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Nokia Smart

Scheduler
continuous innovation
for superior LTE and TD-LTE
performance
1 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015
customer confidential
Nokia Smart Scheduler software unleashes the hidden
What are your
potential key objectives?
of your network

Sustainability

Network speed

responsiveness
Touch-bang service
Location independent
Custome beyond network

CO 2
Smartphone footprint
Cell r Expectations Re a d i n e s s f o r t h e
reduction

thro ughput
Edge
Internet of Thingsdevice

n e w si te s
high costs
battery
m a c ro s m a l l autonomy

Quality of Service
cell cell
D e l a y b u d g e t G u a r a n t e e
Time to add

d
Cell
bit rate
N o m i n a l
L a t e n c y bit rate

Capacity Avoid N o n -
signalin

Cost to add of
g u a r a n t e e d
bit rate
Spectral
Efficiency Ro b u s t n e s s and reliability
g

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customer confidential
Scheduling
Technology introduction

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customer confidential
Scheduler = Software in the base station, which allocates
Principles
spectrumintoLTE and TD-LTE
users

Frequency Interference

QoS

Fading
Time
180kHz Resource block A scheduler needs to mitigate
1ms physical effects like interference
and fading, which can severely
impact the throughput.
It also needs to assure QoS.

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customer confidential
The scheduler implementation allows for differentiation

What is a scheduler? Why is it relevant?


 The scheduler is the software within an  The scheduler has a direct
impact
eNodeB, which allocates the spectrum resources
each millisecond to the users in a cell
on throughput and latency
 As the scheduler implementation is not defined  This impact has been documented in the
in 3GPP, a smart scheduler implementation is analyses and benchmark tests of Signals
Research Group
innovation beyond the
standard

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customer confidential
Scheduler introduction
What does it take to achieve consistently high data rates and low
latency?
eNodeB scheduler User Equipment
Channel quality
Radio resource information (CQI)
allocation per UE
assignment
MIMO
Modulation and recommendation
coding (MIMO rank indicator)
Data to send
MIMO vs. TX (UE buffer status)
diversity reporting
Power available
Frequency-selective (power headroom)
scheduling

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Nokia Smart Scheduler
Continuous innovation
Industry’s longest track record in
delivering
superior performance in LTE by software

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customer confidential
Smart Scheduler
Continuous innovation anticipating arising market needs

Smartphone Data Session


Profiling Dynamic
and IoT
Smart Continuous friendliness
PUCCH
Micro DTX allocation
Schedule innovation Energy
r efficiency
CoMP eICIC MIMO 4x4
Capacity Channel
increase awareness Fast Link Interference64QAM (UL)
Adaptationshaping Combined
Multi-Cluster
Cell edge Interference Scheduling (UL) Supercell
performance awareness Interference Intra-frequency
aware power load balancing VoLTE coverage
control Public Safety
Extended QoS Definable Boost (UL) High-power UE
Nominal bitrate
quality classes
Public Safety
Consistently quality classes
lower latency Robust Signaling robustness
Frequency Selective Scheduling
Higher in UL and DL Carrier Aggregation Evolution
average
throughput
Baseline efficiency

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Gothenburg, Stockholm, 2010
The world’s first independent LTE network benchmark

“…as the detailed results in this report confirm,


the overall performance of the Gothenburg
network (NSN) was better than the performance of
the Stockholm network (ERICY)”

Signals Research Group, 9/2010


Signals Ahead – LTE
Drive Test Revisited – Part 1.
Full report available
from here: www.signalsresearch.com

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customer confidential
September 2010: Nokia Smart Scheduler outperforms the competition
Better resource utilization in the world’s first LTE network
Downlink
Uplink
frequency
 Full utilization of  Full utilization of
Smart
resources resources
Smart
Schedule
Schedule
rr
20 MHz

time One colour = one scheduled


subscriber
frequency

 Only half of the bandwidth  Low resource utilization


 Only one subscriber per timeslot  Only one subscriber per timeslot
20 MHz

Performed measurements in the LTE network of Telia, Sweden in Nokia and Ericsson supplied network areas.
Detailed analysis published by Signals Research Group. Full report available from: www.signalsresearch.com

10 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015


customer confidential
Smart Scheduler – track record
Effective radio resource utilization and consistently low latency times
October 2011, Korea February 2012
What: 50% lower average latency What: Up to 10% higher cell edge
Why: Proactive resource allocation data rates in uplink
and Why: Interference awareness
fewer retransmissions

Other vendor

Sept. 2010, Sweden Oct. 2011, Korea


What: More simultaneous users, What: 88% higher average
higher data rates throughput
Why: More effective radio resource Why: Efficient adaptation to good
allocation to multiple users and bad radio conditions

Other vendor
Other vendor

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customer confidential
October 2011: Performance benchmark in multivendor network
Consistently lower latency and higher throughput
Throughput Latency
Drive test measurements Drive test measurements
10 MHz bandwidth FDD-LTE, commercial 10 MHz bandwidth FDD-LTE, commercial
network network

Mbps
• average latency: 27ms
+ 24% • worst measurement: 51ms
+ 88% 72
61 58
25
34 Vendor B
18 • average latency: 38ms
Average throughput Peak throughput • worst measurement: 322ms

Nokia
Vendor C
Vendor B • average latency: 53ms
Vendor C • worst measurement: 360ms

