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Electrical Distribution Training

Training for Sepam Series


20/40/80
Control and monitoring
functions
Load shedding principle

 Motor load shedding is done to reduce the load on the electrical


system so as to keep the voltage within an acceptable range.

 Block diagram

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 2


Load shedding implementation

 Setting the load shedding function

 The outputs for load shedding orders and inhibition of closing are
part of the switchgear control function.

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 3


Restart principle

 With this function, motors can be automatically restarted after a


shutdown triggered by a voltage dip (load shedding).
 The restart function is to be associated with the load shedding
function. It allows staggered restarting of process motors as long
as the voltage dip that caused load shedding was brief.

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 4


Restart implementation

 Setting the restart function

 The outputs for restart orders are part of the switchgear control
function

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 5


Generator shutdown and tripping

 Generator shutdown and tripping involve:


 tripping of the circuit breaker connecting the machine to the
network (1)
 tripping of the excitation circuit breaker (2)
 shutdown of the prime mover (3).

 The combination of these three orders determines four types of


shutdown and tripping orders:
 total shutdown (1,2,3), often referred to as simultaneous
tripping
 generator tripping (1,2)
 generator separation (1)
 sequential tripping (1,2,3 sequentially).

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 6


Generator shutdown and tripping
Genset shutdown

 The genset shutdown function, only present in generator


applications, is used for mechanical shutdown by shutting down
the prime mover and electrical shutdown by tripping the generator.

 Genset shutdown is a control logic function which may be used to


include or exclude protection function action in conjunction with
genset shutdown. This operation may be disabled.

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 7


Generator shutdown and tripping
Genset shutdown

 Genset shutdown may be initiated in the following


ways:
 by a shutdown order
 by delayed protection functions
– protection functions unrelated to circuit
breaker position:12, 21B, 24, 27TN, 32Q,
40, 51V, 64REF, 67, 67N, 81L, 87M, 87T
– protection functions dependent on circuit
breaker position: 50/51, 50N/51N, 59N.
The time-delayed, non-memorized
outputs of these protection functions
trigger shutdown only if the circuit breaker
is open
 by logic equations

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 8


Generator shutdown and tripping
Genset shutdown

 Participation in the function is to be set individually in the


protection function setting tabs of the SFT2841 software for each
protection unit that can take part in genset shutdown.

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 9


Generator shutdown and tripping
De-excitation

 The de-excitation function, only present in generator


applications, is used to quickly cut off the power supply to an
internal fault when the generator is disconnected from the
network.

 De-excitation is a control logic function that may be used to


include or exclude protection function action. This operation may
be disabled.

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 10


Generator shutdown and tripping
De-excitation

 A de-excitation order may be initiated in the


following ways:
 by a shutdown order
 by delayed protection functions
– protection functions unrelated to circuit
breaker position:12, 21B, 24, 27TN,
32Q, 40, 51V, 64REF, 67, 67N, 81L,
87M, 87T
– protection functions dependent on
circuit breaker position: 50/51,
50N/51N, 59N. The time-delayed, non-
memorized outputs of these protection
functions trigger de-excitation only if
the circuit breaker is open
 by logic equations

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 11


Generator shutdown and tripping
De-excitation

 Participation in the function is to be set individually in the


protection function setting tabs of the SFT2841 software for each
protection unit that can take part in genset shutdown.

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 12


Generator shutdown and tripping

 Add the outputs for the genset shutdown and de-excitation


functions to the control matrix.

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 13


Automatic transfer
Objectives

 Automatic transfer is used to increase the continuity of electrical


power supply:
 to automatically replace a failing power supply,
 or to temporarily transfer the load to another branch of the power supply
system for maintenance operations.
 An operating configuration is chosen as of the design of the installation
according to technical and economic criteria.
 The chosen transfer principle calls for the installation of breaking
cubicles and voltage sensors.
 A ladder diagram is created to control the transfer of breaking devices
(circuit breakers, contactors or switches) and checking is done to help
with the manual return to the usual operating position.
 The coupling of power supplies (parallel-connected) is a technical
improvement which reduces disturbances for users at the time of the
return to normal operation. Generally speaking, the coupling operation,
when possible, only lasts for a short time.

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 14


Automatic transfer
Description
 The Sepam series 80 substation, transformer, busbars and generator
applications contain preprogrammed logic schemes that cover the
majority of configurations found in MV or LV installations.
 1 out of 2 sources is closed:
 There are 2 possible power supplies (one normal and one backup) on the same
busbars. Just one of them supplies the busbars. Transfer consists of switching
completely to the other source.
 2 out of 3 circuit breakers are closed:
 2 power supplies are connected to 2 separate busbars, which may or may not be
coupled by a coupling circuit breaker.
Each source is capable of supplying on its own all of the loads of both busbars.
This is why there are some installations with just one power supply and coupling
closed and others with 2 power supplies and coupling open.
 An automatic load shedding system is sometimes associated with the «backup»
power supply.
 When there are 2 independent sources, a synchro-check device (ANSI 25 function)
is required to enable parallel connection (coupling of sources). This function is only
used for the return-to-normal operation.

