterior surface of each testis
b. Tunica albuginea
Dense fibrous connective tissue capsule
Thickens along posterior surface
mediastinum testis 8
TESTES

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2. Internal Structure
a. Septa : Extension of
tunica albuginea, 250
lobules
b. Lobules

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Seminiferous Tubule
1. General Structure
Each long : 40 –70 cm, convoluted, packed into small space.
The walls composed of 3 layers :
a. Tunica propria
Fibrous connective tissue + fibroblasts
Innermost layers : contractile myoid cells

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Seminiferous Tubule
b. Basal lamina
Between tunica propria and seminiferous epithelium
c. Seminiferous epithelium
Spermatogenic cells
Sertoli cells

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Cytoplasmic
bridges

Late Early
spermiogenesis spermatids

Initial spermiogenesis Secondary


spermatocytes
Meiosis

Primary
spermatocytes

Spermatogonium
Basal lamina

Fibroblast

Interstitial cells

Diagram of the structure of part of a seminiferous tubule and


interstitial tissue. This figure does not show the lymphatic
vessels found in the connective tissue. 14
SPERMATOGENESIS

 These changes involve flattening of the nucleus, formation of


an acrosome which resembles a large lysosome, growth of a
flagellum (tail) from the basal body, reorganization of the
mitochondria in the midpiece region, and shedding of
unneeded cytoplasm as a residual body.
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2. Spermatogenic Cells
a. Spermatogonia

Small round cells,


near the basal lamina

Round nucleus +
Heterochromatin

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b. Primary spermatocytes
Closer to the lumen than
spermatogonium
Largest germ cells
Large round nucleus, heterochromatin

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c. Secondary spermatocytes
Closer to lumen than primary spermatocytes
Half size
Rare

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d. Spermatids
Products of second meiotic division
located next to the lumen.
Small cells :
Dark heterochromatic nuclei

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e. Spermatozoa
Result of spermiogenesis
In lumen
Long flagella

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3. Supporting Sertoli Cells

Mesoderm
Elongated, branched,
pyramidal epithelial
cells
Cytoplasmic enfolding
Bound tightly to
neighboring
supporting cells 
occluding junction.

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Structure of Mature Spermatozoa

1. Head

Oval outline
Long 4 – 5 m
Mostly nucleus
2/3 anterior nucleus covered by acrosome

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2. Tail

Enveloped by plasma membrane


Middle piece : 5 – 7 m
mitochondrial arranged end to end in
helical sheath around flagellum
• Principal piece
• Outer fibrous sheath with dorsal and
ventral longitudinal columns
• Flagellum
• End piece
Lacks fibrous sheath 23
Interstitial Cells (Leydig)

Mesoderm
Secrete :
testosterone
Vascular nests of
pale acidophilic cells
in loose connective
tissue between the
seminiferous
tubules

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G. Blood – Testis Barrier
Protects the developing sperm from
damage by an autoimmune response. The
barriers consists of a continuous belt of
junctional complexes joining the sertoli
cells at their lateral surfaces.

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III. DUCT SYSTEM

From tubuli recti ejaculatory duct urethra


A. Intratesticular Genital Duct
1. Tubuli Recti

Only Sertoli cells


Simple cuboidal epithelium
Dense connective tissue

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2. Rete Testis

Anastomosing network
Mediastinum testis
Low cuboidal epithelium

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3. Ductuli Efferentes 10 – 20 ducts

Walls :
Epithelium
Simple cuboidal : absorb fluid
Ciliated columnar cells : Cilia sweep
spermatozoa
Smooth muscle
The ductules form the head of the epididymis

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SEMINIFEROUS TUBULES, STRAIGHT TUBULES,
RETE TESTIS AND DUCTULI EFFERENTES

3. Connective
tissue of
mediastinum
1. Seminiferous
tubules
4. Rete testis
tubules

5. Ductuli
efferentes
(efferent
ductules
2. Straight
tubules 6. Rete testis
tubules

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B. Excretory Genital Duct
1. Ductus Epididymidis
Single, coiled 4 – 6 m long tube
Comprises the body and tail epididymis
Epithelium : pseudostratified columnar +
stereocilia
Circular smooth muscle
Function : - Maturation of sperm
- Absorption
- Secretion (glycoprotein)
- Sperm storage
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Ductus Epididymidis (Duct of the Epididymis)