Drive tests in a commercial network performed by Nokia in October 2011

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customer confidential
Smart Scheduler – live demonstration of commercial software at MWC 2012
Uplink Interference Awareness

February 2012
What: Up to 10% higher cell edge
data rates in uplink
Why: Interference awareness

Allocation of medium / Allocation of low


high interference interference frequency
frequency blocks to users blocks to users at cell
close to the eNodeB edge

Signal

Interference

Interference

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customer confidential
Smart Scheduler – track record
Proven robustness and adaptability to radio conditions
February 2013 August 2013, Europe
What: Up to 25% cell capacity gain What: - 50% shorter average latency
in uplink - 77% faster downlink
Why: Channel awareness - 8% faster uplink
Why: Efficient adaptation to signal
strength and signal to noise
shortlisted nominee conditions
in category 6e:
Outstanding LTE
Contribution

November 2012, APAC Spring 2013, Korea


What: - Highest throughput in good radio What: Highest LTE network quality,
conditions including
- 100% higher throughput in poor radio throughput measures
conditions Why: Smart Scheduler adaptation to
Why: Efficient adaptation to good real- network load and
and bad radio conditions radio conditions

The world’s first government conducted


LTE network quality assessment

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customer confidential
November 2012: Commercial networks throughput benchmark
Nokia outperforms Ericsson and Huawei in good and poor radio
conditions
Optimum downlink throughput in good conditions Highest DL throughput in challenging conditions

Low
interference
Cell center

High
interference
Cell edge

Theoretical maximum throughput of 1.48-1.5 Mbps / PRB in good Throughput per PRB in challenging radio conditions almost 100%
radio conditions only reached by Nokia. higher with Nokia.
• Measurements taken by Nokia in two commercial LTE networks in APAC, supplied by Nokia, Ericsson and Huawei
• Presenting results per PRB reduces the effect of network load
• PRB = Physical Resource Block = 180kHz (small spectrum resource for LTE)
• SNR = Signal to Noise Ratio (noise = interference)

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customer confidential
Smart Scheduler – demonstration of uplink capacity gains at MWC 2013
Uplink Channel Awareness

February 2013
What: Up to 25% cell
capacity gain in uplink
Why: Channel awareness

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customer confidential
January 2013
(remember the September 2010 benchmark test)

“We also knew and validated once again that


with the current implementation of the Ericsson
scheduler that it only assigned downlink
resources to one mobile device within a sub-
frame (e.g., it was limited to timebased
scheduling and it didn’t support frequency-
based scheduling). “
Signals Research Group
Full report (January 22, 2013) available from: www.signalsresearch.com

The Nokia Smart Scheduler has been assigning


both downlink and uplink resources to multiple
devices within a sub-frame already since 2010.

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customer confidential
August 2013
In-depth LTE radio performance comparison, LTE 1800MHz, European
capital city

An in-depth File Transfer, upload Mobility


Peak rate 8% higher . Also lower Radio 17% shorter handover interruption of
performance requirements on signal strength (RSRP) data transfer during LTE radio resource
comparison confirms and signal-to-noise ratio (CINR) for connection handover . Maximum value
the results from 2012 achieving identical average layer 1 (worst case) comparison. 100 ms
throughput difference.
benchmark tests
against Ericsson. +8% 17% Faster
File Transfer, download Latency Cell LTE from
Average layer 1 throughput on cells
with similar signal strength (RSRP) and
Average round trip time 50% faster.
Ping on 32bit. The difference 20 ms.
capacity Nokia
50% lower signal-to-noise (CINR) on
+50% dual
stream MIMO Faster
NSN side usage at SNR
10…15 dB.
and
More more
+77% 50% Faster efficient efficient

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customer confidential
Smart Scheduler – demonstrations at MWC2014/2015
Coordinated Scheduling - DownLink Interference Shaping

February 2014
What: Up to 40% cluster capacity gain in
downlink
Why: Implicit Coordination, Interference
Shaping

19 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015


For internal use
The LTE mega event benchmark: Busan Fireworks Festival
Developments 2012-2014

Traffic evolution 2014 performance


averag
e traffic
376 358
indicators
per cell
during • VoLTE call success rate: 99.4%
peak UL
UL
15min 227 216
DL
DL • Load-balancing effectively
[MB] 130
UL DL
UL
working across 3 bands: 36% :
DL
DL
UL DL
UL 33% : 31 %
• Cell site availability: 100.00%
2012 2013 2014
100.00%
Highest LTE user density Network development Nokia repeating the out-
• ~1.5mn people on 1.2km MHz
2x40
Wideband CA standing LTE performance
beachfront
75%
• Korea’s second largest city
at Busan: 2012, 2013, 2014
CA
50%
25%
LTE subscribers/capita Korea 2x10
VoLTE Outstanding
0%
3Q2012 3Q2013 3Q2014
2012 2013 3 years
2014

20 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015


customer confidential
Excellent KPIs
October 2014 data from 5 very large FDD LTE networks supplied by
Nokia

Network 1 2 3 4 5
KPI

RRC Setup Success


99.75 99.87 99.87 99.87 99.09
Rate [%]

eRAB Setup Success


99.86 99.92 99.98 99.93 99.91
Ratio [%]

eRAB Drop Ratio [%] 0.22 0.19 0.09 0.13 0.26

Intra LTE Handover


99.91 98.87 99.86 99.51 99.71
Success Rate [%]

