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BQS 2174 : MEASUREMENT B

LECTURE 1:
BILL OF QUANTITIES (BQ)
INTRODUCTION

 Bill of quantities assist building contractors to


estimate the cost of a building project before any
work commences.

 The building owner cannot give the contractor an


‘open cheque’ to be made out when the building is
completed.
INTRODUCTION (cont’d)

 The building mush have a definite agreed figure in


advanced before he can commit himself to a
contractual agreement

 The final cost of a building project is unknown at the


design stage, as building are not like article of goods
for sale that stands in a showroom with price labels
attached
INTRODUCTION (cont’d)

 Building contractor are invited to price the


components on the list and so arrive at the total sum
and normally being done under the tendering stage.

 The list is known as a bill of quantities.


INTRODUCTION (cont’d)

 The person who prepares the bill of quantities is


usually the Quantity Surveyor

 The person who preparing the BQ reads the


drawings and should be able to visualize every detail
of the building
INTRODUCTION (cont’d)

The most important things, QS should be


competent to convey the owner the quantity
and quality of material required and the
nature of the labour to be applied to the
materials in the construction of buildings.
The PURPOSEs OF BQ

 BQs enables all contractors tendering for a contract


to price on exactly the same information
 It limits the risks element borne by the contractor to
the rates he enters in the bill and thereby results in
more realistic and competitive tenders.
 It prompts the client and design team to FINALIZE
MOST PROJECT PARTICULARS BEFORE THE
BILL IS PREPARED and ideally based on:
 Full production drawing
 Project specification
The PURPOSEs OF BQ (cont’d)

 After being priced, it provides a useful BASIS FOR


THE VALUATION OF CERTIFIED STAGE
PAYMENTS throughout a contract.
 It gives an itemized list of the component parts of the
building, with a full description and the quantity of
each parts and could form an approximate
CHECKLIST for the successful contractor in
ordering materials and components and
assessing his requirements of labour and other
resources and programming the work.
The PURPOSEs OF BQ (cont’d)

 After being priced, it provides a good basis for the


PREPARATION OF COST ANALYSIS FOR
USE IN THE COST PLANNING OF FUTURE
PROJECTS

 If prepared in ANNOTATED FORM, IT WILL


HELP IN THE LOCATIONAL
IDENTIFICATION OF THE WORK.
The Content Of Bill Of
Quantities

The BQ is divided up into sections for easy


reference.

Typical division of BQ would be as follows:

 PRELIMINARIES
 SPECIFICATION
 QUANTITIES
 PROVISIONAL SUMS
 PRIME COST SUMS
 CONTINGENCIES
Preliminaries

 This section explained the scope of work, client requirement


and any relevant works which not being highlighted in other
section

 They are written with a cash column at the side for the
tenderer to price the item (if required during construction)

 The following are some of the items that would appear in the
BQ:
 Insurances
 Sample of materials
 Provision of temporary office building
 Provision of ‘kongsi’ etc
Specifications

 Description on quality of works and materials in


details.
 For Civil & Structural Works, specification is
provided by engineer.
 In practice is READ IN CONJUNCTION WITH
DRAWINGS. In the case of specification is
contradict with drawings, drawings will superseded
specification.
Provisional Sums

 An approximate sum of money included in a BQ to


COVER THE COST OF WORK TO BE EXERCUTED
BY THE MAIN CONTRACTORS/TENDERER.

 The exact nature/detail of works, which is not known


at the time of tendering and subject to remeasure.

 Examples: Piling
Prime Cost Sums

 An approximate sum of money included in a bill of


quantities to COVER THE COST OF WORK TO
BE EXECUTED BY A SPECIALIST SUB
CONTRACTOR, nominated or selected by the
building owners or his architect.

 Examples : Installation of CCTV or Building


Automation system
Contingencies

 An approximate sum of money included in a bill of


quantities to secure the budget of client
BQ PREPARATION
Stage 1

 Quantities need to be extracted from the drawings


together with the APPROPRIATE DESCRIPTION.

 This process is often termed “BOOKING


DIMENSION” or “TAKING OFF QUANTITIES”.

 Measurer must able to read and scale the drawings


Stage 2

 These squared and totaled quantities are arranged in


predetermined sequence (SMM2)
 Amalgamated all identical items
 This process is called ‘abstracting’
Stage 3

 Final Stage
-Description and quantities are prepared in draft for
ready for typing
- The finished master document is ‘read-over’ before
photocopied and send together with other tender
documents to tenderers
Arrangements of BQ

 Group Method/Elemental Bill


 Northern Method/Trade Bills
Group Method/Elemental Bill
 It reflects a common set of dimensions that any no. of different
trades might share
 Commonly used in Malaysia
 The arrangements of items were set by the RISM (Royal Institute
of Surveyors Malaysia)
 The arrangements are as follow:-
1 Piling Works
2 Work Below Lowest Floor Finish
3 Frame
4 Upper Floor
5 Roof
6 Staircase
7 External Wall
8 Ext Doors & Windows
9 Internal wall & Partition
10 Internal Door
11 Internal Wall Finishes
12 Internal Floor Finishes
13 External Ceiling Finishes
14 Sanitary Appliances
Group Method/Elemental Bill

 Advantages
- Assist the QS with both speed & accuracy of
recording dimensions as it follows the sequence of
events that occur on site.
- Speed up the post-contract works: in preparing the
interim payments
- As cost data in future for reference.
Northern Method/Trade Bills
 Trade by trade approach
 Each item should be measured in trade sequence
 This approach is often used for small projects
 It is inappropriate for longer project – as it involved complex
and tedious measurement.
 The arrangement are as follows:
1 Excavator
2 Concreter
3 Bricklayer
4 Drain Layer
5 Paver
6 Roofer
7 Carpenter
8 Etc
Comparison Between Group & Trade Method

 Group Method – Considered as WBLFF


 Northern Method – considered in 3 different bills
which are excavator, concreter and bar bender.
Tools for Measurement Works

 SMM2
- Provides method of measurement
- A standardized reference for all measurement works
in construction
- Assist all procurement documents to act as checklist
for items in tendering exercise.
Tools for Measurement Works (cont’d)

 SMM2 (Cont’d)
- Basically it provides information on these items:
General Rules
Preliminaries
Demolition
Piling and Diaphragm Wall
Concrete Work
Brick works and Block works
Water proofing and Asphalt work
Etc etc
Tools for Measurement Works (cont’d)

 Dimension Sheet/ Slip Sort


 Scale Ruler
 Scientific Calculator/Calculator
 Color Pencil