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Metal Joining and

Cutting Processes

7/10/2018 AWS-CWI Seminar 1



Welding and Brazing – both describe methods for joining metals

Weld – “is a localized coalescence of metals or nonmetals

produced either by heating the materials to the welding
temperature, with or without the application of pressure, or by the
application of pressure alone and with or without the use of filler

Coalescence – means “joining together”

• Cutting
- results in the removal or separation of material.

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 Aspects of the various joining and cutting processes which the
successful welding inspector must understand in order to perform
most effectively:

- should realize the important advantages and limitations of each


- should also be aware of those discontinuities which may result

when a particular process is used.

- should also have some knowledge of the equipment requirements

for each process.

- should be somewhat familiar with the various machine controls

and what effect their adjustment will have on the resulting weld

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 Welding Processes further divided into 7 groups

1. Arc Welding
2. Solid-State Welding
3. Resistance Welding
4. Oxyfuel Gas Welding
5. Soldering
6. Brazing
7. Other Welding

 Allied Processes include:

-Thermal Spraying
-Adhesive Bonding
-Thermal Cutting (Oxygen, Arc & Other Cutting)

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Welding Processes

• Shielded Metal Arc Welding

• Gas Metal Arc Welding
• Flux Cored Arc Welding
• Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
• Submerged Arc Welding
• Plasma Arc Welding
• Electroslag Welding
• Oxyacetylene Welding
• Stud Welding
• Laser Beam Welding
• Electron Beam Welding
• Resistance Welding

Brazing Processes

• Torch Brazing
• Furnace Brazing
• Induction Brazing
• Resistance Brazing
• Dip Brazing
• Infrared Brazing

Cutting Processes

• Oxyfuel Cutting
• Air Carbon Arc Cutting
• Plasma Arc Cutting
• Mechanical Cutting

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Welding Processes

• Shielded Metal Arc Welding

• Gas Metal Arc Welding
• Flux Cored Arc Welding
• Gas Tungsten Arc Welding
• Submerged Arc Welding
• Plasma Arc Welding
• Electroslag Welding
• Oxyacetylene Welding
• Stud Welding
• Laser Beam Welding
• Electron Beam Welding
• Resistance Welding

Brazing Processes

• Torch Brazing
• Furnace Brazing
• Induction Brazing
• Resistance Brazing
• Dip Brazing
• Infrared Brazing

Cutting Processes

• Oxyfuel Cutting
• Air Carbon Arc Cutting
• Plasma Arc Cutting
• Mechanical Cutting

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Seminar 77

 Shielded Metal Arc Welding (SMAW)

- often referred to as “stick welding”

- this process operates by heating the metal with an electric arc
between a covered metal electrode and the metals to be joined.

- a primary element of Shielded Metal Arc Welding
- it is made up of a metal core wire covered with a layer of granular
flux held in place by some type of bonding agent.

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Slag – solidified weld metal covered by a layer of converted flux
Shielding gas – is produced when the electrode coating is heated and
decomposed. These gases assist the flux in the shielding of the
molten metal in the arc region.
Features of Electrode coating which classifies the various types of
1) Shielding – the coating decomposes to form a gaseous shield for
the molten metal.
2) Deoxidation – the coating provides a fluxing action to remove
oxygen and other atmospheric gases.
3) Alloying – the coating provides additional alloying elements for
the weld deposit.
4) Ionizing – the coating improves electrical characteristics to
increase arc stability.
5) Insulating – the solidified slag provides an insulating blanket to
slow down the weld metal cooling rate (minor effect).

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1. “ E “ – stands for electrode followed by 4 or 5 digits.

2. The first two numbers refers to the minimum tensile strength of
the deposited weld metal.
3. The third digit refers to the position in which the electrode can
be used.
4. The last number describes the other characteristics which are
determined by coating. This coating will determined its operating
characteristics and recommended electrical current.
5. Electrodes ending in “5”, “6” of “8” are considered low
hydrogen (moisture). They must be stored in their original
factory sealed metal container.

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Electrode Major Alloy Element

- SMAW electrodes used to weld low alloy steels may also have
alpha numeric suffix which is added to the standard designation
after a hyphen.

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SMAW Welding Equipment

- Equipment for SMAW are compose of one lead connected to the

power to the work piece and the opposite lead goes to the
electrode holder.

- The electrode and base metal are by the heat produced from the
welding arc created between the end of the electrode and the
workpiece when they brought close together.

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SMAW Welding Equipment

- The power source for shielded metal arc welding is referred to as

constant current power source having a “drooping”

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- The equipment is relatively simple and inexpensive.

- Portability
- Some of the solid power sources are so small and lightweight
that the welder can easily carry them to the work.
- Due availability of numerous types of electrodes, the process is
- Is considered quite versatile .

- Limitations :
- Welding speed, the fact that the welder will periodically replaced
a consumed electrode.

- This process has been replaced by semiautomatic , mechanized

or automatic process like GMAW and FCAW to increase
production when compared to manual process.

- There is a layer of solidified slag which must be removed

- Low hydrogen electrodes require storage in an appropriate

holding oven to maintain their moisture level.

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Discontinuities that may result in SMAW

- Porosity
the result of presence of moisture content or contamination of
the weld region.

- it can also occur using an arc length which is too high or from
the phenomenon “arc blow”

- Slag Inclusion can also occur in the SMAW because it relies on

flux for weld protection.

- Because SMAW is accomplished primarily , numerous

discontinuities can be expected due to improper manipulation of
the electrode.

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Gas Metal Arc Welding (GMAW)

- commonly referred to as “MIG Welding”

- most commonly employed as a semiautomatic process; however, it is also
used in mechanized & automatic applications as well. Therefore, it is very
well-suited for robotic welding applications.
- it is characterized by a solid wire electrode which is fed continuously through
a welding gun.
- An arc is created between wire and the workpiece to heat and melt the base
material and the filler materials

Type of Gases Use as Shielding:

1. Inert – such as helium and argon
2. Reactive – nitrogen, oxygen or carbon dioxide

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Electrode Wire Classification

“ER” - designate the wire as being both and electrode and a filler metal rod.
“XX” - denotes the filler metal tensile strength of the deposited weld metal in
thousand of pounds per square inch (psi). Ex. “70” = 70,000 psi
“S” – stands for solid wire
“X” – dictate the operating characteristics as well as what properties are to
be expected from the deposited weld metal.