Average daily KPIs (October 2014)

21 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015


customer confidential
January 2015: World’s first commercialization of eICIC
eICIC applied to SK Telecom’s LTE-Advanced network in Gwangju
Metropolitan City

“SK Telecom’s partnership with Nokia has led


to the achievement of the world’s first
commercialization of eICIC, a powerful
technology that will further improve our
customer experience.”
Park Jin-hyo, Senior Vice President and Head
of Network Technology R&D Center at SK
Telecom.
• Nokia LTE-A eICIC software
• Flexi Multiradio 10 BTS
• Flexi Zone Micro
• Works with legacy LTE devices
• Inter-cell interference reduction by 15%
in high traffic HetNet areas
More infos:
http://www.sktelecom.com/en/press/detail.do?idx=1100
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customer confidential
Smart Scheduler – 2015 demonstrations
Readiness for upcoming UE capabilities: Downlink CoMP and 256QAM

March 2015
What: 30% higher peak data rates,
excellent cell edge
Why: 256QAM, Coordinated MultiPoint

23 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015


For internal use
Nokia Smart Scheduler
Field proven gains
Capacity, cell edge performance
Customer experience
Energy efficiency

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customer confidential
Nokia Smart Scheduler software unleashes the hidden
Capacity
potentialand
of cell-edge
your network

Network speed
Location independent
Custome Examples
• Uplink interference awareness
Cell r Expectations • Uplink channel awareness

throughput
Edge • Uplink Coordinated MultiPoint

n e w si te s
high costs
m a c ro s m a l l • Interference-aware uplink power
cell
control
cell
Time to add

• Downlink interference shaping


Cell • eICIC (with legacy user equipment)
Capacity Avoid
• Increased capacity and enhanced
signalin

of
Cost to add
Spectral cell edge performance
Efficiency • In uplink and downlink
• Without additional sites or
g

spectrum
25 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015
customer confidential
Field measurements of Uplink Interference Awareness
28% cell edge throughput increase proven by drive test

Interference-aware scheduling (UL) UL cell edge


Unique Nokia Smart Scheduler feature
to optimize the selection and utilization of physical
throughput
resourceblocks (PRB) Drive test result
for interference mitigation in low- and medium-loaded cells
(RSRP -114dBm…
-118dBm)
Frequency Selective Scheduling 28% faster
Test
Tokyoresults
photoin a lightly- Setup success UL cell capacity
loaded network by a KPI analysis of KPI analysis of
global operator in a RACH setup success cell throughput
capital city rate
2014 + % 1
Field test improvement 40% higher
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customer confidential
Field measurements of Uplink Channel Awareness
87% higher efficiency in uplink spectrum utilization

Channel-aware scheduling (UL) Throughput / PRB


Unique Nokia Smart Scheduler feature
accurately estimating channel quality 572kbps
to optimize the selection and utilization of physical resource
blocks (PRB) 305kbps
Optimized
for the mitigation of fading and interference effects

Frequency Selective Scheduling 87% faster


Network-wide
Tokyo photo KPI analysis Modulation
after nationwide feature
and Coding
Scheme MCS Ø 16.2 Ø 19.6
rollout by a global
operator
2014 Field Signal to Interference
and Noise Ratio
SINR 15.3dB 17.3dB

results Feature activation Off On

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customer confidential
Field measurements of Uplink intra-eNodeB CoMP 4Rx
19% higher efficiency in uplink spectrum utilization

Uplink intra-eNB CoMP 4Rx Throughput/PR CoMP usage


observed in the test
Co-ordinated MultiPoint
using 4 receive paths
B 500kbps
kbps cluster:
420kbps
kbps
within an operator-configurable cell set of an eNodeB • 10% of UEs

Co-ordinated 19% • 100% of cells

As expected,
MultiPoint faster biggest gains for users
in cell edge conditions.

100 cell
Tokyo cluster
photo with Modulation
10.8
Use of critical, lowest
MCS 10.1 Ø
non-ideal radio conditions and Coding Ø
Ø Ø MCS (MCS0) reduced by
in North American Scheme 20%
network 2015

Field Signal to Noise

Ratio SINR
and Interference Ø
Ø
Ø
Ø
8.3dB
UE power
headroom
tests
7.7dB
dB dB

+0.54dB
Fewer UEs lack power
Feature activation OFF ON

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customer confidential
Field measurements of Interference-Aware Uplink Power
22% higher uplink throughput
Control

Interference-aware uplink power Throughput / PRB


control 152kbps
Unique Nokia Smart Scheduler feature 125kbps
adjusting user equipment transmit power
for an optimized balance between maximized
throughput
and minimized interference 22% higher
Smart interference reduction throughput

European operator
Tokyo photo Modulation
2014
and Coding
Scheme MCS Ø 7.3 Ø 10.2

Field Signal to Interference


and Noise Ratio
(for PUSCH) SINR 6.4dB 7.5dB

results Feature activation Before After

29 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015


customer confidential
Field measurements of Downlink Interference Shaping
28% higher cell edge user throughput in dense urban environment

