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# Forward Vehicle dynamics

Subject: Straight motion of an ideal rigid vehicle and study of the load variation
under the tires.
Parked Car on a Level Road

Vehicle Dynamics
𝒂𝟐 𝒂𝟏 C: center of mass
L = 𝒂𝟏 + 𝒂𝟐 = wheel base
m: mass (kg)
g: gravity acceleration
9.81 m/s2
C
𝑭𝒛𝟏 reaction force
under each front wheel
𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐 𝒎𝒈 2𝐅𝐳𝟏 𝑭𝒛𝟐 : reaction force
under each rear wheel
𝑭𝒛𝟏 = ?

1
𝑭𝒛𝟐 = ?
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Parked Car on a Level Road
𝒂𝟐 𝒂𝟏

Vehicle Dynamics
C

𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐 𝒎𝒈 2𝐅𝐳𝟏

𝟏 𝒂𝟐
෍ 𝑭𝒛 = 0 𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟏 + 𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐 − 𝒎𝒈 = 𝟎 𝑭𝒛𝟏 = 𝒎𝒈
𝟐 𝒂𝟏+𝒂𝟐

- 𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟏𝒂𝟏 + 𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐𝒂𝟐 = 𝟎 𝟏 𝒂𝟏
෍ 𝑴𝒚 = 0 𝑭𝒛𝟐 = 𝒎𝒈
𝟐 𝒂𝟏+𝒂𝟐 2

Equilibrium equations
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Parked Car on a Level Road
𝒂𝟐 𝒂𝟏

Vehicle Dynamics
C

𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐 𝒎𝒈 2𝐅𝐳𝟏

𝟏 𝒂𝟐
𝑭𝒛𝟏 = 𝒎𝒈
𝟐 𝑳
L = 𝒂𝟏 + 𝒂𝟐
𝟏 𝒂𝟏
𝑭𝒛𝟐 = 𝒎𝒈 3
𝟐 𝑳
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Example 1

## Car mass: 890 kg 𝒂𝟐 𝒂𝟏

Vehicle Dynamics
a1 = 0.78 m
L = 2.35 m

𝟏 𝒂𝟐
𝑭𝒛𝟏 = 𝒎𝒈 C
𝟐 𝑳

𝟏 𝒂𝟏
𝑭𝒛𝟐 = 𝒎𝒈 𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐 𝒎𝒈 2𝐅𝐳𝟏
𝟐 𝑳

## - The force under each front wheel is: ?

𝟏 𝒂𝟐 𝟏 𝟐.𝟑𝟓−𝟎.𝟕𝟖
𝑭𝒛𝟏 = 𝒎𝒈 = ∗ 𝟖𝟗𝟎 ∗ 𝟗. 𝟖𝟏 ∗ = 𝟐𝟗𝟏𝟔. 𝟓 𝑵
𝟐 𝑳 𝟐 𝟐.𝟑𝟓
- The force under each rear wheel is: ? 4
𝟏 𝒂𝟏 𝟏 𝟎.𝟕𝟖
𝑭𝒛𝟐 = 𝒎𝒈 = ∗ 𝟖𝟗𝟎 ∗ 𝟗. 𝟖𝟏 ∗ = 𝟏𝟒𝟒𝟗 𝑵
𝟐 𝑳 𝟐 𝟐.𝟑𝟓
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Example 2
𝒂𝟐 𝒂𝟏

Fz1 = 2000 N

Vehicle Dynamics
Fz2 = 1800 N
Wheel base L = 2.34 m
C
- Mass center C position
(𝒂𝟏 𝒂𝟐) = ? 𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐 𝒎𝒈 2𝐅𝐳𝟏
,

𝟏 𝒂𝟐 𝑭𝒛𝟏 𝟐𝟎𝟎𝟎
𝑭𝒛𝟏 = 𝒎𝒈 𝒂𝟐 = 2𝑳 𝒂𝟐 = 2*2.34*
𝟐 𝑳 𝒎𝒈 𝟐(𝟐𝟎𝟎𝟎+𝟏𝟖𝟎𝟎)

𝟏 𝒂 𝑭𝒛𝟐 𝟏𝟖𝟎𝟎
𝑭𝒛𝟐 = 𝒎𝒈 𝟏 𝒂𝟏 = 𝟐𝑳 𝒂𝟏 = 2*2.34*
𝟐 𝑳 𝒎𝒈 𝟐(𝟐𝟎𝟎𝟎+𝟏𝟖𝟎𝟎)

