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Chapter 4


What is an Ideology?
● A set of doctrines, concepts, and beliefs that lends
legitimacy to the operation of a government and
its various institutions (Lawson, 1989)
● Basic beliefs about power, political values
and the roles of a government in society
(Dahl, 1997)
● A constitutional government must
operate on the basis of specific ideologies.

The 1987 Philippine Constitution
Ang 1987 Konstitusyon ng Republika ng Pilipinas
● Contains:
○ The Preamble
○ Article II - Declaration of State Policies and
● These sections are the
ideological foundations of
the Philippine Government.

The Preamble
● Prologue of the constitution
● Doesn’t concern the powers of the government,
liberties, freedoms or obligations

The Preamble
● Has the following functions:
○ To introduce the supreme law of the land
○ To expound the rationale behind the
enactment of the constitution
○ To single out the purposes to be achieved by
the constitution
○ To specify the framers for the constitution
○ To serve as a frame of reference for its
The Preamble
● The Preamble of the 1987 Constitution is as follows: (pg 38)
“We, the sovereign Filipino people, imploring the aid of Almighty
God, in order to build a just and humane society, and establish a
Government that shall embody our ideals and aspirations,
promote the common good, conserve and develop our
patrimony, and secure to ourselves and our posterity, the
blessings of independence and democracy under the rule of law
and a regime of truth, justice, freedom, love, equality, and
peace, do ordain and promulgate this Constitution.”

The Framers
● Filipino people are the framers of the fundamental law
of the land [of The Philippines]
○ Filipino people drafted the constitution
● The preamble considers the Filipino people as religious
○ ‘Imploring the aid of the Almighty God’
● The Filipino people believe that God shapes their
future as individuals; and their destiny as a nation

The Purposes for Establishing the Government
● There are two national purposes for adopting the 1987 constitution
○ The building of a just and humane society
○ The establishment of a government
● There are an additional four purposes that can be inferred:
○ Embodiment of the ideals and aspirations of the Filipino people
○ Promotion of the common good
○ Conservation and development of the national patrimony
○ Securing for the people the blessings of independence and
● The government must be founded on truth, justice, freedom, love,
equality and peace.
The Purposes for Establishing the Government
● There are four implications of the previous purposes:
○ The people’s interests should be the paramount
consideration of all government officials in conduct of
the government’s affairs. The government is a creation
of the people.
○ The government has to work for the promotion of the
people’s welfare, in response and accordance to their
needs. The government was established to attain the
common good.

The Purposes for Establishing the Government
○ The government has a moral obligation to conserve and
develop everything that belongs to the Filipino nation (the
natural resources, customs, traditions and, ideals of the
country). It is constitutionally mandated that the
conservation and development of the national patrimony
(reserves of the national economy) be considered by the
○ The government must guard and preserve the independence
of the country, for the people to enjoy their basic freedoms,
and the liberties that democracy provides.

The Declaration of State Principles and Policies
● Article II of the 1987 Constitution outlines the
policies and principles of the State.
● Also serves as the ideological foundations of the
Philippine Government.
● The guidelines for the exercise of governmental
powers by the Executive, Legislative and Judicial
branches of the government

1. Democracy and Republicanism
● The Philippines is a democratic and republican state
○ Dictatorship/one-man rule is an unacceptable means of government in
the country
● Republican Government: Those who have authority to make
decisions, acquire and retain authority with the force of law, do so
by way of free elections.
● Democratic Government: Government officials chosen
by way of suffrage or a right to vote.

1. Democracy and Republicanism
● Manifestations of republicanism is the Philippines:
○ Government of Laws: Operates on the basis of laws
and the rule of law. Both the people and leaders are
subject to the same laws. No one is above the law.
○ Repealable Laws: Leaders cannot legislate or enact
laws that cannot be repealed, modified or altered.
○ Election and Suffrage: The people elect
those in local and national
authority via scheduled

1. Democracy and Republicanism
○ Majority rule: Governance dependent on majority
preference; rights of the minority are still protected.
○ Separation of Powers: Governmental powers are
distributed to the executive, judicial and legislative
branches, as allocated by the Constitution.