Downlink Interference Shaping Cell Center Cell Edge


Unique Nokia Smart Scheduler feature
coordinating and optimizing physical resource block 67.1Mbps
Mbps 70.8Mbps
Mbps
allocation
across eNodeB sites
Implicit
without information exchange over X2 interface
and therefore robust for usage on non-ideal backhaul
21.0Mbps
Mbps
28%
26.8Mbps
Mbps

coordination 6% faster faster


Dense urban
Tokyo photo Modulation
HetNet environment
and Coding
Scheme MCS 24 26 13 16
in advanced Asian market
2015
Field Channel
Quality
Indicator CQI 10.8 12.2 8.2 8.8

tests Feature activation OFF ON OFF ON

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customer confidential
Drive test results of Nokia eICIC with legacy Rel.8 UEs
30% increased system throughput

eICIC – enhanced Inter Cell Interference System capacity


Coordination
Unique Nokia Smart Scheduler algorithm
dynamically optimizing the radio resource usage

30% higher
across Flexi Multiradio and Flexi Zone base stations running on the same 75Mbps 97Mbps
spectrum Optimized
not only for new (F)eICIC user equipment
HetNet co-channel capacity
but also for legacy Rel.8/9 user equipment.
throughput

Drive
Tokyo test,
photoEurope, 2015
• Flexi Multiradio 10 BTS macro cell Macro cell gain 38Mbps 56Mbps
• 2 Flexi Zone small cells
• 14 legacy Rel.8 UEs
Cells
Small cells gain
1+2 37Mbps 41Mbps

Trial results Feature activation off on

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customer confidential
Nokia Smart Scheduler software unleashes the hidden
Customer
potential experience beyond brute-force capacity rollouts
of your network

Example

responsiveness
Touch-bang service
Custome beyond
Smartphone • Nominal bit rate
r Expectations Re a d i n e s s f o r t h e
Internet of Things • Protecting target
data rates, e.g. at

Quality of Service
D e l a y b u d g e t G u a r a n t e e
d
cell edge
bit rate • Uplink and
N o m i n a l
L a t e n c y bit rate downlink
N o n -
• Without the
g u a r a n t e e d
bit rate
massive resource
needs of
guaranteed bit
Ro b u s t n e s s and reliability rate services
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customer confidential
Field measurements of Nominal Bitrate for non-GBR bearers
Proven protection of nominal data rates, even at cell edge

Nominal Bitrate for non-GBR Cell Center Cell Edge


bearers 12.2Mbps
Mbps
• Unique Nokia Smart Scheduler feature
allowing to protect service target data rate, 9.9Mbps
Mbps
e.g. for HD video at 2Mbps,
even for users at cell edge.
• For some service scenarios, the golden middle
• Service quality
between GBR and conventional non-GBR.
Works also with Carrier Aggregation.
Nominal target:
protection 2Mbps
Mbps
1.6Mbps
Mbps 2.2Mbps
Mbps

Tokyo photo
Drive test Average
in urban environment Physical

Field
in advanced Asian market Resource
2015 Block
allocation
PRB 9.9 8.1 9.7 17.7

tests per user


Feature activation OFF ON OFF ON

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customer confidential
Smart Scheduler
New features to
optimize IoT use cases on
LTE

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customer confidential
Nokia Smart Scheduler software unleashes the hidden
Resource-efficient
potential of yoursupport of IoT use cases
network

Sustainability

Network speed

responsiveness
Touch-bang service
Location independent
Custome beyond network

r ExpectationsRea di n e ss f o r th e CO 2
Smartphone footprint
reduction
Cell

thro ughput
Edge device
Internet of Things

n e w si te s
high costs
battery
m a c ro s m a l l autonomy

Quality of Service
cell cell
D e l a y b u d g e t G u a r a n t e e
Time to add

d
Cell
bit rate
N o m i n a l
L a t e n c y bit rate

Capacity Avoid N o n -
signalin

Cost to add of
g u a r a n t e e d
bit rate
Spectral
Efficiency Ro b u s t n e s s and reliability
g

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customer confidential
Machine type communications from 2G to 5G
A wide field of opportunities opening up in the next 5 years
with LTE-M
• Sub-10ms
latency 5G
LTE-M
• Industrial,
mission-critical
• Low to high data volumes
• Growing coverage robustness
• Sinking modem costs

2G • Low data volumes


• Great coverage
• Low modem costs

2015 2020

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customer confidential
LTE-M enables massive machine type communication

Utilities Low modem cost LTE LTE-M


Sensors & TD-LTE 3GPP
long today Rel.12
Wearables
modem Rel.13
Automotive
battery
Traffic life
Smart cities
Smart grids

Extended
coverage
Use cases Requirementss Technology
37 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015
customer confidential
One network to address high-end and low-end use cases
3GPP outlook of LTE-Advanced devices for Machine Type
Communications Release 8 Release 8 Release 12 Release 13 Release 13
Category 4 Category 1 Category 0 Cat-M NB-LTE
Downlink peak rate 150 Mbps 10 Mbps 1 Mbps 1 Mbps 200 kbps
Uplink peak rate 50 Mbps 5 Mbps 1 Mbps 1 Mbps 100 kbps
Number of antennas 2 2 1 1 1
Duplex mode Full duplex Full duplex Half duplex Half duplex Half duplex
UE receive bandwidth 20 MHz 20 MHz 20 MHz 1.4 MHz 0.2 MHz
UE transmit power 23 dBm 23 dBm 23 dBm 20 dBm 23 dBm
Multiplexed within LTE Yes Yes Yes Yes Yes
Modem complexity 100% 80% 40% 20% 15%
Cat….,12, 9, 6 Faster
broadband Low cost, low data rate MTC