𝒂𝟐 = 1.2316 m 5

𝒂𝟏 = 1.1084 m
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Experimentally determined position of mass center C
• To determine the longitudinal position of C, we should measure the total weight of
the car as well as the force under the front or the rear wheels

Vehicle Dynamics
𝑳
𝒂𝟐 𝒂𝟏

h
𝒎𝒈
𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐 2𝐅𝐳𝟏

𝑭𝒛𝟏 𝑭𝒛𝟏
𝒂𝟐 = 2𝑳 𝒂𝟐 = 2𝑳
𝒎𝒈 𝒎𝒈
6
𝑭 (𝒎𝒈 −𝑭𝒛𝟏)
𝒂𝟏 = 𝟐𝑳 𝒛𝟐 𝒂𝟏 = 𝟐𝑳
𝒎𝒈 𝒎𝒈
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Height (h) of mass center C determination

𝒂𝟏 (h − R)sinφ

Vehicle Dynamics
𝒂𝟐 h

(h − R)sinφ C φ φR
a1 cos φ
2𝐅𝐳𝟏
φ
a2 cos φ 𝒎𝒈 Jack with load cell
φ R φ

𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐
෍ 𝑭𝒛 = 0 𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟏 + 𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐 − 𝒎𝒈 = 𝟎
−2Fz1 (a1 cos φ + (h − R) sinφ) + 7
෍ 𝑴𝒚 = 0
2Fz2 (a2 cos φ - (h − R) sinφ) = 0
Equilibrium equations
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Height (h) of mass center C determination

𝒂𝟏 (h − R)sinφ

Vehicle Dynamics
𝒂𝟐 h

(h − R)sinφ C φ φR
a1 cos φ
2𝐅𝐳𝟏
φ
a2 cos φ 𝒎𝒈 Jack with load cell
φ R φ

𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐
𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟏 + 𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐 − 𝒎𝒈 = 𝟎 𝟐𝐅𝐳𝟏𝐋
h=R +cotφ*(a2- )
−2Fz1 (a1 cos φ + (h − R) sinφ) + 𝐦𝐠 8
2Fz2 (a2 cos φ - (h − R) sinφ) = 0
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Parked Car on an Inclined Road

𝒂𝟏 C: center of mass

Vehicle Dynamics
L = 𝒂𝟏 + 𝒂𝟐 = wheel base
𝒉: height of mass
𝒂𝟐 h center
m: mass (kg)
g: 9.81 m/s2
C
2𝐅𝐳𝟏 𝑭𝒛𝟏,: reaction force
under each front wheel
𝒎𝒈 𝑭𝒛𝟐 : reaction force
under each rear wheel
φ
𝟐𝑭𝒙𝟐 𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐 𝑭𝒙𝟐: brake force on
each rear wheel
𝑭𝒛𝟏 = ?
9

𝑭𝒛𝟐 = ?
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Parked Car on an Inclined Road
𝒂𝟏

Vehicle Dynamics
𝒂𝟐 h
Equilibrium equations
C
φ
mg cosφ 2𝐅𝐳𝟏 ෍ 𝑭𝒙 = 0
𝒎𝒈
mg sinφ
෍ 𝑭𝒛 = 0
φ
𝟐𝑭𝒙𝟐 𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐 ෍ 𝑴𝒚 = 0

𝟏
2Fx2 − mg sinφ = 0 Fx2 = 𝟐 mg sinφ
𝟏 𝒂𝟐 𝟏 𝒉 10
2Fz1 + 2Fz2 − mg cosφ = 0 Fz1 = mg cosφ − mg sinφ
𝟐 𝑳 𝟐 𝑳
𝟏 𝒂𝟏 𝟏 𝒉
−2Fz1a1 + 2Fz2 a2 − 2Fx2h = 0. Fz2 = mg cosφ + mg sinφ
𝟐 𝑳 𝟐 𝑳
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Maximum inclination angle φM for a parked car
𝒂𝟏

Vehicle Dynamics
μx2 : friction coefficient (in
x direction) for the rear
𝒂𝟐 h
wheel
Max value of Fx2 = μx2 Fz2
C mg cosφ 2𝐅𝐳𝟏
φ
Max value of φ= φM ?
𝒎𝒈
mg sinφ

