Sie sind auf Seite 1von 30

• Qualitative difference between heat

and work
• Cyclic heat engine
• Energy reservoirs
• Refrigerator and heat pump
• Reversibility and irreversibility
• Carnot cycle
 The first law of thermodynamic states that a certain
energy flow takes place when a system undergoes a
process or change of state
 According to first law in ‘cyclic process’
 Work is completely converted into heat or heat is completely
converted into work
 “HEAT” & “WORK” are mutually converted into each other
 Based from Joule’s experiments
 Energy in the form of work supplied to a system can be
completely converted into heat (work transfer  internal
energy increase  heat transfer)
 But the complete conversion of heat into work in a cycle is not
 Therefore, heat and work are not completely interchangeable
forms of energy
 No restriction on the direction of the flow of
 The first law establishes definite relationship
between the heat absorbed and the work performed
by a system. The first law does not indicate whether
heat can flow from a cold end to a hot end or not. For
example: we cannot extract heat from the ice by
cooling it to a low temperature. Some external work
has to be done.
 Does not specify the feasibility of the reaction
 First law does not specify that process is feasible or
not for example: when a rod is heated at one end the
equilibrium has to be obtained which is possible only
by some expenditure of energy.
 Practically
it is not possible to convert the
heat energy into an equivalent amount of
 To overcome this limitation, second law is
needed. The second law of thermodynamics
helps us to predict whether the reaction is
feasible or not and also tell the direction of the
flow of heat. It also tells that energy cannot be
completely converted into equivalent work.
Energy interaction by reasons
Energy interaction due to
other than temperature
temperature difference
Low grade energy* High grade energy*
Function of path because it
Function of state because it
depends on path taken by system
depend on state of system
while changing state

*The complete conversion of low grade energy into

high grade energy in a cycle is IMPOSSIBLE
 Both heat and work are not properties of
 Both are boundary phenomena because they
are energies which are crossing the system
 Both are transient quantities. These energies
interaction occurs only when a system
undergoes change of state
 The heat and work is form of energy. Units
for both are Joule (J)
 Both heat and work cannot be stored by
A two-phase system can be modelled as a
reservoir also since it can absorb and release
large quantities of heat while remaining at
constant temperature.
 Another familiar example of a thermal
energy reservoir is the industrial furnace.
The temperatures of most furnaces are
carefully controlled, and they are capable of
supplying large quantity of thermal energy as
heat in an essentially isothermal manner.
A body does not have to be very large to be
considered as reservoirs.
 For example, the air in a living room can be
treated as a reservoir in the analysis of the
heat dissipation from a TV set in the room,
since the amount of heat transfer from the
TV set to the room air is not large enough to
have a noticeable effect on the room air
 Source
 The heat transferred to the system operating in a
heat engine cycle is called the source
 Sink
 The heat rejected from the system operating in a
heat engine cycle is called the sink
It is impossible for a heat engine to
produce net work in a complete
cycle if it exchanges heat only with
bodies at a single fixed
The second law of thermodynamics enables us to
divide all processes into two classes:

Reversible process Irreversible process

(ideal process) (natural process)
 Reversible process
 A reversible process can be brought back to the
initial state without making a change in the
adjacent surroundings.

 Irreversible process
 An irreversible process cannot be brought back to
its initial state without making a change in the
A Carnot cycle is a hypothetical cycle consist
of four process
 Two reversible isothermal process; and
 Two reversible adiabatic process
 Carnot cycle is a reversible cycle
A cyclic heat engine operates between a
source temperature of 800˚C and a sink
temperature of 30˚C. What is the least rate
of heat rejection per kW net output of the
A domestic food freezer maintains a
temperature of -15˚C. The ambient air
temperature is 30˚C. If heat leaks into the
freezer at the continuous rate of 1.75kJ/s,
what is the least power necessary to pump
this heat out continuously?
 Heatis transferred to a heat engine from a
furnace at a rate of 80MW. If the rate of
waste heat rejection to a nearby river is
50MW. Determine the net power output and
the thermal efficiency for this heat engine.
 The food compartment of a refrigerator is
maintained at 4˚C by removing heat from it
a rate of 360kJ/min. If the required power
input to the refrigerator is 2kW, determine
the coefficient of performance of the
refrigerator, and the rate of heat rejection to
the room that houses the refrigerator.
A heat pump is used to meet the heating
requirements of a house and maintain it at
20˚C. On a day when the outdoor air
temperature drops to -2˚C, the house is
estimated to lose heat at a rate of
20000kJ/h. If the heat pump under these
conditions has a COP of 2.5, determine:
 The power consumed by the heat pump in kW;
 The rate at which heat is absorbed from the cold
outdoor air in kJ/s.