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The role of schools in career

and employability learning

Tristram Hooley, Presentation to
CDANZ, Auckland 13th April 2015
What I’m going to cover

What is school-
Recent history based career Does it work?

What does it
The key players look like when it
is done well?
What I’m going to cover

What is school-
Recent history based career Does it work?

What does it
The key players look like when it
is done well?
England: False dawns and bleak
So what about New Zealand?
What I’m going to cover

What is school-
Recent history based career Does it work?

What does it
The key players look like when it
is done well?
OECD definition

Career guidance refers to services and activities intended to

assist individuals, of any age and at any point throughout
their lives, to make educational, training and occupational
choices and to manage their careers…
The activities may take place on an individual or group
basis, and may be face-to-face or at a distance (including
help lines and web-based services).
(OECD, 2004)
Key concepts

• Career information
• Career advice/career counselling
• Career education
• Work-related learning

• Personal and social education
• Citizenship/democratic/political education
• [Character?]
Types of careers support typically
provided by schools in the UK
• information provision
• career assessments and tests
• career counselling
• careers advice delivered by a non-careers professional
• curricular interventions
• further study/work-related learning
• other extra-curricular interventions
• frameworks for reflection
Three ways of thinking about this

• Activity based approach

• Service based approach

• Curriculum/learning based approach
What I’m going to cover
Well what do you think?

• For your students?
• For the school?
• What does it do?
• How do you know?
The evidence for employer
Strong evidence for the value of employer engagement in
• improved pupil motivation
• improved contextualisation of learning
• improved attainment
• smoother transitions
• reduction in the proportion of young people who have
failed transitions
Benefits for schools

• Attainment

• Attendance/Retention

• Transition

• Life and career success
Levels of impact (See Kirkpatrick)
What I’m going to cover
Key players
Skills of career professionals

• Career development theory

• Labour market knowledge
• Brokerage
• Referral
• Counselling skills
• Career learning pedagogy
• Advocacy
• Leadership, co-ordination and collaboration
• Service design and evaluation
Teachers roles

• Information, inspiration and advice

• Providing opportunities to experience and learn about
work and gain career-related skills
• Contributing to careers education activities within schools
such as CV writing workshops, mock interviews and
enterprise programmes.
• Providing young people with contacts within the world of
work that may be useful in their career development
(social capital).

• This is not core business for them. They have

organisations/businesses to run and jobs to do.
• Their knowledge of the world is rich, but is confined
predominantly to their own area of work and industry
sector, and thus has an inherent partiality.
• ƒEmployers have limited knowledge of the complex
educational choices facing young people.
• Employers are unlikely to have in-depth conversations
with individual students about the students’ own strengths
and interests.

How does your school organise careers activities across a

range of roles?

Is there a need for more

• Clarity?
• Leadership?
• Interprofessional working?
What I’m going to cover
Remember this?

• Activity based approach

• Service based approach

• Curriculum/learning based approach
Good career guidance (Gatsby)

• A stable careers programme

• Learning from career and labour market information
• Addressing the needs of each pupil
• Linking curriculum learning to careers
• Encounters with employers and employees
• Experienced of workplaces
• Encounters with further and higher education
• Personal guidance
Good career guidance
Professional infrastructure
for careers workers
Involvement of
employers and
learning providers
in the education

Quality and

Local brokerage
and partnership
organisations High quality LMI
and resources

Employers’ interests
How does your school measure up?

• What are you doing well?

• Not so well?

• What will you change?
Worth reading

• Andrews, D. (2011) Careers Education in Schools Stafford: Highflyers

• Bassot, B., Barnes, A., & Chant, A. (2013). A Practical Guide to Career
Learning and Development. Abingdon: Routledge.
• Gatsby Charitable Foundation (2014). Good Career Guidance. London:
• Hutchinson, J. (2012). Career-related learning and science education. School
Science Review, 346: 91-98.
• Hutchinson, J. (2013).
School Organisation and STEM Career-related Learning. York: National
STEM Centre.
Also worth reading

• Hutchinson, J., & Dickinson, B. (2014). Employers and schools. Local

Economy, 29(3): 236-245.
• Mann, A. (2012). Work experience: Impact and delivery - Insights from the
evidence. London: Education and Employers Taskforce.
• Mann and Dawkins, 2014b Employer engagement in education: literature
review. London: Education and Employers Taskforce.
• Mann, A. and Percy, C. (2013). Employer engagement in British secondary
education: wage earning outcomes experienced by young adults. Journal of
Education and Work. CD
• Watts, A.G. (2013). False dawns, bleak sunset: the Coalition Government's
policies on career guidance. British Journal of Guidance and Counselling,
My work on this subject

• Hooley, T. (2014). The Evidence Base on Lifelong Guidance. Jyväskylä, Finland:

European Lifelong Guidance Policy Network (ELGPN).
• Hooley, T., Devins, D., Watts, A. G., Hutchinson, J., Marriott, J. and Walton, F. (2012).
Tackling Unemployment, Supporting Business and Developing Careers. London:
• Hooley, T., Matheson, J. & Watts, A.G. (2014).
Advancing Ambitions: The role of career guidance in supporting social mobility.
London: Sutton Trust.
• Hooley, T., Marriott, J. and Sampson, J.P. (2011).
Fostering College and Career Readiness: How Career Development Activities in Schoo
ls Impact on Graduation Rates and Students' Life Success
. Derby: International Centre for Guidance Studies, University of Derby.
• Hooley, T., Marriott, J., Watts, A.G. and Coiffait, L. (2012).
Careers 2020: Options for Future Careers Work in English Schools. London: Pearson.
• Hooley, T., Watts, A.G., Andrews, D. (2015).
Teachers and Careers: The Role Of School Teachers in Delivering Career and Employab
Learning. Derby: International Centre for Guidance Studies, University of Derby.
Tristram Hooley

Professor of Career Education

International Centre for Guidance Studies
University of Derby

Blog at
In summary

• Career learning should be at the heart of schooling.

• A growing evidence base that demonstrates its
• The evidence base suggests that holistic, and school-
wide approaches that are linked to the curriculum are the
most effective.
• The evidence also highlights the importance of involving
of employers and other key stakeholders.
• How a school organises, manages and resources careers
work is likely to be critical for its effectiveness.