φ
𝟐𝑭𝒙𝟐 𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐

Equilibrium equations
෍ 𝑭𝒙 = 0 2Fx2 − mg sinφM = 0 2μx2 Fz2 − mg sinφM = 0
11
෍ 𝑭𝒛 = 0 2Fz1 + 2Fz2 − mg cosφM = 0 2Fz1 + 2Fz2 − mg cosφM = 0

## ෍ 𝑴𝒚 = 0 −2Fz1a1 + 2Fz2 a2 − 2Fx2h = 0. −2Fz1a1 + 2Fz2 a2 − 2Fx2h = 0

Forward Vehicle dynamics
Maximum inclination angle φM for a parked car
𝒂𝟏

Vehicle Dynamics
𝒂𝟐 h

C
mg cosφ 2𝐅𝐳𝟏
φ
𝒎𝒈
mg sinφ

φ
𝟐𝑭𝒙𝟐 𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐
𝟏 𝒂𝟐 𝟏 𝒉
Fz1 = mg cosφM − mg sinφM
2μx2 Fz2 − mg sinφM = 0 𝟐 𝑳 𝟐 𝑳
𝟏 𝒂𝟏 𝟏 𝒉
2Fz1 + 2Fz2 − mg cosφM = 0 Fz2 = mg cosφM + mg sinφM 12
𝟐 𝑳 𝟐 𝑳

−2Fz1a1 + 2Fz2 a2 − 2Fx2h = 0 tanφM = 𝑳−1μ x2h
x2
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Example
μx2 = 1 𝒂𝟏

Vehicle Dynamics
a1 = 110 cm
L = 230 cm
𝒂𝟐 h
h = 35 cm

φ= ? C mg cosφ
φ 2𝐅𝐳𝟏
𝒎𝒈
aμ mg sinφ
tanφM = L −1 μx2 h
x2
φ
𝟐𝑭𝒙𝟐 𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐
1.1∗1
tanφM = 2.3 − 1∗0.35

φM = 29.42 deg 13
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Four-wheel braking
𝐅𝐳𝟏= ?

Vehicle Dynamics
𝒂𝟏
𝑭𝒛𝟐= ?
𝒂𝟐 h Equilibrium equations

෍ 𝑭𝒙 = 0
C mg cosφ
𝒎𝒈 φ 2𝐅𝐳𝟏 ෍ 𝑭𝒛 = 0
𝟐𝑭𝒙𝟏
mg sinφ
෍ 𝑴𝒚 = 0
𝟐𝑭𝒙𝟐 𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐 φ

𝟏 𝒂𝟐 𝟏 𝒉
2Fx1 + 2Fx2 − mg sinφM = 0 Fz1 = mg cosφ − mg sinφ
𝟐 𝑳 𝟐 𝑳
𝟏 𝒂𝟏 𝟏 𝒉
2Fz1 + 2Fz2 − mg cosφM = 0 Fz2 = mg cosφ + mg sinφ 14
𝟐 𝑳 𝟐 𝑳
𝟏
−2Fz1a1 + 2Fz2 a2 − (2Fx1 + 2Fx1)h = 0 Fx1 + Fx2 = 𝟐 mg sinφ
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Four-wheel braking
• At the ultimate angle φ = φM , all wheels will begin to slide simultaneously

Vehicle Dynamics
𝒂𝟏
φM = ?
𝒂𝟐 h

## Fx1 = μx1 Fz1

C mg cosφ
2𝐅𝐳𝟏 Fx2 = μx2 Fz2
𝒎𝒈 φ
𝟐𝑭𝒙𝟏 Assuming
mg sinφ μx1 = μx2 = μx

𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐 φ
𝟐𝑭𝒙𝟐

## 2Fx1 + 2Fx2 − mg sinφM = 0 2μx1 Fz1 + 2μx2 Fz2 − mg sin φM = 0

2Fz1 + 2Fz2 − mg cosφM = 0 2Fz1 + 2Fz2 − mg cos φM = 0 15
−2Fz1a1 + 2Fz2 a2 − (2Fx1 + 2Fx1)h = 0 −2Fz1 a1 + 2Fz2 a2 −(2μx1 Fz1 + 2μx2 Fz2)h = 0
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Four-wheel braking

