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# CHAPTER 7

ELECTRICITY AND
MAGNETISM
7.1 ELECTRICITY
Nature of Energy

##  Energy is all around you!

 You can hear energy as sound.
 You can see energy as light.
 And you can feel it as wind.
Nature of Energy
 You use energy when
you:
 hit a softball.
 lift your book.
 compress a spring.
Nature of Energy

## Living organisms need

energy for growth and
movement.
Nature of Energy
 Energy is involved when:
 a bird flies.
 a bomb explodes.
 rain falls from the sky.
 electricity flows in a wire.
Nature of Energy
 What is energy?
 Energy can be defined as the
ability to do work.
 If an object or organism does
work,
the object or organism uses
energy.
Nature of Energy

##  Energy is measured in unit as:

joules (J).
Forms of Energy
 Various forms of energy are:
 Nuclear
 Chemical Stored
energy
 Potential (gravitational & elastic)
 Kinetic

 Electrical

 Heat
Working energy
 Sound

 Light
Potential
Chemical Energy
Sound
Energy Energy

Heat
Electrical Energy
Energy
Kinetic (Motion)
Energy

Light
Energy

FORMS OF ENERGY
1) Chemical Energy

 Energy stored
in food, fuel
or batteries
2) Nuclear Energy
 The energy that is
released when
atoms are broken
down.
 Eg: Uranium
3) Potential Energy
 Energy stored in object because of its position or
condition.
 2 types : gravitational potential energy (raised
above ground)
elastic potential energy (stretched or
compressed)

##  Stretching a rubber band.

 An apple waiting to fall

##  Lifting a brick high in the air.

Gravitational Potential Energy
 Potential energy that is
dependent on height is
called gravitational
potential energy.
Elastic Potential Energy
 Energy that is stored due to being
stretched or compressed is called
elastic potential energy.
4) Kinetic Energy
 The energy of motion is called kinetic energy.
 The faster an object moves, the more kinetic
energy it has.
 Eg: A turning fan
Kinetic Energy
Energy of a moving object
5) Electrical energy
 Energy produced by flow of electrical charges (electric current).
 Examples
i. Dynamos

ii. Lightning

## iv. Batteries or dry cells

v. Solar cells
6) Sound energy
 Energy produced by a vibrating object.
 Examples
i. Beating a drum

iii. Thunder

## iv. Whistling birds

v. Singing a song
7) Light energy
 Energy from an object that emits light
 Examples
i. Lightning

ii. Fire

v. Torch

## vi. Lighted lamps

8) Heat energy
• Energy stored in a hot object.

• Examples

## iv. The heat from the sun

Sources Of Energy

Water

## Fossil fuels Wind

Sources
SourcesOf
Of
Energy
Energy

Radioactive
Sun
substances

Geothermal
Biomass fuels
source
Topic 7 Electricity
Electrostatics

Model of An Atom

## Everything around us is made up of atoms

Atoms
Atoms

Neutron
Proton Electron
Neutral
positive charge (+) Negative charge(-)
(no charge)

Electron
Proton
Neutron

## ITeach – Science Form 3

Charging by Friction
 Electrostatics - study of static electrical charges.
 Two types of electrical charges:
 positive (+)
 negative (-).
 When two different materials are rubbed against one another, the friction
that acts between the materials causes one of the materials to become
positively charged and the other to become negatively charged.
Topic 7 Electricity
Electrostatics

TypesOf
Types OfElectrical
ElectricalCharge
Charge

Negatively
Negatively Gain Lose Positively
Positively
electrons Neutral
Neutral material
material electrons
charged
charged charged
charged

## ITeach – Science Form 3

Topic 7 Electricity
Electrostatics

NeutralTo
Neutral ToNegatively
NegativelyCharge
Charge

rubbing protons.

##  Polythene strip gain electrons from woolen cloth.

After
rubbing  Polythene strip is negatively charge.

## ITeach – Science Form 3

Topic 7 Electricity
Electrostatics

NeutralTo
Neutral ToPositively
PositivelyCharge
Charge

## Neutral Positively charge

Cellulose
acetate strip Woollen cloth

rubbing protons.

##  Cellulose acetate strip loses electrons to the woollen

After cloth.
rubbing  Cellulose acetate strip is positively charge.