1. Democracy and Republicanism
○ Checks and Balances: Constitutional powers enable each
branch of government to check some acts of the others,
so that no one branch dominates.
○ Non-suability of the State: The State cannot be sued
without consent. This prevents the State from neglecting
more important matters relating to public service and
○ Public Accountability: All
government officials are
accountable to the people
as they exercise power.
1. Democracy and Republicanism
○ Bill of Rights: As per Article III of the Constitution, the
government must safeguard the rights, liberties and
freedoms of the people.
○ Non-Delegation of Powers: The maximum means that
authority is given, cannot be further divided (e.g. the
power of the President, can’t be further delegated to
the Chief of Justice of the Supreme Court
by the Chief Executive)

2. Sovereignty of the People
● “Sovereignty resides in the people and
all government emanates from them”
(Section 1, Article 2)
● The government is founded on the principles of:
○ Popular Sovereignty: Ultimate power of a government
rests on the people. Power emanates from the people
to the government through their exercise of suffrage
(right to vote.)
○ Popular Consent: Governmental power is derived from
the people it governs. People exercise sovereignty
directly via officials, and indirectly via suffrage.
3. Renunciation of War
● The Philippines renounces war as an
instrument of national policy.
○ As per the Charter of the United Nations
● In line with the adherence to the generally
accepted principles of international law and a policy of
peace, equality, justice, freedom, cooperation, amity
(friendly relations)
● Defensive war is not within this policy, the State has the
right to defend itself from aggressor states.

4. Civilian Supremacy over the Military
● Civilians are supreme over the Armed Forces of the
Philippines (AFP), who are the protectors of the people
and the State.
● Ensures that a military dictatorship is an unacceptable
option for civil government.
● The Constitution places the AFP under the
command of the President (a civilian).

4. Civilian Supremacy over the Military
● The members of the AFP are prohibited from:
○ Involvement in partisan politics
○ Engagement in partisan political activity - except when
voting in elections
○ Appointment or delegation of AFP officers and men to
civilian positions in government during
active military service.

5. Serving and Protecting the People: The
Prime Duty of the Government
● The fundamental ideology of democracy - a government of
the people, by the people and for the people.
● The government exists for the welfare of the people and
not the people for their government.
● The government may require the people to submit
personal, military or civil service in
order for them to protect its citizens.

6. Securing for the People the Blessings of a
Democracy: A Constitutional Mandate
● The government must secure for the people the blessings
of democracy. These include:
○ Maintenance of peace and order
○ Protection of life, liberty and property
○ Promotion of the general welfare

7. Separation of Church and State
● The Church should not interfere in matters of pure politics
● The State should not interfere in matters of pure religion and
● The establishment of an official religion is avoided, namely:
○ Government sponsorship of religion
○ Governmental financial support of religion
○ Active involvement of the State in religious matters
● The ‘free exercise clause’ (Section 5, Article III) - essentially
ensures the government cannot impose a religion on the

8. Pursuit of an Independent Foreign Policy
● Foreign Policy: the action a state takes in its external relations to
advance national objectives and interests (Domingo, 1983)
● The State requires the government to pursue an independent
foreign policy, not imposed by any other state.
○ Considers: national sovereignty, territorial integrity, national
integrity and the right to self-determination
● Philippine Foreign Policy is two-fold:
○ Friendly relations with both democratic and communist
○ Promotion of beneficial economic and trading relations with all

9. Freedom from Nuclear Weapons
● “The Philippines, consistent with national interest, adopts
and pursues a policy of freedom from nuclear weapons in
its territory” (Section 8, Article II)
● The making, storing and even testing of nuclear weapons
in the country is forbidden by the Constitution
● Using nuclear energy for peaceful uses is not prohibited
○ E.g. medicine, improving agricultural yields etc.
● Nuclear weapons are permissible in the hypothetical event
that another nuclear power threatens The Philippines.

10. The Promotion of a Just and Dynamic
● The State promotes a dynamic social order, that allows the
prosperity of the nation and allows people to be free from
● The constitution mandates (Section 9, Article II) that the
government undertakes policies that provide social
services, full employment and an improved standard of
living and quality of life.
● This is often disregarded by politicians whose motivation
for service are self-centred.

11. Promotion of Social Justice
● “The State shall promote social justice in all areas of national
development” (Section 10, Article II)
● Social Justice: the protection and enhancement of the right of all
people to human dignity by reducing social, economic, political
and cultural inequalities through equitable distribution of wealth
and power for the common good (pg. 43 - 44)
● The government has a duty to reduce the gap between the rich
and poor in society.
● The government is also committed to create economic
opportunities based on initiative and self-reliance for the welfare
of everybody.
12. Dignity of the Human Being and Full
Respect for Human Rights
● “The State values the dignity of every human person and
guarantees full respect for human rights” (Section 11,
Article II)
● The government is morally obligated to safeguard the
inherent rights of the people.
● Non-recognition of these rights (as outlined in the Bill of
Rights) is an undemocratic way of life.