Vehicle Dynamics
𝒂𝟏
φM = ?
𝒂𝟐 h

C mg cosφ
𝒎𝒈 φ 2𝐅𝐳𝟏
𝟐𝑭𝒙𝟏
mg sinφ

𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐 φ
𝟐𝑭𝒙𝟐

## 2μx1 Fz1 + 2μx2 Fz2 − mg sin φM = 0

2μx (Fz1 + Fz2)= mg sin φM
2Fz1 + 2Fz2 − mg cos φM = 0 tan φM = μx 16
2(Fz1 + Fz2 )= mg cos φM
−2Fz1 a1 + 2Fz2 a2 −(2μx1 Fz1 + 2μx2 Fz2)h = 0
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Parked Car on a Banked Road
W= 𝒃𝟏 + 𝒃𝟐

Vehicle Dynamics
𝐅𝐳𝟏= ?
h 𝑭𝒛𝟐= ?
C
Equilibrium equations
φ mg cosφ𝟐𝑭 2𝐅𝐳𝟏
𝒎𝒈 𝒚𝟏
෍ 𝑭𝒚 = 0
mg sinφ 𝒃𝟏
෍ 𝑭𝒛 = 0
𝒃𝟐
φ
𝟐𝑭𝒚𝟐
෍ 𝑴𝒙 = 0
𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐

## 2Fy1 + 2Fy2 − mg sin φ = 0 𝟏 𝒃𝟐 𝟏 𝒉

Fz1 = 𝒎𝒈 𝒄𝒐𝒔φ - 𝒎𝒈 𝒔𝒊𝒏φ
𝟐 𝒘 𝟐 𝒘
2Fz1 + 2Fz2 − mg cos φ = 0 𝟏 𝒃 𝟏 𝒉
17
Fz2 = 𝒎𝒈 𝟏 𝒄𝒐𝒔φ + 𝒎𝒈 𝒔𝒊𝒏φ
2Fz1 b1 − 2Fz2 b2 + 2(Fy1 + Fy2 ) h = 0 𝟐 𝒘 𝟐 𝒘
𝟏
Fy1+Fy2 = 𝒎𝒈𝒔𝒊𝒏φ
𝟐
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Parked Car on a Banked Road

Vehicle Dynamics
φ M= ?
h • At the ultimate angle φM, all
C wheels will begin to slide
simultaneously
mg cosφ
φ 𝟐𝑭𝒚𝟏 2𝐅𝐳𝟏
𝒎𝒈
Fy1 = μy1 Fz1
mg sinφ 𝒃𝟏
Fy2 = μy2 Fz2
𝒃𝟐 μy1 = μy2 = μy
φ
𝟐𝑭𝒚𝟐
𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐

## 2Fy1 + 2Fy2 − mg sin φ = 0 2μy1 Fz1 + 2μy2 Fz2 − mg sinφ = 0

2Fz1 + 2Fz2 − mg cos φ = 0 2Fz1 + 2Fz2 − mg cosφ = 0 18
2Fz1 b1 − 2Fz2 b2 + 2(Fy1 + Fy2 ) h = 0 2Fz1 b1 − 2Fz2 b2 + 2(μy1 Fz1 + μy2 Fz2)h=0

Equilibrium equations
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Parked Car on a Banked Road

Vehicle Dynamics
φ M= ?
h • At the ultimate angle φ M, all
C wheels will begin to slide
simultaneously
mg cosφ
φ 𝟐𝑭𝒚𝟏 2𝐅𝐳𝟏
𝒎𝒈 Fy1 = μy1 Fz1
mg sinφ 𝒃𝟏 Fy2 = μy2 Fz2
μy1 = μy2 = μy
𝒃𝟐
φ These calculations are correct
𝟐𝑭𝒚𝟐
if:
𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐 𝒃𝟐
tan φM ≤ (F >=0)
𝒉 z1
𝒃
2μy1 Fz1 + 2μy2 Fz2 − mg sinφ = 0 μy ≤ 𝒉𝟐
tan φM = μy If the lateral friction μy is 19
2Fz1 + 2Fz2 − mg cosφ = 0
𝒃
higher than 𝒉𝟐 then the car
will roll downhill !!!
Example
Forward Vehicle dynamics
m = 980 kg
h = 0.6 m
h