LTE – one technology for high-speed and low-cost IoT


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How long will two AA long life batteries take your LTE-M
Nokia enhances battery life already for current device chipset
modem?
generations
Paging Self learning,
(DRX) adapting to traffic profiles, Device
Smart extending battery life battery
cycle Scheduler
already with Rel.8 devices life
10min 11 years

3GPP Rel.12

15min
2.56s 3.7 months
3GPP Rel.8

1week Transaction
15min cycle

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customer confidential
Nokia Smart Scheduler improves smartphone user experience
Data Session
and IoT Profiling increases service responsiveness and battery life
efficiency

Browsing open select links, Connected Connected


webpage open next pages with traffic without traffic
session immediately • Increases
read read read service
RRC state read responsivenes
Connected s
Idle
• Consumes
time device battery

Sensor “temperature up by 1 Data Session Profiling


reports degree”
• Self learning
release
resources … • Adapting to traffic profiles
RRC state
immediately • Reducing signaling
Connected Battery Battery
saving saving • Extending device battery life
Idle
tim • Already with Rel.8 devices
e
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customer confidential
LTE is evolving to enable deeper indoor coverage
7x coverage with Rel. 13 enhancements

3GPP • Power Spectral


Density
Rel. 13 boosting +20dB
• Repetition
2x
Increased 3x
transmission 4x
Smart robustness
Scheduler Deep
indoor
Ensured Working with
Quality of all LTE
Service incl. devices,
nominal legacy and
bitrate new
41 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015
customer confidential
Nokia Smart Scheduler increases connection stability and
Signaling
network Robustness
KPIs balances throughput and robustness

Increased robustness in
Modulation and Throughput MCS timeslots with RRC
Coding signaling
Scheme

Robustness
time
Max. payload
throughput in other
timeslots
RRC signaling robustness - downlink
• Increased transmission robustness during timeslots with RRC signaling
• Configurable offset for defining the robustness gain
• Improved network KPIs

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customer confidential
Nokia Smart Scheduler increases uplink capacity by dynamic
Dynamic
resourceresource allocation maximizes user traffic resources
allocation

Dynamic PUCCH allocation Few UEs Many UEs


spectrum (PRBs) (smartphones + IoT)
• Dynamic adaption of signaling
resource consumption (periodicity of
CQI and UL scheduling) and allocation PUCCH Optimize
               
               

               

resource
               

to number of UEs                
               

usage
         
         

• Minimized resource needs for PUCCH  

 
   

 
   

 
   

 
 

 
               

• Maximized resources for payload PUSCH


         

               
               

• Relevant for growing UE number with


         
         

               

Dynami                

Internet of Things (IoT) connectivity          

c
         

Maximize
               
               

         

PUCCH
resource
         

               

allocatio
               

availabilit
                   

 
   

 
   

 
   

 
 

 
n  

 
   

 
   

 
   

 
 

  y
                               

PUSCH
                   

                               

                   

                               

                               

                               

PUCCH
                   

                               

time
43 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015
customer confidential
Nokia Smart Scheduler software unleashes the hidden
Customer
potential experience beyond brute-force capacity rollouts
of your network

Example

responsiveness
Touch-bang service
Custome beyond
Smartphone • Nominal bit rate
r Expectations Re a d i n e s s f o r t h e
Internet of Things • Protecting target
data rates, e.g.

Quality of Service
D e l a y b u d g e t G u a r a n t e e
d
for video or IoT
bit rate use cases
N o m i n a l
L a t e n c y bit rate • Uplink and
downlink
N o n -
g u a r a n t e e d • Without the
bit rate
massive resource
needs of
Ro b u s t n e s s and reliability guaranteed bit
44 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015
rate services
customer confidential
Field measurements of Nominal Bitrate for non-GBR bearers
Proven protection of nominal data rates, even at cell edge

Nominal Bitrate for non-GBR Cell Center Cell Edge


bearers 12.2Mbps
Mbps
• Unique Nokia Smart Scheduler feature
allowing to protect service target data rate, 9.9Mbps
Mbps
e.g. for HD video at 2Mbps,
even for users at cell edge.
• For some service scenarios, the golden middle
• Service quality
between GBR and conventional non-GBR.
Works also with Carrier Aggregation.
Nominal target:
protection 2Mbps
Mbps
1.6Mbps
Mbps 2.2Mbps
Mbps

Tokyo photo
Drive test Average
in urban environment Physical

Field
in advanced Asian market Resource
2015 Block
allocation
PRB 9.9 8.1 9.7 17.7

tests per user


Feature activation OFF ON OFF ON

45 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015


customer confidential
Smart Scheduler for the Internet of Things
Four take aways and further information

The Internet of Things is shaped More details in our white papers


now networks.nokia.com/lte

As of today, LTE has a unique


global proposition of bandwidth
and coverage – for people and
things.
Nokia LTE enables many LTE-M
use cases already now
LTE enhancements with 3GPP
Rel.12/13 and 5G will further
expand the addressable Internet
of Things market
46 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015
customer confidential
Nokia Smart Scheduler
Innovation – continued.
What’s next?