GMAW electrodes typically have increased in deoxidizers such as

manganese, silicon and aluminum to help prevent the formations of porosity.

Note : the wire should must be kept clean and if allowed to remain
in the open , it may become contaminated with rust, oil, moisture , grinding
dust and other materials.
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GMAW Equipment

Types of Current – most of the gas arc welding is done using steady direct
current (DC). It can be accomplished in two ways which:

Electrode Positive (DCEP) – Reverse Polarity

Electrode Negative (DCEN) – Straight Polarity

- almost used for all welding application of this process because its
gives better penetration than electrode negative

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GMAW Equipment

Power Supply – gas metal arc welding uses a constant voltage or constant
potential , power source. This is done using a pre-set value of voltage over
the range of welding currents.

Moving the gun closer to the work

piece will reduce the electrical resistance and
produce an instantaneous increase in current

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GMAW Equipment

A complete set-up include the following

- power source
- wire feeder
- gas source
- welding gun

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Mode of Metal Transfer

1. Spray Transfer
- considered to be the hottest.
- is the best for heavier sections and full penetration weld joints,
as long as they can be positioned in the flat position.
- the cycle begins when the end of the electrodes tapers down to
a point . Small droplets are formed and electromagnetically
pinched off at the tapered point of the elctrode tip. The droplets
are smaller than the electrode and detach more rapidly than globular
- it is generally associated with higher amperage and voltage levels.
- it produces a very stable arc and produces the least amount of

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Mode of Metal Transfer

2. Globular Transfer
- the cycle begins when a droplet forms on the end of the
electrode wire. The molten metal droplet grows in size until it is
larger than the diameter of the electrode . The droplet then
detach from the end of the electrode and transfer across the arc
due to force of gravity.
- occurs at relatively low operating currents and voltages
- this mode of transfer is not suitable for many out of position
welding because of the large droplet size and dependence on
gravity to transfer the filler metal esp. in overhead position.

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Mode of Metal Transfer

3. Short Circuiting Transfer

- the end of electrode wire melts into a small globular which
move towards the puddle . When the tip of this globule comes
in contact the arc is momentarily extinguished . When the wire
touches the workpiece the current increase because a short
circuit is created .
- The filler metal is transferred to the weld puddle only during the
period when the electrode is in contact with the work.
- It uses the lowest welding currents and voltages

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Mode of Metal Transfer

4. Pulsed Current Transfer

- to overcome the work thickness and welding position limitations
of spray transfer, esp. designed power supplies have been
- this power source capable of producing a pulsing current output
which allows to program the exact combination of high and low
current for improved heat control and process flexibility

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GMAW Gun Nomenclature
& Electrode Angle

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- can be effectively used to join or overlay many types of ferrous and

nonferrous metals

- can be used successfully in situation where the presence of hydrogen

could cause problems.

- well suited for high production situations

- the overall operator productivity is greatly improved since no cleaning

is required and by the fact that spool wire does not require changing
nearly as often as the individual electrodes.

- the deposition rate is high which reduces labor cost

- it is a relatively clean process.

- visibility of the process since no lag is present.

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- not well suited for field welding.

- if the base metal is excessively contaminated , the shielding gas alone

- controlling the appropriate gas flow rate,

- the equipment required is more complex than the one used for SMAW

Inherent Problems associated with GMAW process:

- porosity due to contamination or loss of shielding

- incomplete fusion due to the use of short circuiting transfer on heavy


- arc stability caused by worn liners and contact tip.

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- It is very similar to gas metal arc welding in many ways except that
the electrode used is in tubular and contain a granular flux instead of
solid wire used in GMAW.

- the cycle begins when the tubular electrode being fed through the
contact tube of the gun to produce an arc between the electrode and
the work piece. A bead solidified weld metal is deposited covering a
layer of slag.

- Use of external gas is optional depending upon what type of

electrode is used.
- It is usually applied in a semi-automatic process wherein the wire
feeder feeds the electrode wire. The welder manipulated the gun
and adjust welding parameters.

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Electrode Classification

“E” - stands for electrode (E71T-1)

“X1” - first digit denotes the tensile strength of the deposited weld metal in
thousand of pounds per square inch (psi). Ex. E71T-1 = 70,000 psi
“X2” - second digit describes the the position it can be used (E71T-1)
1 – means that the electrode can be used in any position
2 – means that the electrode can be used in flat or horizontal fillet
“T” – tubular electrode
X - last number denotes particular grouping based on chemical
composition of deposited weld metal, type of current, polarity of
operation and requirement for shielding gas.

2 types of electrodes:
1. Self Shielded Electrodes – tubular electrode which does not require
external gas. They are designated by the suffixes 3, 4, 6, 7, 10, 11, 13.

2. Gas Shielded Electrodes – tubular electrode which requires

external gas supply. They are designated by the suffixes 1, 2, 5, 9, &12
Gases typically used for FCAW are CO2, or 75% Ar-25%CO2.
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- The electrode for flux cored arc welding consist of metal sheath surrounding
core of fluxing and/or alloying compound.
- Self Shielded electrodes contains more fluxing compound than gas shielded

Functions of compound contained in the tubular electrode:

1. to form a slag coating that floats on the surface and protects during
2. To provide deoxidizers and scavengers which help purify the solid weld metal.
3. to produce arc stabilizers which produce a smooth welding arc.
4. to add alloying element to the weld metal to increase strength and improve
other properties of the weld
5. To provide shielding gas for self-shielded electrodes.

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FCAW Equipment

Gas Shielded Equipment Self Shielded Equipment

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FCAW Equipment
(Schematic Diagram)

- The FCAW equipment is very similar to GMAW consisting of :
1. power source
2. controls
3. wire feeder
4. welding guns and welding cables

Power Source: the power source can be classified as either constant current or
constant voltage. In the constant voltage arc system , the arc is maintain at a
relatively constant level.

