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Common-Base vs.

Common-Emitter
 Identical quiescent conditions
 Identical voltage gain (except C-E inverts)
 Identical output resistance
 Common-Base input impedance is very low
 Common-Emitter suffers Miller effect
Cascode Configuration

Common-Emitter Amp
High Rin, Low Gain

Common-Base Amp
Low Rin, High Gain
Cascode Quiescent Conditions

VB1 VB2

VB1-0.5
VB2-0.5

(VB1-0.5+VS)/RE

Note, IC1 = IC2


Cascode (I) Common-Base Stage
Voltage Gain
vout
  g m RC
ve

Input impedance
vbe  1 
rin   re   
ie  gm 
From common-
emitter input stage Output impedance
rout  RC
Cascode (II) Common-Emitter Stage
Voltage Gain
vc
To common-base   g m RC   g m re  1
stage, rin = re vin

vout
    1   g m RC    g m RC
vin

Input resistance
rin  RB1 || re

Input capacitance
Cin  1  A C BC  C BE  2C BC  C BE
Upper Cut-Off Frequency
 Cascode configuration
1 1
fC  
2  RS || rin  Cin 2RS  C BE  2C BC 

 Common-emitter amplifier
1 1
fC  
2  RS || rin  Cin 2RS  C BE  1  A C BC 
Practical Cascode Configuration
 To keep Q1 and Q2 out
of saturation:
VC 2  VE 2  VC1  VE1
 VB 2  VB1

 To ensure this, biasing


networks for Q1 and Q2
are often combined.
rin  RB1 || RB 2 || re
Analysis Example
Quiescent conditions
Assume base currents
are negligible.
I RB 3  I RB 2  I RB1
30
  0.1 mA
300
VB1  15  0.1100
 5 V
VB 2  15  0.1 100
 5 V
VE1  VB1  0.5  5  0.5
 5.5 V

VE 2  VB 2  0.5  5  0.5
 4.5 V
+8.6 V

VE1    15
+5 V

I C  I E1 
+4.5 V RE
 5.5    15
-5 V -5.5 V 
12
9.5
  0.8 mA
12
IC = 0.8 mA VC 2  15  I C RC
 15  0.8  8
 8.6 V
Voltage Gain :
vout
  g m  RC || RL 
vin
IC
+5 V
+8.6 V
  RC || RL 
VT
+4.5 V
0.8
  4444
25
-5 V -5.5 V
 140

rin  100 || 100 || re


25
IC = 0.8 mA re  350   10 k
0.8
rin  8 k
Cut-off frequencies

Lower:
1
fC 
+5 V
+8.6 V
2  RS  rin  C1
+4.5 V
 19 kHz

-5 V -5.5 V Upper:
1
fC 
2RS  C BE  2C BC 
IC = 0.8 mA
 10 MHz
Measured Response
Summary – RF Design
 Upper cut-off frequency of a common-emitter
amplifier is set mostly by CBC due to the Miller
effect.
 Increase bandwidth by:
 Reducing gain
 Reducing RS
 Reducing CBC (different transistor)
 Suppressing Miller effect – Cascode configuration