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Maintenance Engineering

By

Prof. Charles Manasseh M. Ondieki


Maintenance Engineering Management
• Industrial organizations exist to make profit. They use equipment and labour to
convert raw materials into finished goods of higher value. Profitability is influenced
by many factors, including customer demand, product price, equipment output,
equipment capital cost and life as well as equipment running cost, etc.
• Maintenance is a combination of actions carried out to return an item to, or restore
it to an acceptable condition i.e., maintenance involves fixing any sort of mechanical
or electrical device which has become out of order or broken. It also includes
performing routine actions which keep device in working order or prevent trouble
from arising.
• Maintenance is related to profitability through equipment output and equipment
running cost.
• Maintenance work raises the level of equipment performance and availability but at
the same time it adds to running costs.
• The objective of an industrial maintenance department should be the achievement
of the optimum balance which maximizes the department’s contribution to
profitability.
• Maintenance management is the organization of maintenance within an
agreed policy.
• Maintenance engineering is concerned with the day-to-day problem of
keeping plant facilities and equipment in good operating condition and
thereby yield a product of high quality at reasonable cost.
• It is an essential activity in every manufacturing establishment, because
it is necessary to ensure the availability of the machines, buildings and
services needed by other parts of the organization for the performance
of their functions at an optimum return on the investment whether this
investment is in machinery, materials or employees.
• Maintenance management is the responsibility of plant engineering.
Maintenance Objectives
• The maintenance and repair function has a variety of aspects in
industries. In many cases, equipment is operated at only a fraction of
capacity, equipment downtime is excessive, and machinery is
sometimes damaged beyond repair. The reason is not only insufficient
care on the part of operators, but also indifference on the part of the
management.
• Maintenance is considered an unnecessary burden since it does not
yield immediate results. The over-all result of inadequate
maintenance and repair is lost income for enterprise, slower growth
for the country and excessive capital investment.
• The principal objectives of maintenance and repair policies in
modern industry are:
a) To ensure that all available machinery and equipment are being used
for production.
b) To preserve the value of machinery, equipment and plant by keeping
deterioration to a minimum.
c) To accomplish the above objectives as economically as possible for as
long as possible.
d) To protect the safety of all employees.
These objectives can be best achieved, broadly speaking, by ensuring that:
• i) proper selection of machinery and equipment for long useful life;
• ii) the availability of replacement parts for trouble-free performance
during normal life of machinery and equipment;
• iii) the availability of qualified maintenance and repair personnel and
operators to obtain reasonable life expectancy for machinery and
equipment, and;
• iv) a correct choice and adaptation of most suitable maintenance and
repair systems and techniques.
Categories of Maintenance
The functions of maintenance and plant operation are so inter-related that any effort to
reduce the cost of either one or these functions may easily incur increased costs in the other,
to an extent where all savings are eventually lost. To obtain the required objective, therefore,
three main forms of maintenance are used:
a) Planned Maintenance
i) Preventive Maintenance (including routine maintenance),
ii) Predictive Maintenance, and
iii) Breakdown Maintenance,
b) Corrective or Emergency Maintenance,
c) Replacement instead of maintenance
i) Planned replacement, and
ii) Unplanned Replacement.
Besides the four main forms, there are also two other forms of maintenance, but infrequently,
used:
d) Opportunistic Maintenance, and
e) Design-out Maintenance.
Categories of Maintenance
PREVENTIVE MAINTENANCE:

• Preventive maintenance can be described as maintenance of


equipment or systems before fault occurs.
CORRECTIVE MAINTEANANCE
• Corrective maintenance is probably the most commonly used
approach, but it is easy to see its limitations. When
equipment fails, it often leads to downtime in production. In
most cases it is costly business. Also, if the equipment needs to
be replaced, the cost of replacing it alone can be substantial. It
is also important to consider health, safety and environment
issues related to malfunctioning equipment.
BRANCH OF MAINTENANCE

 Condition-Based Maintenance
 Predictive Maintenance
 Reliability-Centered Maintenance
 Value Driven Maintenance
CONDITION-BASED MAINTENANCE
• Shortly described, this maintenance is performed after one or
more indicators show that equipment is going to fail or that
equipment performance is deteriorating.
• CBM was introduced to try to maintain the correct equipment at
the right time. CBM is based on using real-time data to prioritize
and optimize maintenance resources.
PREDICTIVE MAINTENANCE