Types of Current – most of the gas arc welding is done using steady direct current
(DC). It can be accomplished in two ways which:

Electrode Positive (DCEP) – Reverse Polarity

Electrode Negative (DCEN) – Straight Polarity
- almost used for all welding application of this process because its gives
better penetration than electrode negative

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Metal Transfer

- metal transfer to most flux cored arc welding resembles a fine globular

- the molten droplets build-up around the periphery or outer metal

sheath of the electrode. The droplet forms on the cored wire, is
transferred and then a droplet is formed at another locations on the
metal sheet.

- the core materials appears to transfer independently to the surface of

the weld puddle.

At low current the droplets tend to be larger than at higher current levels.
If the current is increase, the metal transfer characteristics will change.
The transfer is much more frequent and the droplets becomes small.

At lager droplets there will be splashing action, on contrary using high

current density, the action decreases to smaller droplets and this is why
less visible spatter is made.

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- is an arc welding process which produces a coalescence of metals

by heating them with an arc in between nonconsumable electrode and the
work. Electrode is made up of pure or alloyed tungsten which can stand at
very high temperature even those of the welding arc.

uses shielding, obtained from gas or gas mixture which flows out from the
nozzle surrounding the electrode.

-This process is sometimes called TIG welding which indicates “Tungsten

Inert Gas Welding “ in Europe, it is called WIG welding

-This process may be used for welding of ferrous and nonferrous materials,
also it is an all position welding.

GTAW gas an arc which is clearly visible to the welder. No slag is produced
which might be entrapped in the weld

-- There is no filler metal carried across the arc , so there is no or little spatter

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Principles of Operation

- The gas tungsten arc welding process uses the heat produced by an
between a nonconsumable tungsten electrode and the base metal.
The molten metal, heated weld zone and the electrode are shielded
from the atmosphere by an inert gas supplied through the torch.

-The shielding displaces the air, oxygen, nitrogen don not come in
contact with the molten metal.

-The intense heat develop by the arc melts the base metal and filler
metal to make a weld. As the molten metal cools , coalescence occurs
and the parts are joined. The resulting weld is smooth and uniform and
requires minimum finishing.

-Filler metal is not added when thinner materials , edge joints are
welded. This is known as autogenous welding .
- For thicker material filler rod is generally used.

-The filler metal in GTAW is not transferred across the arc , but is
melted by it.

--The weld metal solidifies behind the arc along the joint and
completes the process.

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Electrode Classification

AWS Tungsten Electrode Classifications

Class Alloy Color

EWP Pure Tungsten Green

EWCe-2 1.8-2.2% cerium Orange
EWLa-1 1% lanthanum Black
EWLa-1.5 1.5% lanthanum Gold
EWLa-2 2.0% lanthanum Blue
EWTh-1 0.8 – 1.2% thorium Yellow
EWTh-2 1.7 – 2.2 % thorium Red
EWZr 0.15 – 0.40% zirconium Brown

These electrodes made of tungsten has the highest melting point of

all metals at 3410 degree celsius. Tungsten retains its hardness even
at red heat.

“E” – stands for electrodes

“W” – chemical designation for tungsten . These letters are followed by

letters and numbers which describes the alloy type.

Pure tungsten is quite often used for the welding of aluminum because
of its ability to form a “ball” end when heated. With a ball end instead
of a sharper point, there is a lower concentration of current which
reduces the possibility of damaging the tungsten.

EWTh-2 type is most commonly used for the joining of ferrous

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Filler Metal for GTAW

-The select of proper filler metals is primarily dependent on the base

materials to be welded.

-- Filler metals are produced with closer control on chemistry , purity,

and quality than are base metals.
-- The designation for filler metal is “ER” means electrode rod. Ans an
alloy number in most cases. Because GTAW filler metals are generally
chosen on the basis of chemical composition, they are also classified
according to chemical composition.

Metals AWS Filler Metals

Specification No.
Copper & Copper Alloys A5.7
Stainless Steel A5.9
Aluminum & Aluminum Alloys A5.10
Surfacing Welding Rods and Electrodes A5.13
Nickel & Nickel Alloys A5.14
Titanium and Titanium Alloys A5. 16
Carbon Steel A5.18
Magnesium Alloys A5. 19
Composite Surfacing Welding Rods and Electrodes A5.21
Zirconium and Zirconium Alloys A5. 24
Low Alloy Steel A5.28

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Shielding Gases

- The characteristics most desirable for shielding purposes are

chemical inertness and an ability to produce smooth arc at hihg current

- Inert shielding gas is used because it will not combine with metal but
will protect it from contaminants . The most common inert gases are
argon and helium which donot from a compound with other elements.

-Gas can have a considerable effect on welding. For best result , the
purity rating should 99.99+%.

Advantages of Argon over Helium Gases:

- Quieter and smoother arc action

-- Lower arc voltage for current settings and arc lenghts

-- Good cleaning action action which is preffred to the welding of

aluminum and magnesium
-- Lower flow rates are required for good shielding

-- Lower cost and more availability

-- Better for welding dissimilar metals

-- Better weld puddle weld control in the overhead position and vertical

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Types of Welding Current

GTAW can be performed using:

DCEP - will result in more heating of the electrode.
DCEN - will tend to heat the base metal more.
- most commonly used for the welding of steels.
AC – alternately heats the electrode and base metal.
- typically used for the welding of aluminum because the
alternating current will increase the
cleaning action to improve weld quality.