## ITeach – Science Form 3

 Materials which have an equal number of
positive and negative charges are classified as
neutral or not charged.
 When two different materials rub against one
another, charging by friction occurs
 During the charging by friction, negative
electrical charges are transferred from one
material to another material.
 The material which gains negative charges
becomes negatively charged while the material
which loses its negative charges becomes
positively charged.
 If two charged objects are held close to each
other, there are force between them
 Like charge repel
 Unlike charges attract

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Topic 7 Electricity
Electrostatics

## The forces when two charged objects that

are brought close together.

## Objects with the same type of charges

repel each other.

ElectrostaticForce
Electrostatic Force

## Objects with different type of charges

attract each other.

## ITeach – Science Form 3

Static electrical charges
Charging by Friction
Charging by friction
Type of charges produces depend to the type of
materials rubbed against each other.

## Positively charged Negatively charged

glass silk
Cellulose acetate Silk, wool
silk polythene
rubber (balloon) Nylon
wool rubber (balloon)
Animation 3.2
Wool
Animation 4.0
Polyester
The electroscope
 Used for the detection of electrical charges.
 The steps in the use of an electroscope to detect an electrical
charge.
(a) Bring the object under test close to the metal cap of a
neutral electroscope.
(b) If the gold leaf is deflected the object is charged. If the gold
leaf is not deflected as the object is neutral or not charged.

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The electroscope
Detecting on electrical charge

## Charged object Neutral object

Everyday Phenomena Related to
Static Electrical Charges
Everyday Phenomena Related to
Static Electrical Charges
 To reduce electrical charges on tankers body, a
tanker has a metal chain attached to its back
 Electrical charges from the tanker flow into
the ground through the metal chain without
causing any spark
Everyday Phenomena Related to
Static Electrical Charges
 When an aeroplane is being refuelled, the aeroplane has a metal
cable connected to the ground.
 During flight, aeroplane accumulates charges due to friction
with air molecules. The tyres are made of conductive rubber, to
conduct the charges to Earth once landing
-Thunderclouds charged due to friction between
water molecules and air molecules.
-Bottom of cloud become (-ve) and top becomes
(+ve).
-Electrons (-ve) move to Earth surface (+ve)
Topic 7 Electricity
Electrostatics

Electrostatics

Lighting

## Electrical charges is produced due to

frictions between air flow and rain clouds.

## Lightning occurs when the negative charges

move to the positive parts of the cloud or to
the Earth’s surface.

## The hair is charged due to frictions between

hair and the plastic comb.

## Hair with the same charges will repel. This is

why our hairs stand on ends.

## ITeach – Science Form 3

Topic 7 Electricity
Electrostatics

SafetyMeasure
Safety MeasureFor
ForStatic
StaticElectrical
ElectricalCharges
Charges

Lighting
 Lightning conductors is installed at
high buildings.
 Lightning conductors provide path for
electrons to flow into the ground.

Aeroplane’s tyres
The types of aeroplane is specially made
to allow charges to flow into the ground
when aeroplane lands.

## Oil tanker’s metal chain

A metal chain is attached to the back of
tankers to allow charges to flow into
the ground.

## ITeach – Science Form 3

Charging materials

## 48 of 5 © Boardworks Ltd 2011

How does static charge build up?

## 49 of 5 © Boardworks Ltd 2011

Electric Current
 A continuous flow of negative charges or electrons is
needed to produces electric current.

##  When a Van de Graaff generator is switched on,

electrical charges will gather on the dome

##  If the charged dome is connected to a galvanometer

and the Earth, electrical charges will then flow
through the galvanometer producing electric current
which causes the pointer of the galvanometer to
deflect
Topic 7 Electricity
Electricity

## Studying The Flow of Electric Current using a Van de

Graaff Generator and A Galvanometer

switched on.

## The dome of the generator

becomes positively charged.

## The positive charges attract

negative charges or electrons to
flow from the Earth to the Dome.

## Flow of electrons produce electric

current which is detected by the
Galvanometer.