13. Recognition of the Sanctity of Family Life
● “The State recognises the sanctity of family life and
strengthen the family as a basic autonomous social
institution” (Section 12, Article II)
● The State recognises the sacredness of family life, as it is
the basic unit of society. Therefore, it cannot enact laws
that lead to the destruction of the family unit.
● The government has the duty to undertake: strengthening
family as a basic social unit, protect the life of a mother
and unborn child, and the rearing of youth for civility and
moral development

14. Recognition of the Role of the Youth in
● The State recognises youth as a vital part of building the
● Hence, the State should promote and protect their:
physical, moral, spiritual, intellectual and social well-being.
● The youth shall be instilled with a sense of patriotism and
● The government should also encourage their involvement
in public and civic affairs (as mandated in Section 13,
Article II)

15. Recognition of the Role of Women in
● “The State recognises the role of women in nation-
building, and shall ensure the fundamental equality before
the law of women and men” (Section 14, Article II)
● Women are a potent political and economic societal force
● The State is mandated to ensure the lawful equality of
men and women, as well as the promotion
of employment opportunities
between them.

16. Protecting and promoting the people’s
right to health
• Section 15 of Article II states that the state shall protect and
promote the right to health of the people and instil health
consciousness among them.
• To protect the health of the people,
Sections 11 and Section 13 of Article XIII
mandate the state to undertake
the following measures :

16. Protecting and promoting the people’s
right to health
1. Adoption of an integrated and comprehensive approach to
health development at affordable cost
2. Establishment and maintenance of an effective food and
drug regulatory system.
3. Responsive to the country’s health needs and problems.
4. Establishment of rehabilitation centres, self development
and self reliance.
5. Integration into mainstream of society.
17. The right of the people to a balanced and
healthful ecology
• Section 16 of Article II states that the state shall protect and
advance the right of the people to a balanced and healthful
ecology in accord with the rhythm and harmony of nature.
• The provision is a clear recognition of the right of the people
to a balanced and healthful ecology.
• So, the government is expected to undertake programs in
ensuring clean and pollution free environment to protect
human life and health.

18. Prioritizing education, science and
technology, arts, culture and sports.
• Section 17 of Article II states that the state shall give priority
to education, science and technology, arts, culture and
sports to foster patriotism and nationalism, accelerate social
progress, and promote total human liberation.
• Section 2 of Article XIV enumerates the steps that the
government should undertake in making the
aforementioned policy a reality,
which are the following :

18. Prioritizing education, science and
technology, arts, culture and sports.
1. Establishment of a complete, adequate and integrated system of
2. Establishment and maintenance of free education in the elementary and
high school levels.
3. Establishment and maintenance of scholarship grants to deserving
students in both public and private schools especially the underprivileged.
4. Encouragement of non formal, informal and indigenous learning system
and out of school study programs, particularly those that respond to
community needs.
5. Provision of training in civics, vocational efficiency and other skills to adult
citizens, the disabled and out- of- school youth.
19. Affirmation of labour as a primary social
• Section 18 of Article II states that the state affirms labour as a
primary social force. It shall protect the rights of workers and
promote their social welfare.
• The following policies are undertaken :

19. Affirmation of labour as a primary social
1. Full protection of local and overseas labour.
2. Promotion of full and equal employment opportunities;
3. Guaranteeing the full enjoyment of the rights of workers.
4. Promotion shared responsibility between workers and
employers and the preferential use of voluntary modes in
settling disputes and
5. Regulation of relationship between workers and employers.

