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Spillways and Outlet Works

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Water intake structures
Dam body
Sluiceway

Flow

Spillway

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Spillways and Outlet Works
Provide the capability to release an adequate rate of
water from the reservoir to satisfy dam safety and
water control regulation of the project.

Outlet Works – consist of a combination of structures


designed to control the release of water from the
reservoir as required for project purposes or
operation.

Spillways – allow release of water downstream that


cannot be stored or released for any of the objectives
of
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Spillways
Gated (controlled) or Ungated (uncontrolled)
Ungated
– are safer (no mechanical fixures that can fail; does not depend on
operator; not likely to be obstructed by debris).
– need a longer length for the same maximum discharge rate;
Gated spillways
– provide greater control of outflow rate;
– initial cost is usually 25% to 30% less.

Surface Spillways or Orifice/tunnel Spillways


Surface – discharge via weir equation (function of H^1.5)
Tunnel or Orifice – discharge via orifice equation (function of H^0.5) so
need greater head. (common in deep canyons)

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Types of Surface Spillways

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Types of Surface Spillways

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Types of Surface Spillways

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Orifice Spillways
 Generally are construced for large flows
 Have submerged inlets
 Usually controlled with u.s. guard gates and
an internal gate
 Could have uncontrolled u.s. gate
 2 inlets should be required for each tunnel
 Trash racks required
 Aeration d.s. from inlet must be provided
 Require detail hydraulic analysis and often
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Tunnel Spillways at
Glenn Canyon Dam

Cavitation
damage
below
aeration slot
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in ’83 flood
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Drop Inlet (morning glory)
spillway
3 flow regimes
1. Crest control – weir equ; open channel flow
d.s.

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Drop Inlet (morning glory)
spillway
2. Tube or orifce control (medium heads)

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Drop
Inlet
(morning
glory)
spillway
3. Full pipe
flow (high
heads); jet
flow in
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orifice
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Drop
Inlet
(morning
glory)
spillway

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Energy Dissipation
Commonly, a large spillway flow with even a moderate
head develops high velocities, i.e., large kinetic energy.
Such flow is destructive to the d.s. channel; the energy
must be dissipated. Typical energy dissipation
techniques include:
Stilling Basins (hydraulic jump basins)
When the approaching flow is super critical, blocks or
sills are added to force the flow into the subcritical
regime.

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Submerged Bucket

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For Fr 2,5 – 4,5

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For Fr > 4.5 and V  60 ft/s

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For Fr > 4.5

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FREEBOARD
Freeboard for wave action is based on wind speed and fetch
(distance from windward side of reservoir to the dam)

Source: USBR Design of Small


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