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customer confidential
Nokia Smart Scheduler software unleashes the hidden
Meeting people’s
potential expectations
of your network and the needs of the IoT in a
sustainable way
Sustainability
Custome network

r Expectations Re a d i n e s s f o r t h e
CO 2 footprint
reduction

Internet of Thingsdevice
battery
autonomy

Leverage “Touch-and- Superior Device Network


upcoming display” connection energy energy
User browsing stability, savings savings
Equipment experience even at weak (increased
capabilities radio signal battery
strength autonomy)
48 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015
customer confidential
Smart Scheduler support of upcoming user equipment
Up to 50% higher uplink peak data rates and 10% uplink cell capacity
capabilities

frequency

Constellation chart
16QAM
64QAM (with Rel.12 UE)

64 QAM in uplink Uplink multi-cluster scheduling


• Extended modulation and coding schemes of • Evolution of channel awareness with
up to MCS28 in good radio link conditions • Supporting 3GPP Rel.11 UE capability of non-
• Uplink peak data of up to 75Mbps on a 20MHz contiguous resource allocation in uplink
carrier • Up to 10% increase in uplink cell capacity
• Competitive peak data rates even on narrow
carriers
49 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015
customer confidential
Uplink defines VoLTE coverage
Smart Scheduler boosts VoLTE uplink coverage beyond TTI-bundling

VoLTE uplink coverage boosting


• Enhanced UL link adaptation and receiver
• TTI-bundling optimization
• VoLTE coverage gain of up to 3 dB
3 dB

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customer confidential
The Flexi Multiradio and Flexi Zone base stations are energy
Smart Scheduler with Micro DTX can save an additional 20% of RF
efficient
power

eNode B power saving - Micro


DTX P
P
• Smart Scheduler optimizes Office Office

time/frequency domain use in t


response to traffic
• Up to 20% RF power saving by
optimized scheduling pattern

51 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015


customer confidential
Nokia Smart Scheduler eliminates the cell edge in clusters of
Combined Supercell without inner handovers or interference
up to 6 cells

Combined Supercell
• Combines up to 6 sub-cells into 1
logical cell (1 Physical Cell ID)
• Simultaneous transmission from all
sub-cells increases downlink
performance at former edges
between sub-cells
• Dynamic selection of best receive
sub-cell enhances uplink performance
• Minimization of handovers – e.g. for Subscribers entering or
users on high-speed trains or in areas
Subscribers in high-speed train getting out of office building
of buildings with many visitors

Sub-cell

Combined
Supercell

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customer confidential
Nokia Smart Scheduler increases average Carrier Aggregation
Increased
data ratesCarrier Aggregation utilization by optimized load-balancing

CA aware idle mode load


balancing
• Enhanced idle mode load balancing Carrier 4
• Ensures that Carrier Aggregation Carrier Aggregation enabled
capable devices camp on Carrier
Aggregation enabled carriers Carrier 3
• Higher immediate availability of Carrier Aggregation enabled
maximum peak data rates for users
with Carrier Aggregation enabled Carrier 2
devices

Carrier 1
Carrier Aggregation enabled
Carrier Aggregation Non-CA
User Equipment UE

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customer confidential
Nokia Smart Scheduler
Designed to work with existing
backhaul and user equipment reality
For effectiveness and simplicity

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Successful coordinated scheduling is simple and applicable
3GPP agreed with Nokia: coordinated scheduling works without new
network element
2010/2011 2014/2015 2013-2015
• Nokia Networks implemented • MWC2014: for HetNets Nokia • Samsung advocates centralized
implicit coordination via Frequency Networks launches eICIC which schedulers
Selective Scheduling (FSS) and works with LTE-A, but also with • Samsung results in 3GPP are a
without need for info exchange via legacy Rel.8/9 user equipment clear outlier
X2 • January 2015: SK Telecom • 3GPP concluded for 3GPP Release
• Huawei proposed “ICIC for macro launches the world’s first eICIC 12:
networks” network in Nokia areas of the
• Major operators deactivated network

HetNet Coordination
Huawei’s ICIC for macro after trials
• Nokia Smart Scheduler with FSS
delivers superior performance in

coordination without new


commercial networks

Implicit with legacy network


coordination UEs elements
55 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015
customer confidential
Centralized Scheduler
Samsung hype vs. industry-wide analysis

Samsung claims for centralized 3GPP conclusion (eCoMP)


scheduler • No need for a new centralized RAN
entity
80% gain at cell • Extension of X2 interface instead
edge Samsung
“It is expected that

capacity
centralized

capacity
processing and
scheduling will

gain
gain
become a
requirement”

consensus

loss
“Without it, features

loss
such as CoMP will be
difficult, if not loss cell edge
impossible, to gain
Source: Samsung whitepaper
implement”
February 2013 Source: 3GPP TR 36.874 V12.0.0 (2013-12) // baseline: intra-
eNB CoMP

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customer confidential
Nokia Smart Scheduler
summary

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customer confidential
Further information about the Smart Scheduler

For further information


have a look at the Nokia
Smart Scheduler
white paper

Available together with whitepapers on LTE-A on


networks.nokia.com/lte

58 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015


customer confidential
Nokia Smart Scheduler unleashes the hidden potential of your
Continuous software innovation for LTE (FDD), TD-LTE, macro and small
network
cells
Sustainability