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Types of Tungsten Electrodes , Shielding
Gases for Different Metals

Type of Metal Thickness Type of Current Electrode Shielding Gas

Aluminum All AC Pure, Zirconium Ar, Ar-He

Thick Only DCEN Throiated Ar-Hel, Ar
Thin Only DCEP Throiated, Zirconium Ar

Copper +
Copper Alloys All DCEN Thoriated Ar, Ar-He
Thin Only AC Pure , Zorconimum Ar

Alloys All AC Pure, Zirconium Ar
Thin Only DCEP Zirconium, Thoriated Ar

Nickel +
Nickel Alloys All DCEN Thoriated Ar, Ar-He

Stainless Steel All DCEN Thoriated Ar, Ar-He

Plain carbon
+ Low Alloy
Steel All DCEN Thoriated Ar, Ar-He

Titanium AC DCEN Thoriated Ar

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-The equipment for welding used for GTAW consist of a power supply ,
a welding cable, gas shielding system

-There are several items of optional equipment that are often used.
These include the following
-- water circulators

-- foot reostat , programmers, motion devices, oscilators, automatic

voltage controls

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- It will make high quality welds in almost all metals and alloys.

- There is no slag , so very little , if any postcleaning is required.

-There is no filler metal carried arc , so there is no or little spatter.

-Welding can be perform in any position

-Filler metal is always not required heat input.

-Pulsing may be used to reduced to heat input.

-The arc and the weld pool are clearly visible to the welder.

-Because the filler metal does not cross the arc, the amount added is
not dependent on the weld current.


-1. The welding speed is relatively low

-2. The electrode is easily contaminated

-3. It is not very effective for welding of thick section because the
deposition rates are low.
-4. The arc requires protection from wind drafts which can blow the
stream of shielding gas away from the arc.

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- this process is the most efficient I terms of deposition rate .

-SAW is characterize by the use of continuously-fed solid wire electrode

which provides an arc that is totally covered by a layer of granular flux ,
hence the name “submerged “ arc .

-The wire is fed in the weld zone much the same way as GMAW . The major
difference is in the shielding method. With submerged arc welding the
granular flux is distributed ahead of or around the wire elect rode to facilitate
the protection of the molten metal.

- As the welding progresses, in addition to the weld bead, there is a layer a

layer formed slag and still-granular flux covering the solidified weld metal .

-. The still –granular flux can be recovered and reused

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Electrode Classification

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Type of Flux

Selection of type of flux for a welding application should be selected

depending on the three general requirements:

-The flux should produce weld metal having the mechanical and
chemical properties necessary for the application
-it should be a controlling factor in producing the desired shapes of the
weld bead.
-It should meet the requirements at the lowest possible cost.

-Types of flux:
-1. Fuse flux- a mixture of silica, metal oxides, and portion of halide salt

-2. Agglomerated Flux – the ingredients are selected , ground to size

and dry mixed . A ceramic binder is added followed by wet mixing.
-3. Bonded flux – manufactured similar to agglomerated flux except a
silicate binder is added and relatively low bonding temperature is used.

-Flux Particle size:

-- choice of flux particle size is dependent on the type of flux, travel
speed, and type of weld but the most important factor is the amount of
-Smaller Size : in High current condition to improve arc stability and
promote sound uniform welds.
-Larger Size : for rusty or oily base metals to liberate gases created as
the foreign materials burn.

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The major equipment components for SAW are:

1. Power Source
2. Wire Feed
3. Mechanism and Control
4. Welding torch
5. Cable assembly
6. Flux hopper
7. Feeding mechanism

The welding is performed with a constant voltage power source .

The process can be operated using Direct Current or Alternating Current.

When direct current is used, the polarity can be changed :

DCEP – reverse polarity – electrode positive
concentrates most of the heat on the base metal providing deep
penetration and better control of bead contour.

DCEN – straight polarity – electrode negative

provide high deposition rates by concentrating most of the heat on the
electrode , but produces less penetration into the base metals

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Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

Advantages of Submerged Arc Welding:

1. Has found acceptance in many industries and it can be performed on

numerous metals.
2. Due to the high rate of weld metal deposition, it has shown to be quite
effective for overlaying or building-up material surfaces.

3. High deposition rate. It can typically deposit weld metal more efficiently
than any of the more common processes.
4. The SAW process also has high operator appeal because of the lack of a
visible arc which allows the operator to control the welding without the
need for a filter lens and other heavy protective clothing.
5. Less smoke is generated than with some of the other processes.
6. Desirable for many applications is its ability to enetrate deeply.

Disadvantages of Submerged Arc Welding:

1. it can only be done in a position where the flux can be supported in the
weld joint.

2. there may be a need extensive fixturing and positioning equipment.

3. flux which covers the arc during welding , while it does a good job of
protecting the welder from the arc; it also prevents the welder from
seeing exactly where the arc is positioned with respect to the joint.
With a mechanized setup, it is advisable to track the entire length of the
joint without the arc or the flux to check for alignment. If the arc is not
properly directed, incomplete fusion can result.

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Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)


1. The first has to with the granular flux.

It is necessary to protect the submerged arc welding flux from moisture. It
may be necessary to store the flux in heated containers prior to use. If flux
becomes wet, porosity and underbead cracking may result

2. Another characteristic problem of SAW is solidification cracking. This

results when the welding conditions provide a weld bead having an
extreme width-to-depth ratio. That is if the bead’s width is much greater
than its depth, or vice versa, centerline shrinkage cracking can occur
during solidification.

3. Lack of fusion or lack of penetration may occur due to positioning of


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Submerged Arc Welding (SAW)

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PAW – is defined as ionized gas. Is a process that fuses the workpiece

metals by heat from an arc between the electrode and constricting nozzle.
The ionization of the gas issuing from the torch produces plasma.

-As in GTAW, plasma makes use of nonconsumable electrode. A chamber

surrounds the electrodes on the PAW torch. The chamber fills the gas that is
heated by the arc to a temperature where the gas ionizes and conduct

- An additional and separate gas , shields the weld puddle from the

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Comparison of GTAW & PAW

1. Both GTAW and PAW uses the same type of power source, but due to
the design of the torch, there is difference in he amount of heating and

2. Both GTAW and PAW torches use tungsten electrodes for the creation of
arc. But the PAW torch has a copper orifice within the ceramic nozzle. There
is ionization of gas “plasma” which is forced through this orifice and past the
welding arc resulting in the constriction of the arc.

