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Introduction to Virology

Lecture Outline
 I. Objectives
 II. Historical perspective
 III. What is a virus
– A. Characteristics
– B. Comparison to bacteria
 IV. Nucleocapsid morphology
– A. Helical
– B. Polyhedral
– C. Complex
 V. How viruses multiply
– A. Basic strategy
– B. Bacterial viruses
– C. Animal viruses
– D. Culturing viruses in the lab
 VI. How to classify viruses?
– A. Formal taxonomies
– B. Baltimore Classification
– C. Which means what?
 VII. Viruses and the diseases they cause
– A. Class I: dsDNA
– B. Class II: ssDNA
– C. Class III: dsRNA
– D. Class IV: ss(+)RNA
– E. Class V: ss(-)RNA
– F. Class VI: ss(+)RNA with dsDNA
intermediate
 VIII.Summary of effects of viral infection
on cells
 IX. Oncogenic viruses
 X. Viroids
 XI. Prions
I. Objectives
 What is a virus

 How do viruses multiply

 How are viruses classified

 What are some of the diseases viruses cause


II. Historical Perspective
 A. Ancient times
– 1. poliovirus
– 2. smallpox

 B. More recent history


– 1. 1790’s
» Iwanowski
– 2. 1890’s
» Jenner
III. What is a virus?
 A. Characteristics
B. Comparison to bacteria
1. overall

 Bacteria Virus
 Intracellular parasite (no) yes
 Plasma membrane yes no
 Binary fission yes no
 Filterable no yes
 Possess DNA & RNA yes no
 ATP production yes no
 Ribosomes yes no
 Antibiotic sensitive yes no
 2. Size comparison

 3. Genome size comparison


IV. Nucleocapsid morphology
 A. Helical

 B. Polyhedral

 C. Complex
V. How viruses multiply (13.10)
 A. Basic strategy
– Attachment
– Penetration
– Synthesis of viral proteins and nucleic acids
– Maturation
– Release
B. Bacterial viruses: Fig 13.12
 Lytic vs lysogenic cycle
C. Animal Viruses
D. Culturing viruses in the lab
 1. bacteriophage

 2. animal viruses
VI. How to classify viruses?
 A. Formal taxonomies

 B. Baltimore classification

 C. Which means what?


1. Genome organization
2. Genome organization affects
replication
3. DNA Viruses: Life Cycle:
Fig 13.17
4. Replication of RNA viruses:
Fig 13.17
5. Viral classes
 Class I
– ds DNA
 Class II
– ssDNA (positive and negative)
 Class III
– dsRNA
 Class IV
– ssRNA (positive)
 Class V
– ssRNA (negative)
 Class VI
– ssRNA (positive, replication intermediate
DNA)
Brief note on nomenclature
 Family

 Genus

 Species

 eg. Family Herpesviridae, genus Simplexvirus,


human herpes virus 2
VII. Viruses and the diseases they
cause
 A. Class I: dsDNA Viruses
– 1. Bacterial

– 2. Plant
 3. Human host
– a. Herpesviridae
– b. Adenoviridae
– c. Poxviridae
– d. Papovaviridae
» Papillomavirus
» Polyomavirus
» Vacuolating agent
– e. Hepadnaviridae
B. Class II: ssDNA viruses
 1. Bacteria

 2. Plant

 3. Human
– A. Parvoviridae
C. Class III: dsRNA viruses
 1. Reoviridae
D. Class IV: ss (+) RNA viruses
 1. Picornaviridae

 2. Togaviridae

 3. Flaviviridae

 4. Coronaviridae

 5. Calciviridae
E. Class V: ss (-) RNA viruses
 1. Rhabdoviridae

 2. Filoviridae

 3. Paramyxoviridae

 4. Orthomyxoviridae

 5. Bunyaviridae
Retrovirus Life Cycle: Fig 13.19
F. Class VI: ss (+) viruses
(dsDNA intermediate)
 1. Retroviridae
– Oncoviruses

– Lentivirus
G. Review of Replication
Strategies
VIII. Summary of effects of viral
infection on cells
IX. Oncogenic Viruses
X. Viroids
XI. Prions
 A. Fig 13.21

 B. PrPC vs PrPSc
– Structural differences
– Detergent solubility differences
– Differences in susceptibility to protein
degrading enzymes
Prion diseases of humans and
animals