Network speed

responsiveness
Touch-bang service
Location independent
Custome beyond network

CO 2
Smartphone footprint
Cell r Expectations Re a d i n e s s f o r t h e
reduction

thro ughput
Edge
Internet of Thingsdevice

n e w si te s
high costs
battery
m a c ro s m a l l autonomy

Quality of Service
cell cell
D e l a y b u d g e t G u a r a n t e e
Time to add

d
Cell
bit rate
N o m i n a l
L a t e n c y bit rate

Capacity Avoid N o n -
signalin

Cost to add of
g u a r a n t e e d
bit rate
Spectral Smart
Efficiency Ro b u s t n e s s and reliability Scheduler
g

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customer confidential
Thank you

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customer confidential
Backup
Some more details

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customer confidential
Scheduler gains by functionality
Frequency Selective Scheduling delivers highest gains

Inter-cell Coordinated
Dependency on low-
interference latency backhaul
scheduling
All LTE networks
Liquidity of traffic Intra-frequency • Implicit, lean inter-cell
distribution Load balancing coordination

Small cell capacity eICIC HetNet


deployments
Cell edge All LTE networks
performance QoS differentiation • No need for inter-eNB
degradation coordination
Inter-cell • Working with Rel.8
interference devices
Frequency Selective Scheduling (FSS)
• Field-proven
incl. Interference and Channel • 60% of achievable
Fading Awareness gain
Performance challenge Achievable gain Application scenario
62 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015
customer confidential
Deployments show different interference patterns
HetNet. Macro. Ultra-dense

Heterogeneous Macro networks Densified deployments


networks

Interference with small cells Cell edge, neighbor cell Massive cell cluster interference
interference (UL)
• Large coverage areas • Dimensioned for
• Focused capacity • Mobility also for high- highest traffic,
expansion of macro speed users especially in uplink
with small cells • Interference with direct • Fiber available
• Co-channel interference neighbor cells • Interference across
macro  small cell whole cell clusters

63 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015


customer confidential
Nokia Smart Scheduler ensures superior performance in all
Enhanced cell edge data rates and overall capacity
deployments

Heterogeneous Macro networks Densified deployments


networks

Macro-small cell
interference coordination Inter-cell interference Multi-cell coordination
avoidance

• Common SW for Flexi • Continuous innovation • Centralized RAN


Multiradio and Flexi • Superior performance • Unique interconnection
Zone proven in many and collaboration of
• Dynamic eICIC benchmark tests baseband modules

 Interference management by software


Smart Scheduler  Running on existing network element

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customer confidential
Consistently high throughput and low latency with Nokia Smart Scheduler

Effective usage of high Minimized retransmissions in


modulation and coding schemes good radio conditions

high Smart low


Schedul
throughput er
latency

Effective usage of MIMO Pro-active UL resource allocation

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customer confidential
Consistently high throughput and low latency with Nokia Smart Scheduler

Effective usage of high modulation and Minimized retransmissions at good radio


coding schemes conditions • Stable block error rate (BLER =
• Frequency-selective scheduling 10%) in medium to bad radio
• low variance in throughput for each MCS up to conditions
256QAM and 5/6 coding  High Spectral • Minimized (BLER) at good radio
Efficiency conditions  Reduced
• Validation of channel quality (CQI) retransmissions
reported by UE  Robustness
high Smart low
Schedul
throughput er latency

Effective usage of MIMO


• Intelligent use of UE MIMO rank Pro-active UL resource allocation
indication (MIMO / TX-diversity switching) • Load-adaptive, pro-active resource allocation
 Optimum data rate  Immediate radio resource availability

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customer confidential
The three dimensional task to reduce interference
Smart Scheduler feature mapping
Interferenc Channel Interferenc
Frequency e
awareness
awareness e shaping
 Avoid noisy PRBs

Interferenc
e aware
Power (and location) power CoMP
Higher MIMO
schemes
 Adapt power levels control
 Use multiple antennas
 Focus transmission and reception Beamformin
Intra-
 Optimize user to cell mapping frequency g
load
balancing

eICIC
Time
 Avoid noisy timeslots QoS
 But respect delay budgets
UL DL UL +DL

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customer confidential
Smart Scheduler in the Nokia Radio Resource Management
framework
Traffic channel Time scale
and load
variations 100 s Radio Admission Control
Load Balancing, Congestion
Call duration Control

Interhandover time
10 s
Connection Mobility Control L3 RRM
Inter-cell Interference Coordination
1s
UE DRX

Scheduler
Slow UL Slow UL Control
L3 signaling delay
Power Dynamic
100 ms LA/AMC
Burst or packet Control MIMO Mode
Slow UL

Smart
duration Control
ATB
Channel fading 10 ms
Outer Link Quality Control
L2 RRM
time

1 ms
Packet Fast DL AMC, Fast UL
LTE TTI
Scheduling ATB/AMC
68 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015 AMC: Adaptive Modulation and Coding
ATB: Adaptive Transmission Bandwidth
customer confidential
LA: Link Adaptation
DRX: Discontinuous Reception
Scheduler features for increasing data rates without additional
spectrum or sites
Peak data rate & Capacity Peak data rate & capacity
•increase
Frequency selective increase
scheduling • Additional
• QoS features carriers/bands
• Carrier aggregation • Supplementary DL carrier

Add features
• Interference shaping • FDD/TDD CA

um
• Higher order MIMO • LTE-U

tr
• Dynamic point

ec
selection

sp
• Coordinated

d
Ad
scheduling Capacity increase
• Coordinated beam-
forming Add sectors/sites • Additional sites
• Dual connectivity • Horizontal sectorization
• 256 QAM • Vertical sectorization
• eMIMO • Small cells
• NAICS
• ...
69 6/25/18 © Nokia 2014
Confidential
How to increase usable system capacity in LTE?