3. In PAW the this constriction causes the arc to be more concentrated and
more intense.

4. The GTAW arc is gentle mist setting, PAW arc would provide a
concentrated stream of water having a grater force.

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Categories of Plasma Arc Operation

Transferred Arc – the arc is created between the tungsten electrode and the

- it is generally used for both welding and cutting of

conductive materials

NonTransferred Arc – occurs between the tungsten electrode and the

copper orifice.

- it is generally preferred for cutting of nonconductive

materials and for welding of materials when the amount of
hating of the work piece must be minimized.

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- Equipment for GTAW and PAW are almost identical. However additional
elements are necessary including the Plasma Control Console and
Plasma Gas. A constant power –current type DC power source.

Control Console – contains a high frequency arc starter, torch protection

devices, an ammeter, direct reading gas flow mete.

Plasma Gas – Argon is recommended plasma for general use.

Shielding Gas – Argon , and helium are popular shielding gas choice

Filler Metal – may or may not be used. It is normally used except when very
thin metal is to be welded. The composition of the filler metal should match the
base metal

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Internal Structure of a Typical Manual PAW Torch

Torch – Contains a tungsten electrode, a constricting copper orifice or

opening, along with the required gas and water passages.

It uses a secondary gas , argon, argon/hydrogen or helium

which assist in shielding to minimize oxidation of the weld.

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Primary Application of PAW

- The primary application of PAW are similar to those for GTAW

- It is used for same materials and thickness.
- It is extensive used for full penetration welds in materials up to ½” in.

Key Hole Welding

– It is performed on a square butt joint with no root opening . The
concentrated heat of the arc penetrates through the materials to form a

- The keyhole moves along the joint melting the edges of the base metal
which then flow together and solidified after the welding arc passes.

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1. Low amperage welding capability.

2. Arc consistency and gentle arc starting produce consistent welds.
3. Stable arc in arc setting and low amperage welding
4. Reduces heat affected zone , improved weld quality
5. Allows faster welding speed and therefore less distortion.
6. The keyhole welding is a positive indication of complete penetration and
weld uniformity.
7. The presence of collimated arc will permit relatively large change to work
distance without any changes in its melting capacity.

Disadvantage of PAW:

1. It is limited to the effective joining of materials 1 in. or less in thickness.

2. The initial cost of the equipment is slightly greater than that for GTAW,
primarily because there is additional apparatus required.
3. The use of PAW may require greater operator skill than would be the
case for GTAW due to the more complex equipment setup.

Problems that may be encountered with this process are two types of metal

1. Tungsten inclusion – may result from too high current levels

2. Tunneling – this occurs when the keyhole is not completely filled.

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• exhibits the highest deposition rate of any of the welding processes.

• is characterized by the joining of members which are placed edge to edge
so that the joint is vertical.
• The welding is done in a single pass such that the progression is from the
bottom to the top of the joint, without interruption.
• It relies on heating from the electrical resistance of the molten flux to melt
the base and filler metals.
• ESW is not considered an arc welding process.
The process does use an arc to initiate the operation; however, that arc is
extinguished once there is sufficient flux melted to provide the heating to
maintain the welding operation as it progresses upward along the joint.
a welding process in which consumable electrode are fed into a joint
containing flux, the current melts the flux and the flux in turn melts the faces
of the joint and the electrode .

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ESW Equipment

• ESW is used when very heavy sections are being joined. It is essentially
limited to the welding of carbon steels in thicknesses greater than ¾ in.

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• Advantages of ESW:

1. Its high deposition rate (major advantage)

2. Ability to weld thick materials
3. This process is safe and clean with no arc flash and low weld spatter
4. There is no special joint preparation
5. There is no tendency for any angular distortion to occur during or after
welding, so alignment is maintained.
6. Multiple electrode can be used or a metal strip the increase the deposition
even more.

Disadvantage of ESW:

1. Extensive time required to setup and get ready to weld. There is

tremendous amount of time and effort required to position the work pieces
and guides before any welding takes place.
2. Gross porosity.
3. There is a possibility of getting centerline cracks due to the weld metal
4. Also, due to the tremendous amount of heating, there is a tendency for
grain growth in the weld metal. These large grains may result in degradation
of the weldment’s mechanical properties.

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Oxyacetylene Welding (OAW)

Acetylene – is the only gas capable fuel gas capable of high enough
temperatures for effective welding.
Acetylene – exists in the cylinder dissolved in liquid acetone.

With OAW, the energy for welding is created by a flame, so this process is
considered to be a chemical welding method.

Just as the heat is provided by a chemical reaction, the shielding for

oxyacetylene welding is accomplished by this flame as well. Therefore, no flux
or external shielding is necessary.

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OAW – Equipment

OAW Equipment include the following:

1. Oxygen Tank - is hollow high pressure container capable of withstanding

with pressure approximately 2200 psi.

2. Acetylene Tank – is filled with a porous material similar to cement , it Is

dissolved in liquid acetone
- its is unstable at pressure exceeding 15 psi and an explosion
could occur.
- It should remain upright to prevent drawing of liquid.

3. Pressure Regulators – reduces the high internal tank pressure to working


4. Torch - include a mixing section, where acetylene and oxygen combine

to provide the necessary mixture. The ration of these gases can
be altered by the adjustment of two separate control valves.

5. Connecting Hoses – connect the regulator to the torch .

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OAW – Equipment

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OAW Filler Metal Designation
and Application

- RG – 45 or RG-60
“R” - stands for rod
“G” - Stands for gas “
“45” - relate to the minimum tensile strength of the weld deposit in
thousand of pound per square inch. Ex: 45= 45000 psi

it is mainly used for the welding of thin steel sheet and small diameter
steel piping.
Applied also in maintenance situation.