## ITeach – Science Form 3

The flow of electrical charges
produces electric current

Van de Graff
generator
Current
galvanometer flow
ELECTRIC CURRENT, VOLTAGE AND
RESISTANCE

## An electric current is the flow of electrons

or the flow of electricity along a conductor
SI unit : ampere (A)

ammeter
ammeter
Voltage (V)

## Voltage is electrical force that is needed to

enable electrons to flow from one point to
another in a conductor

voltmeter
Resistance (R)

## The property of material that prevents or

resists the flow of electrons through the
material is called the resistance

(Ω)

## The bigger the ohm value in a resistor, the

bigger is its resistance
Measuring electricity
Quantity Instrument Unit
Current Ammeter Ampere (A)
Voltage Voltmeter Volt (V)
Resistance _ Ohm ( Ω )
Topic 7 Electricity
Electricity

TheDirection
The DirectionOf
OfCurrent
CurrentAnd
AndElectron
Electron
FlowIn
Flow InAn
AnElectric
ElectricCircuit
Circuit

## Direction ofof electric

Direction electric current
current Directionofofelectron
Direction electronflow
flowfrom
from
flow from
flow from positive
positive terminal
terminal toto negative terminal
negative terminal toto thethe
thenegative
the negativeterminal
terminal positiveterminal
positive terminal

## ITeach – Science Form 3

The electric current
7.3 ELECTRIC
CURRENT, VOLTAGE
AND RESISTANCE
ELECTRIC CURRENT, VOLTAGE
AND RESISTANCE
 The S.I. unit of electric current is ampere (A).
 Electric current is measured using an ammeter
 An electrical source or component, must be
connected in series to measure the electric
current that flows through the electrical source
or component
 The S.I. unit of voltage is volt (V). Measured
using a voltmeter
 To measure the voltage of an electrical
source or component, a voltmeter must be
connected in parallel across the electrical
source or component
 An electrical conductor has the characteristic
of resisting the flow of electric current. The
S.I. unit of resistance is the ohm (Ω).
Voltmeter Ammeter

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Topic 7 Electricity
Electric current, Voltage and Resistance
Electric Current, Voltage And Resistance

Current
Current Voltage
Voltage Resistance
Resistance

Measuring
Ammeter Voltmeter -
Instrument

##  The ammeter is  Voltmeter is connected

connected in series in parallel to other
with other electrical electrical components Resistance ( ohm ) =
Measurement appliances in a circuit. in a circuit. voltage (volt)
 The deflection of the  The deflection of the current (ampere)
ammeter indicates the voltmeter indicates the
value of current. value of voltage.

## ITeach – Science Form 3

7.4
RELATIONSHIP
BETWEEN
CURRENT,
VOLTAGE AND
RESISTANCE
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN CURRENT,
VOLTAGE AND RESISTANCE
 The resistance of a material is the ability of the material to
resist the flow of electric current through it.
 Standard resistor - type of electrical component that has a fixed
resistance
 Variable resistor or rheostat has a resistance that can be
changed
 used to control the brightness of a bulb, the speed of a fan
and the loudness of a radio.
Standard resistors Variable resistors
Topic 7 Electricity
The Relationship Between Current, Voltage And Resistance

## Experiment below is carried

out with fixed voltage,
manipulating resistance and
recording responding current.

Result : The greater the resistance, the smaller the current flows through
the circuit.

Ammeter
Resistance
reading
1 4.5
2 2.25
5 0.8

## ITeach – Science Form 3

Topic 7 Electricity
The Relationship Between Current, Voltage And Resistance

## Experiment below is carried out

with fixed resistance, manipulating
voltage and recording responding
current.

Result : The greater the voltage, the greater the current flows through the
circuit.
Ammeter Voltmeter Voltage
reading reading Current
0.4 4.0 10
0.5 5.0 10
0.8 8.0 10

## ITeach – Science Form 3

 Ohm's Law states that the current flowing
through a conductor is directly proportional to
its voltage.
 Ohm's law is given by the following formula:

= Resistance (Q)
Current (A) I

##  R is a constant known as the resistance of the

conductor.
Voltage versus current graph
Voltage (V)
Gradient of graph:
= voltage
current
= resistance

Current (A)
Ohm's law magic triangle
Example:
1. What is the resistance of a resistor in an
electric circuit if the dry cell supplies 1.5 V
and the ammeter gives a reading of 0.5 A?
Step 1: R= V
I
Step 2: R= 1.5
0.5
Step 3: R= 3 Ω
If you know E and I, and wish to determine R, just eliminate R
from the picture and see what's left:
If you know E and R, and wish to determine I, eliminate I and see
what's left:
if you know I and R, and wish to determine E, eliminate E and see
what's left:
calculate the amount of current (I) in a circuit, given values of voltage
(E) and resistance (R):
calculate the amount of resistance (R) in a circuit, given values of
voltage (E) and current (I):
calculate the amount of voltage supplied by a battery, given values
of current (I) and resistance (R):