20. Development of a self- reliant and
independent national economy
• Section 19 of Article II states that the state
shall develop a self reliant and independent national
economy effectively controlled by Filipinos.
• The foregoing provision of our fundamental charter provides
the guidelines for the development of the economy of the
• This constitutional guidelines are the following: self-
reliance; independent national economy and effective
Filipino control of the economy.
21. Recognition of the role of the Private
Sector in the economy
• Section 20 of Article II states that the state recognizes the
indispensable role of the private sector, encourages private
enterprise, and provides incentives to needed investments
• From this provision it can be inferred that constitutions forbids an
economy where the state shall be competing with private
• This is due to the concern of the government not to engage in
business reaping huge profits but in managing affairs of the state.
• As such, the fundamental law of land mandates the state to provide
incentives to local and foreign investors.
22. Promotion of a comprehensive rural
development and agrarian reform
• Section 21 of Article II states that the State shall promote
comprehensive rural development agrarian reform.
• This program is based on the right of the farmers and
regular farm workers who are landless to own their lands or
in the case of other farm workers to get the share of fruits.
• The State is obligated to provide support to agriculture
through appropriate technology and research, an adequate
financial, production, marketing and other support services
to farmers and their organizations.
23. Recognition and promotion of the rights
of cultural communities
• Section 22 of Article II provides that the State shall recognize and
promote the rights of the indigenous cultural communities within
the framework of national unity and development.
• This provision was included in the Constitution owing to the
presence of numerous cultural communities in the different parts of
the country.
• Thus, the State is mandated to safeguard their rights and has to
consider the culture and interest of these non- dominant groups in
conceptualizing and implementing programs and projects for their
benefit and welfare.
24. Encouragement of non- governmental,
community- based or sectoral organizations
• Section 23 of Article II provides that the State shall
encourage non- governmental, community- based or
sectoral organizations that promote the welfare of the
• Considering that non- governmental organizations can help
in building and developing communities, as well as in
articulating the interests and views of the people, the
constitution of the land requires the state to encourage the
organization of these community- based or sectoral NGOs.
25. Recognition of the vital role
of mass media to nation- building
• Section 24 of Article II states that the state
recognizes the vital role of communication
and information in nation- building.
• In view of the important role played by the mass media in
shaping public opinion and uniting people, the state is
compelled to create an environment that promotes the
emergence of communication structures for the nation that
respects the policy of freedom of speech and of the press.

25. Recognition of the vital role of mass
media to nation- building
• The foregoing point is clearly stated in Section 10 of Article
XVI provides that the state shall provide an environment for
the development of Filipino capability and emergence of
communication structures that fulfil the
aspiration of the nation, in accordance with
the policy that respects the freedom of
speech and of the press.

26. Autonomy of local government
• Section 25 of Article II states that the State shall ensure the
autonomy of local governments.
• This particular policy had been already
implemented with the enactment of
Republic Act No. 7160, also known as
the Local Government Code of 1991.

26. Autonomy of local government
• The local government units serve as conduits of the national
government in the performance of its varied tasks
and functions.
• With local affairs under local executives,
the national government can devote its
time and effort in addressing national
issues and concerns.

27. Equal access to opportunities in public
• Section 25 of Article II states that the state shall guarantee
equal access to opportunities for public service, and prohibit
political dynasties as may be defined by law.
• This policy of the state points out the outlawing of political
dynasties to give as many people the opportunity to serve
the public.
• Equal access to public service is guaranteed through the
limitations of terms of office of all elective officials as
stipulated in the Constitution.
27. Equal access to opportunities in public
• For instance, the term of office of the President is 6 years
without re- election (Section 4, Article VII) the term of office
of a Senator is 6 years and cannot serve for more than 2
consecutive terms of 12 years (Section 4, Article VI).
• Members of the House of Representatives are elected for a
term of 3 years and cannot serve for more than three terms
or 9 years.

28. Honesty and integrity in public service
• Section 27 of Article II of the Constitution states that the
state shall maintain honesty and integrity in the public
service and take positive and effective measures against
• Honesty and integrity in public service are vital in
• The fulfilment of this mandate of the Constitution is
essential in strengthening people’s trust and confidence in
the government and its officials.
28. Honesty and integrity in public service
• In addition to the foregoing, government officials and
leaders need to demonstrate honesty and integrity due to
the fact that public office is a public trust.
• The need has become urgent as many
of our local and national government
officials, then and now, had allegedly
perpetrated graft and corruption.

29. Full disclosure by the state of all its
• Section 28 of Article II provides that subject to reasonable
conditions prescribed by law, the State adopts and
implements a policy of full disclosure of all its transactions
involving public interest.
• This policy is line with the constitutional mandate of an
accountable, open and transparent government (Section 12
and 16, Article VI).
• Thus, the people have the right to be informed of what the
government is doing.
29. Full disclosure by the state of all its
• This right is clearly stated in Section 7 of Article III, which
provides that the people have the right to information on
matters of public concern and can access records pertaining
to the official transactions of the government.
• Nonetheless, the people cannot access
information relating to the
security of the State.

o Philippine Government and Constitution, Carlito D. Garcia, Ed.D
(Revised Edition)