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Mixture of Gases
& Flame Characteristics

Pure Acetylene Flame = a flame

without the addition of oxygen

Neutral Flame = a proper mixture of

oxygen and acetylene used for carbon
steel welding

Oxidizing Flame = produce due o

higher amount of oxygen

Carburizing Flame = produce due o

higher amount of Acetylene

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1. Relatively inexpensive.
2. Can be made very portable.
3. N o electricity Required


1. The flame does not provide as concentrated a heat source as can

be achieved by an arc.
2. Lower heat concentration results in a relatively slow process.
3. OAW requires a substantial skill level for best results.
4. Primarily related to either improper manipulation or adjustment of
the flame.
5. Care must be taken to direct the flame properly to assure
adequate fusion.
6. If the flame is adjusted such that an oxidizing flame or carburizing
is produced, weld metal properties could be degraded.

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Stud Welding

Stud Welding (SW)

- This method is used to weld studs, or attachments, to some metal surface.

- Is considered to be an arc welding process because the heat for welding is

generated by an arc between the stud and the base metal.

The process is controlled by a mechanical gun which is attached to a power

supply through a control panel. So, welding is accomplished very easily and
repetitively. The process is performed in four cycles which are timed and
sequenced by the control box once the stud is positioned and the trigger is

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Principles of Operation

1- The stud gun with the stud and ferrule in position

2- being positioned against the work piece
3- the trigger has been pulled to initiate the current flow, and the gun lifts the
stud to maintain the arc.
4- the arc quickly melts the studs end and a spot on the work piece beneath
the stud. Timer in the gun cut ff the current and gun mainspring plunges the
stud into the work piece.

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Stud welding equipment of the following:

1. DC power source
2. A control unit
3. A stud welding gun

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Advantages of Stud Welding

1. Little operator skill is required.

2. SW is a tremendously economical and effective method for welding
various attachments to a surface.
3. Its use eliminates the need for hole drilling, tapping or tedious
manual welding.
4. Once welded, a stud can easily be inspected.

Disadvantages of Stud Welding

1. An electrical or mechanical malfunction could produce poor weld

2. Stud shape is limited to some configuration which can be held in the
gun’s chuck.
3. SW has two possible discontinuities: lack of 360° flash and
incomplete fusion at the interface. Both are caused by improper
machine settings or insufficient work connections.
4. Presence of water or heavy rust or mill scale on the base metal
surface could also affect the resulting weld quality.

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Laser Beam Welding (LBW)

Is a fusion joining process that produces coalescence of materials with the

heat obtained from a concentrated beam of coherent, monochromatic light
impinging on the joint to be welded.

The high energy of the laser beam causes some of the metal at the joint to
vaporize, producing a “keyhole,” which is surrounded by molten metal.

The laser beam has a very small cross section and does not diverge, or
broaden, much. Thus, it can be transported over relatively long distances
through fiber optics and mirrors.

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Laser Beam Welding Equipment

Laser device – is the main element for laser welding and cutting equipment
Laser- is an acronym for “light amplification by stimulated emission of of
The laser beam has a very small cross section and does not diverge or
broaden much. Thus it can be transported over long distances through fiber
optics and mirrors.
The beam is focused to a very small spot size at the workpiece through the
use of either lenses or reflective type focusing. These provide the high level
of beam power density.
The laser beam produces a very narrow and deep weld bead.

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LBW Application

LBW - is a noncontact process and thus require that no pressure applied.

- inert gas is often employed to prevent oxidation of the molten pool.
- filler metal is occasionally used.

Major advantages of Laser Beam Welding:

1. Low overall heat input results in less grain growth in the heat-affected
zone and less workpiece distortion.
2. High depth-to-width ratios (on the order of 10:1) are attainable when
the weld is made in the keyhole welding mode.
3. Single pass laser welds have been made in materials up to 1-1/4 in.
(32 mm) thick.
4. The laser beam can be focused on a small area, permitting the joining
of thin, small, or closely spaced components.
5. A wide variety of materials can be welded, including combinations of
materials with dissimilar physical properties.

Disadvantages of Laser Beam Welding:

1. Joints must be accurately positioned under the beam.

2. Square groove butt joints are required.
3. Work pieces must often be forced together.
4. The high reflectivity and high thermal conductivity of some materials, such
as aluminum and copper alloys, can affect their weldability with lasers.
5. The fast cooling rates can produce cracking and embrittlement in the
heat-affected zone and can trap porosity in the weld metal.
6. With higher power lasers, a plume of vapors is often produced above the
weld joint, which interferes with the ability of the laser to reach the joint.
A plasma control device is often required, which utilizes an inert gas to
blow away the plume of vapors.
7. Equipment is expensive, typically in the $100,000 range.

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Electron Beam Welding (EBW)

EBW is a fusion joining process that produces coalescence of materials

with heat obtained by impinging a beam of high-energy electrons onto the
joint to be welded.

Electrons are generated by eating the negatively charge emitting cathode

or “filament” to its thermionin emission temperature causing the electron
to boil off and be attracted to positively charged anode.

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EBW – Equipment

The heart of the electron beam welding is the welding gun.

The basic equipment include:

- Vacuum chamber
- Control s
- Electron Gun

Four Basic Welding Variables:

1. Beam accelerating voltage - 30 to 175 kV
2. Beam current - 50 to 1000mA
3. Beam focal spot size
4. Welding travel speed

Electron beam welding has unique performance capabilities. The high-

power densities and outstanding control solve a wide range of joining

Advantages of Electron Beam Welding:

1. Low overall heat input results in less grain growth in the heat-affected
zone and less workpiece
2. High depth-to-width ratio (on the order of greater than 10:1) are
attainable when the weld is
made in the keyhole welding mode.
3. Single pass electron beam welds have been made in steels up to 4 in.
(102 mm) thick.
4. A high-purity environment (vacuum) for welding minimizes
contamination of the metal by oxygen
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and nitrogen.
EBW – Equipment

The basic equipment include:

- Vacuum chamber
- Controls
- Electron Gun - heart of the electron beam welding

Four Basic Welding Variables:

1. Beam accelerating voltage - 30 to 175 kV
2. Beam current - 50 to 1000mA
3. Beam focal spot size
4. Welding travel speed

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EBW Applications

- Like laser beam welding , EBW is done in the “keyhole”, mode which
produces a very deep and narrow weld beads.