Network capacity Shannon Capacity


Signal
Capacity = Reuse * Bandwidth * ld(1+ )
Interference + Noise

Reuse of resources – spatial Power


separation More
• Multiple “orthogonal” data streams antennas / • Beamforming
per user (MIMO) cell • Increase link adaptation
• Multi-user transmission range
More
cells • Increase signal power
• Higher sectorization • Reduce interference power -
• Dense and heterogeneous less and/or more stable
networks interference
Bandwidth – spectrum Statistical multiplexing – pooling gain
Increase available/used Larger set of UEs accessing a larger pool of shared
bandwidth resources
70 6/25/18 © Nokia 2014
Confidential
Downlink interference
Determined by resource usage

• DL transmissions use flat


power spectral density, i.e. the
Tx power does not depend
on UE position
• Interference to UE from
neighbor cell depends only
UE position, i.e. on the
pathloss from the neighbour
cell to the UE

• DL interference on UEs in neighbour cell is determined by resource usage (which PRBs are used and
how), not by the UE, to which resources are assigned
• SINR of a UE is determined by pathloss to own cell vs neighbouring cell (geometry factor)
• Interference mitigation by neighbouring cells mainly via limiting scheduling to preferred area +
frequency selective scheduling to keep interference fluctuations low

71 6/25/18 © Nokia 2014


Confidential
Uplink interference
Determined by UE position
• UE transmission power
increases with distance
from serving cell to keep
receive level in eNodeB
constant
• Interference to neighbour
cell does mainly depends
on UE position

• UL interference on UEs in neighbouring cell is determined by which resources are


assigned to which UE exactly
• SINR of a UE is determined by pathloss to own cell vs pathloss of UE in neighbour cell
being assigned the same resource
• Interference mitigation by coordinating assignment of UEs in frequency domain, i.e.,
UE with highest transmission power on frequencies with lowest interference

72 6/25/18 © Nokia 2014


Confidential
Backup
Some more performance benchmarks

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customer confidential
Best LTE network quality in Korea (autumn 2014)
Superior performance and stability even under highest load

Performance during the peak hour of the


event
RRC set up success rate 99.48 %
VoLTE success rate 99.4 %
Downlink data volume 522 GB
Uplink data volume 338 GB
Highest LTE user density Active users/cell (max.) 570 UEs/cell
• ~1.5mn people on 1.2km • Inter-frequency load balancing works.
beachfront • Real time monitoring with Nokia Traffica.
75%
• Korea’s second largest city • Network preparation and event execution with Nokia
50%
25%
Nokia LTE works
professional services  

under highest load


LTE subscribers/capita Korea
0%
3Q2012 3Q2013 3Q2014

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customer confidential
Best LTE network quality in Korea (autumn 2013)
Superior performance and stability even under highest load

Busan fireworks festival 2013Performance during the peak hour of the event 3 times the LTE
• 1.5 million people Nokia call set up success rate 100% data traffic
• 3 LTE networks compared to
• 3 suppliers Nokia VoLTE success rate 100% 2012

700,000 Nokia average DL data rate

3x
~ LTE >15Mbps
users Load during peak hour: 399 UEs/cell
• Inter-frequency load balancing works.
• Real time monitoring with Nokia Traffica. Nokia repeating
Nokia LTE works
• Network preparation and event execution with
Nokia professional services  
the outstanding
LTE performance

under highest at the 2012


Busan fireworks

load Again
75 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015
customer confidential
Best LTE network quality in Korea (Autumn
Superior
2012) performance and stability even under highest
load
Autumn 2012: The world’s first LTE-mega-event
• One of the largest
firework festivals
• Estimated 300,000
LTE users
The most advanced • Extremely heavy
LTE market in the LTE traffic
world
• World’s first country with The Nokia LTE network outperformed the other LTE
commercial LTE by all operators networks 
• World’s first country with by a wide margin*
nationwide LTE coverage  Ensuring downlink throuphput remained above 34Mbps
• World’s first country with >40%  2-3 times faster downlink speeds than the two non-NSN
LTE population penetration LTE networks
 The only network maintaining 100% data call
completion rate (CCR) at all times
* note: according to an independent test by an operator,

76 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015


customer confidential
Nokia LTE outperforming Huawei LTE
Measurements in Middle East (Dec. 2012)

70
64.40
• In Middle East Nokia swapped Huawei LTE sites 60
Nov.-Dec.2012
49.44
• The performance was measured prior and after 50
the swap, average results for 9 sites below:
40
30.88
30
19.90 21.16
DL Avg Rate 20
(Mbps) 49.44 19.9 10.57
UL Avg Rate 10
(Mbps) 21.16 10.57
0
• OnLatency (ms)
average: 30.88 64.4
• Nokia DL throughput 148% higher s) s) s)
bp bp (m NSN
• Nokia UL throughput 100% higher (M (M y Nokia
te te enc Huawe
• Nokia latency 52% lower Ra Ra La
t
i
g g
Av Av
L L
D U

77 © Nokia Solutions and Networks 2015