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OBSERVATION

AND
DESCRIPTION
A. OBSERVATION (Taking notice) – is a complete
and accurate awareness by an individual of his
surroundings and encompasses the use of all of
our major senses to register and recognize its
operational and/or intelligence significance.

B. DESCRIPTION – is the actual and factual


reporting of one’s own observations or the
reported sensory experience recounted by
another.
● The only way you become aware of
anything is through your senses.

● Psychologist estimate that approximately:


- 85% of your knowledge is gathered
through sight
- 13% through hearing
- 2% through the three (3) senses:
1. taste
2. touch
3. smell (combined)
COUNT THE F’S

Feature films are the result


of years of scientific study
combined with the
experience of years
COUNT THE F’S

Feature films are the result of


years of scientific study
combined with the experience
of years
A. ATTENTION - consists of the
psychological process involved in becoming
aware of a fact (aware of the existence of a fact).

B. PERCEPTION - consists of the


psychological process involved in understanding
this fact of awareness.
- through understanding
(smell of a flower, you can guess the name of the
flower.
c. REPORT - used in two (2) senses:
a. The first in the psychological process
involved in identifying by name in one’s own mind
some facts which has been perceived.
b. Report - narrate of what you
perceived/identified.
A. INVOLUNTARY (least reliable) - in it, you
have no control and it requires no effort.
NOTE: Give example – looking the
window of the store, suddenly hears a car
collided with another car.

B. VOLUNTARY ATTENTION – this type is


more reliable but not nearly as dependable as
habitual.
NOTE: Explain example – Assume that
someone is required to listen to a lecture
concerning a subject in which he is not
interested.
C. HABITUAL ATTENTION - an attention
which is distinguished by little effort with a
maximum of control
- most reliable
NOTE: Explain example – A student
who is interested to a certain subject
1. Size (Normal to abnormal size)
2. Change (from silence to noise)
3. Repetition (shots is fired in every one minute
4. Striking Quality (to attract attention –
wearing of clothes)
5. Interest (interest in some objects – sexy
women
6. Organic Condition (organic condition of the
observer)
- observers should have the
excellent condition of his physical faculties.
1. Size (Normal to abnormal size)
2. Change (from silence to noise)
3. Repetition (shots is fired in every one minute
4. Striking Quality (to attract attention –
wearing of clothes)
5. Interest (interest in some objects – sexy
women
6. Organic Condition (organic condition of the
observer)
- observers should have the
excellent condition of his physical faculties.
1. MENTAL CAPACITY - one must have
enough intelligence to understand the meanings of
a fact before he can perceived it.
Example: A child brought to a movie
couldn’t fully understand story due to his/her
mental ability to understand.
2. EDUCATIONAL BACKGROUND
3. EMPERICAL BACKGROUND - one has
acquired by experience throughout his life.
4. OCCUPATIONAL BACKGROUND
1. VOCABULARY- words which an individual
finds to express himself.
2. TIME LAG - accurate reporting depends
entirely on timeless. Delay in reporting results in un
conscious omission of detail
3. RECURRENCE OF SIMILAR INCIDENT-
Investigator investigates similar incidents.
4hrs

MEMORY RETENTION
3hrs
Make notes on
2hrs things that are
difficult to remember
1hr

100% 75% 50% 25%


MEMORY - has bearing in evaluation of
Information - refer to a complex group of mental
functions and states of awareness that are
concerned with the storing of experience and its
reappearance in consciousness or its utilization in
subsequent activity.
Types of : 1. Sensory – that of learning
repetition.
2. Intellectual – higher
evaluation
Function of : 1. Storing information –
systematic filing.
2. Recollection – returning to
conscious memory
that which has been
stored.
How recollection may be brought about:
1. Recall – process of reproducing a past
experience.
2. Recognition – process of identifying a
perception as having been
experienced at some time in the
past.
One of the most important fundamentals of
memory and memory training must be the creation
of interest.
Object itself and the interest aroused by this
object are of great importance to memory – also
Means of Reception:
1. Eye – Minded
2. Ear – Minded
3. Motor – Minded

Motor – involves touch, smell and state


Suggestion to improve memory:
1. You must intend (or want) to remember
2. Develop the confidence to remember – do
not let your memory remain dormant
3. Carefully observe and concentrate all your
attention on the subject to be remembered.
4. Develop the strongest possible motive for
remembering any particular fact.
5. Try to understand clearly the meaning of
which is to be particular fact.
6. You must be able to visualize, when possible,
the fact to be remembered.
Suggestion to improve memory:
7. Remember by repetition – a good policy to
over learn allowing the memory trace or impression
the chance to “set”.
8. Remember everything new by connecting it
with something that you already know.
1. Law of Similarity
2. Law of Contrast
3. Law of propinquity – implies that nearness of
place, time or some other relationship.