- In most application the weld penetration is formed is much deeper than

it is wide and the heat affected zone is very narrow also.

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EBW Advantages

1. Low overall heat input results in less grain growth in the HAZ and less
piece distortion.

2. High depth to width ration are attainable in keyhole welding

3. Single pass electron beam welds have been made up to 4 inch.

4. A high purity environment for welding minimize contamination of the metal

by oxygen and nitrogen.

5. Rapid travel speeds are possible because of the high melting rates
associated with this concentrated heat source.

6. Hermetic closures can be welded with the high or medium-vacuum

modes of operation while retaining a vacuum inside the component.

7. The beam of electrons can be magnetically deflected to produce various

shaped welds and magnetically oscillated to improve weld quality or
increase penetration.

8. The focused beam of electrons has a relatively long depth of focus, which
will accommodate a broad range of work distances.

9. Full penetration, single-pass welds with nearly parallel sides, and

exhibiting nearly symmetrical shrinkage, can be produced.

10. Dissimilar metals and metals with high thermal conductivity such as
copper can be welded.

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EBW Disadvantages

1. Joints must be accurately positioned under the beam.

2. Square groove butt joints are required.

3. Workpieces must often be forced together.

4. The fast cooling rates can produce cracking and embrittlement in the
heat-affected zone and can trap porosity in the weld metal.

5. Equipment is expensive, typically in the $1,000,000 range.

6. For high and medium vacuum welding, work chamber size must be large
enough to accommodate the assembly operation. The time needed to
evacuate the chamber will influence production costs.

7. Because the electron beam can be deflected by magnetic fields,

nonmagnetic or properly degaussed metals should be used for tooling
and fixturing close to the beam path.

8. With all modes of EBW, radiation shielding must be maintained to ensure

that there is no exposure of personnel to the X-radiation generated by EB
9. Adequate ventilation is required with nonvacuum EBW, to ensure proper
removal of ozone and other noxious gases formed during this mode of
EB welding.

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Resistance welding (RW)

- is a group of welding processes that produces coalescence of the joining

surfaces with heat obtained from resistance of the workpieces to the flow
of welding current in a circuit of which the workpieces are a part, and by
the application of pressure.

- It is typically used for sheet metal applications, up to about 1/8 in. (3 mm)
thick. No filler metals or fluxes are used.

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Principles of Operations

3 Major Resistance Welding Processes

1. Resistance spot welding (RSW)

-The most common of these process is RSW

1.1 The electrode are typically cylindrical in shape, but ca have various

1.2 The two electrode apply force to hold the two pieces of sheet metal in
intimate contact.

1.3 Current is then pass through the electrode and the work pieces.

1.4 Resistance to the flow of current produces heat at the faying surfaces
forming a weld nugget.

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2. Resistance Seam welding (RSEW)
- a continues seam weld is made that is actually a series of overlapping
spot welds

2.1 The electrodes are typically rotating wheels between which the two
sheets pass.
2.2 Current and pressure are applied in a timed manner to produce a
continues seam weld.

3. Projection welding (PW)

- one sheet has projection or dimples formed in it.

3.1 When the two sheets are placed together , the current is
concentrated to pass through the projection at the faying surface.
3. 2 Large, flat electrodes are used on opposite sides of the sheet.

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Main Welding Variables

1. Welding Current

2. Welding Time

3. Electrode Force

4. Electrode Materials and Design.

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Brazing Processes

- is accomplished without any melting of the base metals.

- the heat applied is only sufficient for the melting of the filler metal.

- Filler metals melting above 840°F (450° C) are considered braze

materials, while those melting below this temperature are used for

When properly applied, the braze joint can develop a strength equal to
or greater than the base metal

1. The braze joint is designed to have a large surface area.

2. The clearance, or gap, between the two pieces to be joined is kept
to a minimum.

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Principles of Operation

1. Most important step is to thoroughly clean the joint surfaces,

otherwise inadequate joint may result

2. Once the part is are cleaned and fitted together, heat is applied.

3. Heat the part above the melting point of the filler materials.

4. The filler metal will be drawn into the joint when placed in contact
through capillary action.

Capillary action – is a phenomenon which causes the liquid to be pulled

into a tight spaces between two surfaces. If the surface is no properly
cleaned the ability of the capillary action will be reduce that the braze
materials will not be drawn sufficiently.

Brazing is used in many

industries, especially aero-
space and heating and air
conditioning. It can be applied
to join virtually all metals,
and can also be used to
join metals to nonmetals.

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Brazing Filler Materials

AWS Brazing Filler Metal Classification

Designation Primary Element

BAISi Aluminum Silicon
BCuP Copper-Phosphorus
Bag Silver
BAu Gold
BCu Copper
RBCuZn Copper-Zinc
BMg Magnesium
BNi Nickel

“B” – Braze alloy designation

Chemical symbol – prominent chemical elements included.
“R” – in front of “B” denotes their chemistry is identical with Copper
and Copper Alloy Gas Welding Rods.

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Methods Brazing Processes

1. Torch Brazing (TB) – The most familiar method of brazing uses a

oxyfuel flame to accomplish the heating.

2. Furnace Brazing (FB) – is performed in a furnace often with a

controlled atmosphere.

3. Induction Brazing (IB) – relies on the heat produced in a metal

when placed within an induction coil.

4. Resistance Brazing (RB) – is accomplished by heating the metal

using its own inherent electrical resistance.

5. Dip Brazing (DB) – the parts to be joined are immersed in some

type of molten bath to provide he necessary heating . This bath
can be either molten braze filler metal.

6. Infrared Brazing (IRB) – releis on heating provide by radian energy.

The joint to be brazed is heated using a high intensity infrared red
light source.

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Advantages of Brazing:

1. It can be used to join dissimilar metals.

2. It is well-suited for the joining of metals which simply don’t lend
themselves to welding of any type.
3. Equipment can be relatively inexpensive.
4. Since brazing uses lower temperatures than welding, thin metals
are readily joined without as much fear of melt-through or distortion.