• Techniques help to determine the condition of in-service


equipment in order to predict when maintenance
should be performed. This approach offers cost savings
over routine or time –based predictive maintenance,
because tasks are performed only when warranted.
Opportunistic Maintenance
• In multi component system, several failing components, often it is
advantageous to follow opportunistic maintenance.
• When an equipment or system is taken down for maintenance of one or
few worn out component, the opportunistic maintenance can utilize for
maintaining or changing other wear out components, even though they
are not failed.
• It is actually not a specific maintenance system, but it’s a system of
utilizing an opportunity which may come up any time.
Design Out Maintenance
• This is maintenance where Design modifications to stop the failure from
occurring is carried out; this is usually conducted based on the past
experiences
• If the maintenance cost or downtime cost of equipment is high, then the
Design Out Maintenance strategy can often be effective.
• This strategy differs from all the others in that it is a one-off activity, as
opposed to a repetitive activity designed to prevent failure.
• Design Out Maintenance aims to redesign those parts of the equipment
which consume high levels of maintenance effort or spares cost or which have
unacceptably high failure rates.
• The high maintenance costs may have been caused by a number of factors,
including:
• Poor maintenance
• Operation of equipment outside of its original design specification
• A poor initial design
• The Design Out Maintenance strategy can only be implemented effectively if
high maintenance cost items can be identified and the reasons for the high
cost understood. It is often the best strategy to take when breakdowns are too
frequent or repair is too costly.
• Some examples of where this concept has been applied successfully are
disposable razors, cigarette lighters, ball-point pens, disposable syringes, a
design modifications conducted to a yarn feeding finger in a knitting machine
to avoid having plating effect -the identification of the fault and designing the
finger will be conducted based on the past experience
Relıabılıty-Centered Maıntenance
• Reliability-centered maintenance (RCM) is a process to ensure that systems
continue to do what their user require in their present operating context.
• It is generally used to achieve improvements in fields such as the
establishment of safe minimum levels of maintenance, changes to operating
procedures strategies and the establishment of capital maintenance regimes
and plans.
• Successful implementation of RCM will lead to increase in cost effectiveness,
machine uptime, and a greater understanding of the level of risk that the
organization is presently managing.
• There are four principles that are critical for an reliability centered
maintenance program:
• The primary objective is to preserve system function
• Identify failure modes that can affect the system function
• Prioritize the failure modes
• Select applicable and effective tasks to control the failure modes
7 questions that need to be asked for RCM
• An effective reliability centered maintenance implementation
examines the facility as a series of functional systems, each of which
has inputs and outputs contributing to the success of the facility.
The seven questions that need to be asked for each asset are:
• What are the functions and desired performance standards of each asset?
• How can each asset fail to fulfill its functions?
• What are the failure modes for each functional failure?
• What causes each of the failure modes?
• What are the consequences of each failure?
• What can and/or should be done to predict or prevent each failure?
• What should be done if a suitable proactive task cannot be determined?
Maintenance Policy and Repair
• Plant and machinery in the initial days always perform to their fullest
capacity but as time goes with regular wear and tear, this becomes
increasingly difficult.
• If proper and regular maintenance is undertaken then production capacity
can be maintained at a more or less same level.
• Maintenance also requires replacement decisions. Replacement is a
substitution of existing fixed asset with a new asset, which may enhance
features capable of performing similar function.
• The need for replacement may arise because of normal use, obsolescence,
early service failure, destruction, etc.
• Maintenance: Maintenance is defined as a process in which working
condition of plant or machinery is maintained at the optimum level as to give
maximum output.
• Maintenance is done through repair, partial replacement and total
replacement.
• Following is the significance of the maintenance policy:
• Maintenance policy ensures that equipment are always in ready and reliable condition.
This ensures company is able respond to any sudden change in demand.
• Maintenance policy ensures that equipment are always calibrated to provide good-
quality products and competitive advantage. This ensures that there are no sudden
and frequent breakdowns and reduce production of defective products.
• Maintenance policy ensures that there are no major breakdowns. This ensures there is
no lose of inventory or market share for companies following JIT philosophy.
• Maintenance policy ensures that costs are always controlled.
• Maintenance policy is particularly important in capital-intensive industries.
• If organizations are not able to implement an effective
maintenance policy then the following can result:
• Full capacity utilization may not be achieved.
• Increase in production cost as fixed labor cost cannot be
reduced.
• Increase in maintenance cost as more spare parts are required.
• Reduction in product quality and increase in wastage.
• Safety of workers and operators in jeopardy.
• Maintenance Management: Maintenance management is process
where available resources are regulated in a manner that plant
and machinery can perform at specific levels.
• Maintenance management involves planning, scheduling and
execution of maintenance-related activities.
• The main objectives of the maintenance management are as
follows:
• Minimum level of production loss and minimum incidence of breakdown.
• Minimum level of wastage.
• Optimum usage of maintenance equipment and personnel.
• Quality of product is improved.
• Planning and Scheduling: The maintenance department is responsible with
planning and scheduling of maintenance in line with the requirement and
expectation of the organization. Planning and scheduling needs to ensure that
business as usual is not disturbed.
• The following are key points to plan maintenance:
• Identify the equipment for maintenance and technique for maintenance.
• Categorize maintenance into routine, priority and emergency.
• Plan maintenance considering cost, time, space etc
• Material planning for maintenance requirements.
• Budget time and money requirements.
• The need to schedule maintenance can be best described as follows:
• To optimize usage of plant, machinery and tools.
• To optimize usage of manpower in maintenance.
• To ensure smooth production flow.
• From above it can safely be concluded that it is very critical for company to
have a robust and effective maintenance and repair policy.
VALUE DRIVEN MAINTENANCE
• A cash flow is the difference between income and expenditure. It is not the
difference between turnover and costs, because this is easy to manipulate
through accounting. There are companies that use highly creative lease,
depreciation and reservation techniques to keep book profits artificially high
or low, this doesn’t always contribute to shareholder value. Recent stock
market scandals are a painful but revealing illustration of what sometimes
happens as a result of this.
• The second part of the definition concerns the knowledge the value of a
cash which is time-related, given the term “present value”. Future cash flows
must be corrected or discounted to today. Managing by value necessitates
maximizing future cash flows. Managing by value obliges companies
constantly to search for new free cash flows. It is no longer enough for a
company to go on doing what it is already doing. Today, it's all about
creating value
The second part of the definition concerns the
knowledge the value of a cash w is time-related,
given the term “present value”. Future cash flows
must be corrected or discounted to today.
Managing by value necessitates maximizing future
cash flows. Managing by value obliges companies
constantly to search for new free cash flows. It is
no longer enough for a company to go on doing
what it is already doing. Today, it's all about
creating value
Thank you for listening
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