Vehicle Dynamics
w = 1.52 m
b1 = b 2 C
mg cosφ
φ = 4 deg
𝒎𝒈 φ 𝟐𝑭𝒚𝟏 2𝐅𝐳𝟏
𝐅𝐳𝟏= ? mg sinφ 𝒃𝟏
𝑭𝒛𝟐= ?
𝟏 𝒃 𝟏 𝒉 𝒃𝟐
Fz1 = 𝒎𝒈 𝟐 𝒄𝒐𝒔φ - 𝒎𝒈 𝒔𝒊𝒏φ φ
𝟐 𝒘 𝟐 𝒘 𝟐𝑭𝒚𝟐
𝟏 𝒃 𝟏 𝒉
Fz2 = 𝒎𝒈 𝟏 𝒄𝒐𝒔φ + 𝒎𝒈 𝒔𝒊𝒏φ 𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐
𝟐 𝒘 𝟐 𝒘
𝟏
Fy1+Fy2 = 𝒎𝒈𝒔𝒊𝒏φ
𝟐
𝟏 𝟏 𝟏 𝟎.𝟔
Fz1 = 𝟗𝟖𝟎(𝟗. 𝟖𝟏) 𝒄𝒐𝒔(4) - 𝒎𝒈 𝒔𝒊𝒏(4) = 2397.6 – 132.36= 2265 N
𝟐 𝟐 𝟐 𝟏.𝟓𝟐
𝟏 𝟎.𝟕𝟔 𝟏 𝟎.𝟔
Fz2 = 𝟗𝟖𝟎(𝟗. 𝟖𝟏) 𝒄𝒐𝒔(4) + 𝟗𝟖𝟎(𝟗. 𝟖𝟏) 𝒔𝒊𝒏(4) = 2397.6 + 132.36= 20
𝟐 𝟏.𝟓𝟐 𝟐 𝟏.𝟓𝟐
2529.9 N
𝟏
Fy1+Fy2 = 𝟗𝟖𝟎(𝟗. 𝟖𝟏)𝒔𝒊𝒏(4) = 335.3 N
𝟐
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Force ratio Fz1 /Fz2
𝟏 𝒃𝟐 𝟏 𝒉
Fz1 = 𝒎𝒈 𝒄𝒐𝒔φ - 𝒎𝒈 𝒔𝒊𝒏φ

Vehicle Dynamics
𝟐 𝒘 𝟐 𝒘
𝟏 𝒃 𝟏 𝒉
Fz2 = 𝒎𝒈 𝟏 𝒄𝒐𝒔φ + 𝒎𝒈 𝒔𝒊𝒏φ
𝟐 𝒘 𝟐 𝒘
𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟏

𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐
𝑭𝒛𝟏 𝒃𝟐𝒄𝒐𝒔φ − 𝒉𝒔𝒊𝒏φ
=
𝑭𝒛𝟐 𝒃𝟏𝒄𝒐𝒔φ + 𝒉𝒔𝒊𝒏φ 𝒉= 0.6 m
w=1.52 m Rolling down
b1 = b2 = w/2 b1=b2
𝑭𝒛𝟏 angle
𝑭𝒛𝟐
𝑭𝒛𝟏 𝒘 𝒄𝒐𝒔φ − 𝟐𝒉𝒔𝒊𝒏φ
=
𝑭𝒛𝟐 𝒘 𝒄𝒐𝒔φ + 𝟐𝒉𝒔𝒊𝒏φ
φ [deg]
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Exercise1
Car 𝒂𝟐 𝒂𝟏
m = 1765 kg

Vehicle Dynamics
L = 2.84 m
a1 = 1.22 m
a2 = 1.62 m C

𝐅𝐳𝟏 = ?
𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐 𝒎𝒈 2𝐅𝐳𝟏
𝐅𝐳𝟐 = ?

22
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Exercise 2

Lamborghini Gallardo 𝒂𝟏

Vehicle Dynamics
m = 1430 kg
L = 2560 mm 𝒂𝟐 h
a1 = a2
h = 520 mm C
2𝐅𝐳𝟏
φ = 30 deg
μx2 = 1
𝒎𝒈
φ
𝟐𝑭𝒙𝟐 𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐
Fz1=?
Fz2=?
φM = ? 23
Forward Vehicle dynamics
Exercise 3

Vehicle Dynamics
m = 2569.6 kg h
L = 2946.4 mm C
w = 1717 mm
𝟐𝑭𝒚𝟏 2𝐅𝐳𝟏
𝒎𝒈 𝒃𝟏
b1 = b 2
h = 940 mm 𝒃𝟐
φ
φ = 12 deg 𝟐𝑭𝒚𝟐
𝟐𝑭𝒛𝟐

Fz1 = ?
Fz2 = ? 24
Fy1+Fy2 = ?