Disadvantages of Brazing:

1. The parts must be extremely clean prior to brazing.

2. The joint design must provide sufficient surface area to develop the
required strength.

Several inherent problems associated with brazing:

1. The formation of voids or unbonded areas within the joint.

2. When too much localized heat is applied to the base metal,
resulting in melting and erosion of the base metal.
3. Corrosion of the base metal by some of the extremely reactive
fluxes; flux residue must be removed to avoid subsequent corrosion
of the joint or base metal.

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Cutting Processes

1. Oxyfuel Gas Cutting – uses an oxyfuel flame to heat the metal to a

temperature at which it will readily oxidize or burn.
- it is chemical cutting process.
- kindling temperature 1700ºF (925ºC)

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- The equipment used for OAW is essentially the same for OFC, the only
difference is the welding tip and is now cutting attachment and includes
an additional lever or valve to turn on the cutting oxygen.

- The cutting tip which is attached at the end of the torch is consists of
series of holes around where the oxyfuel gas mixture flows to provide

- At the center of these holes is a single cutting-oxygen gas mixture passage.

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Mechanized OFC

- Can produce cuts of reasonable accuracy. When compared to

mechanical cutting, OFC is more economical. Multiple torch
system can be used to cut several layers at once.

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OFC Cutting Operation

1. Applying heat to the part using the preheat flame which is an

oxyfuel mixture until it each its oxidation temperature.
2. Cutting oxygen is turned on to oxidized the hot metal.

- This oxidation of the metal produces a tremendous amount of heat.

Kerf – the width of the cut produced

Drag – the amount of offset between the cut entry and exit points

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Effects of Chemical Elements on OFC

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In order for an oxyfuel cut to be effectively accomplished, the material
must comply with the following criteria:

1. It must have the capability of burning in a stream of oxygen.

2. Its ignition temperature for burning must be lower than its melting
3. Its heat conductivity should be relatively low.
4. The metal oxide produced must melt at some temperature below the
melting point of the metal.
5. The formed slag must be of low viscosity

Advantages of OFC:

1. Its relatively inexpensive and portable equipment, making it feasible for

use in both shop and field applications.
2. Cuts can be made on thin or thick sections; ease of cutting usually
increases with thickness.
3. When mechanized, OFC can produce cuts of reasonable accuracy.
4. When compared to mechanical cutting methods, oxyfuel cutting of
steels is more economical.

Disadvantages of OFC:

1. The finished cut may require additional cleaning or grinding to prepare

it for welding.
2. Since it requires high temperatures, there may be a heat-affected zone
produced having a very high hardness.
3. Even though cuts can be reasonably accurate, they still don’t compare
to the accuracy possible from mechanical cutting methods.
4. The flame and hot slag produced result in safety hazards for personnel
near the cutting operation.
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Air Carbon Arc Cutting (CAC-A)

Air Carbon Arc Cutting (CAC-A) – This process uses a carbon electrode to
create an arc for heating, along with a high pressure stream of compressed
air to mechanically remove the molten metal.


To cut a metal , the carbon electrode is brought close to the work to create
an arc. Once the arc melts the metal. The stream of compressed air is
initiated and blows away the molten metal to produce gouge or cut.

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Equipment for CAC-A consist of the following:

- Special Electrode Holder - which is attached to the constant power source

- Compressed Air

Any nonflammable gas could be used but compressed air is available and far
the least expensive.

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1. In can be used to remove the defective areas of the weld metal.

2. It is effectively used a a joint weld preparation tool.
3. Use for machining of rough surfaces of large complex parts.
4. In most industries, in can be used to cut any metal.

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Advantages of CAC-A:

1. It is a relatively efficient method for removal of metal.

2. It has the ability to cut any metal.
3. The equipment costs are minimal.

Disadvantages of CAC-A:

1. It is inherently a very noisy and dirty process.

2. A fire watch may be also required to make sure the gouged metal
droplets do not create a fire hazard
3. The finished cut may require some cleanup prior to additional
4. Carburization of the cut may occur.

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Plasma Arc Cutting (PAC)

Plasma cutting is a process that is used to cut steel and other metals (or
sometimes other materials) using a plasma torch. The process uses a high
temperature, high velocity stream of ionized gas to melt and blow metal
from the line of cut.

This process is similar in most respect to PAW. The difference is to remove

the metal rather than join pieces.

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PAC Operation


To cut a metal ,similar to PAW operation, but the arc is even more
constricted, with the plasma temperature so high that the arc can cut any

1. In this process, an inert gas (in some units, compressed air) is blown at
high speed out of a nozzle

2. At the same time an electrical arc is formed through that gas from the
nozzle to the surface being cut, turning some of that gas to plasma.

3. The plasma is sufficiently hot to melt the metal being cut and moves
sufficiently fast to blow molten metal away from the cut.

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Equipment for PAC:

- The equipment requirements are similar to the one used in welding , but the
power required is much higher than the one used in welding.
- The transferred arc torch is used because of the increased heating of the
base .

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1. Its primary application is for cutting of no-ferrous metals

2. It is also use for cutting of carbon steels

Advantages of PAC:

1. The cuts are very clean, with little oxidation.

2. Is considered much safer in any work environment than gas cutting.
3. The heating action is in short time only depending on the thickness of
the material.
4. Distortion is greatly reduced especially to a very thin materials
5. A plasma torch can cut through rusty metal, painted, or even with
6. It can be cut any type of metal esp. nonferrous
7. Recent machines are now using compressed air which is far least
8. Increased in cutting speed

Disadvantages of PAC:

1. Higher cost of equipment as compared to oxyfuel gas cutting.

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Advantages of CAC-A:

1. It is a relatively efficient method for removal of metal.

2. It has the ability to cut any metal.
3. The equipment costs are minimal.

Disadvantages of CAC-A:

1. It is inherently a very noisy and dirty process.

2. A fire watch may be also required to make sure the gouged metal
droplets do not create a fire hazard
3. The finished cut may require some cleanup prior to additional
4. Carburization of the cut may occur.

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