1. Connective 5. Section
tissue through of U-
bend of the
ductus
epididymidis
2. Cross sections
of the ductus
epididymidis
6. Epididymal
wall cut
tangentially

3. Basement 7. Smooth
membrane muscle fibers

8. Stereocilia

9. Columnar cells
4. Pseudostratified
columnar
epithelium with 10. Basal cell
stereocilia

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2. Ductus Deferens
Straight tube with thick
muscular walls
Longitudinal mucosal fold
Pseudostratified
columnar epithelial +
stereocilia
Three layer smooth
muscle
Termination : ampulla

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Ductus Deferens (Transverse section)

1. Outer
longitudinal
muscle layer

2. Circular
muscle layer 5. Lamina propria

6. Longitudinal crest
3. Inner of lamina propria
longitudinal 7. Epithelium
muscle layer

8. Adipose tissue

4. Nerve and
blood vessels
in the
adventitious
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3. Ejaculatory Duct

Short 2 cm/long
Epithelium,
pseudostratified
columnar
Penetrates prostate
empty to prostatic
urethra

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IV. ACCESSORY GENITAL DUCTS

SEMINAL VESICLE
PROSTATE GLAND

BULBO URETHRAE GLANDS (COWPER’S


GLAND)
LITTRE’S GLAND

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A. Seminal Vesicle

Paired
Each consist of two highly coiled 15 cm long
tubes
Mucosa : highly folded
Pseudostratified low columnar epithelium

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Secretory product : thick yellowish liquid rich
in fructose
Make up 70% human ejaculate
Smooth muscle : underlying the lamina
propria

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Seminal Vesicle

4. Glandular
epithelium

1. Crypts in the
mucosa 5. Primary fold in
the mucosa
6. Secondary folds
2. Muscular coat 7. Lamina propria

3. Adventitia

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B. Prostate Gland

Largest male accessory sex glands


30 – 50 compound tubuloalveolar glands
The glands of the prostate are collected into
three major groups
Mucosal glands
Drained by a discrete
Submucosal glands ductal system
Main glands prostatic urethra

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Mucosa : folded, epithelium varies from tall
cuboidal to pseudostratified columnar.
Produces : fluid, rich in citric acid and acid
phosphatase, amylase

Surrounded by fibroelastic capsule containing


smooth muscle capsule

Characteristic :
Corpora amylacea in lumen
Composed of glycoprotein calcified

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Submucosal
glands

Diagram illustrating the position of the


prostatic glands
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Prostate Gland

4. Glandular
1. Prostatic epithelium
concretions

5. Ducts

2. Glandular
alveoli 6. Smooth
muscle fibers

3. Glandular
ducts

7. Capillary and
venule

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C. Bulbo Urethral Glands
(Cowper’s Glands)

Located within the musculature of the pelvic


diaphragm
Lined by cuboidal to columnar epithelium
Their secretion consists of a clear, mucus-like
material ducts empty into membranous urethra

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V. PENIS

 2 CORPORA CAVERNOSUS
 CORVUS SPONGIOSUM
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V. PENIS

A. Consists of three cylindric bodies of spongy


erectile tissue surrounded by a loose
connective tissue sheath and covered by
hairless thin skin.

1. Corpora Cavernous
Two dorsal erectile cylinders
Deep artery
Sheathed by tunica albuginea (thick
dense connective tissue)
Spaces of erectile tissue : largest in
the central region 47
Dorsal Superficial
arteries dorsal vein

Deep dorsal
vein
Tunica
albuginea

Deep artery
Corpus
cavernosum
of the penis
Erectile
tissue
Urethra
Corpus
cavernosum
of the urethra

Drawing of a transverse section of the penis


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2. Corpus Spongiosum
(Corpus Cavernosum Urethra)

Single, smaller
Ventral cylinder
Surrounded by a thinner
connective tissue sheath
Expanded distal tip  glans
penis
Spaces of erectile tissue :
uniform size

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Erectile tissue :
An irregularly arranged network of
fibrous connective tissue trabecle
containing smooth muscle fibers.
Lacunae (vascular sinuses)
lined by endothelium

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