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 15


Automatic transfer:
«One out of two» transfer (no coupling breaker)

Operating position After transfer


Transfer

!
NO NO
NO normally
normally normally
open open
open
circuit breaker circuit breaker
circuit breaker

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 16


Automatic transfer:
«One out of two» transfer (no coupling breaker)
Operating position Manual return Return of source
with or without coupling

Coupling with or without ANSI 25

!
25
25
NO

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 17


Automatic transfer:
«Two out of three» with coupling open
Operating position After transfer

Transfer

NO NO NO

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 18


Automatic transfer:
«Two out of three» with coupling open

Operating position Manual return


with or without coupling
Return of source

Coupling with or without ANSI 25 !


25

25
NO

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 19


Automatic transfer:
«Two out of three» with coupling closed
Operating position After transfer
Transfer
!

NO NO NO

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 20


Automatic transfer:
«Two out of three» with coupling closed
Operating position Return of source
Manual return
with or without coupling

Coupling with or without ANSI 25 !


25

25

NO

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 21


Automatic transfer
Implementation in SFT2841

First operation: activation of predefined control logic

Tr
Latching of close order

Stabilization of the difference


between the 2 sources

Type of transfer
Acknowledgment of the
“close enable (ANSI 25)” input

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 22


Automatic transfer
Implementation in SFT2841

Description of
standard assignments
- compulsory ____
- optional -------

To record input and


output numbers

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 23


Automatic transfer
Implementation in SFT2841

Second operation:
standard assignment
and activation of the use
of output relays

This input can be connected to one


of the outputs of the MCS025
synchro-check module

Third operation:
add, cancel or reassign inputs
according to the configuration, habits
and operating requirements.
Example:
- no coupling,
- manual control….

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 24


Automatic transfer
Implementation in SFT2841

Fourth operation:
confirm and set the thresholds of the protection functions
used by the transfer function.
Example:
27-1 (20%Un) to activate transfer
59-1 (90%Un) to enable a correct return to normal voltage

No latching
No tripping of CB

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 25


Automatic transfer
Implementation in SFT2841

N.B. No latching or tripping

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 26


Automatic transfer
Implementation in SFT2841

N.B. No latching or tripping

Delete standard «overvoltage» messages

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 27


Automatic transfer
Implementation in SFT2841

Fifth operation:
assign logic to outputs
for interconnection with
other cubicles and indications.

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 28


Automatic transfer
Implementation in SFT2841

Sixth operation:
Delete the standard
«overvoltage» messages for 59 -1

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 29


Automatic transfer
A few comments

 Installations are symmetrical, so ladder diagrams in Sepam units may


be identical,
 The selector designating the «NO» normally open circuit breaker is
used to create the usual operating configuration and therefore
differentiate the operation of automatic transfer ladder diagrams.
 Not all controls are compulsory.
 The inputs (compulsory or optional) have a default value in the ladder
diagrams. This must be taken into account since when they are
declared in Sepam, they become active in the ladder diagrams.
 Internal variables (for example: V-trans-on_flt, V_close_NO_ord...) are
available for «remote control» of transfer and the creation of partially or
totally specific ladder diagrams.
 The «equation editor» and «Logipam» tools provide this adaptation
flexibility.

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 30


Capacitor bank switchgear control
Objective

 The control logic embedded in the Sepam C86 may be used to


protect and control a circuit breaker and 1 to 4 capacitor bank
switches.
 The capacitors banks may be star-connected or delta-connected.
 In the case of star-connection, Sepam provides short-circuit
protection of the link to the capacitor bank steps and monitors each
link between the 2 stars of each step (fault = unbalance current).
 In the case of delta connection of each capacitor bank, the Sepam
C86 mainly protects against short-circuits (there is no need for a link
between capacitor banks).
 Voltage and frequency monitoring, as well as adaptive thermal
overload protect the capacitors against the destructive effects of
overvoltage and harmonic frequencies (number 13).

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 31


Capacitor bank switchgear control
Description

 Circuit breaker control is linked to capacitor bank control


 voluntary manual control triggers, first of all, the staggered
opening of capacitor bank step switches, followed by the
opening of the circuit breaker.
 When a fault occurs, the circuit breaker opens the circuit and
then orders the simultaneous opening of all the capacitor step
switches.
 Position matching is monitored for each breaking device.
 In «automatic control» mode, an external reactive-energy
regulator can control the use of the capacitor bank steps.

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 32


Capacitor bank switchgear control
Implementation in SFT2841

First operation:
Set the number of capacitor steps
according to the installation,
the connection and capacitor step ratios*

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 33


Capacitor bank switchgear control
Implementation in SFT2841

Second operation:
select circuit breaker control
and capacitor step control.
This is the capacitor
discharge time (given by
the manufacturer)

These times are used to stagger the


opening of the steps.

To adapt control* to different


breaking devices.

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 34


Capacitor bank switchgear control
Implementation in SFT2841

The outputs dedicated to


capacitor bank control are
set up as «latched».
(i.e. not pulse)

Third operation:
assign the inputs and confirm the outputs.
e.g. 3 steps and manual or automatic
control possible by external reactive-energy
regulator.

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 35


Capacitor bank switchgear control
Implementation in SFT2841

Fourth operation:
confirm and set the protection
functions.

Change the messages


when required.

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 36


Capacitor bank switchgear control
Implementation in SFT2841

Fifth operation:
assign the outputs to control
logic and indication.

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 37


Capacitor bank switchgear control
A few comments

 Internal variables are available for «remote


control» and the creation of partially or totally
specific ladder diagrams.
 The «equation editor» and «Logipam» tools
provide some adaptation flexibility.

Sepam advanced control logic EN 2007_01.ppt 38