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Lubricant: The substance reduces

the frictional forces between two

moving/sliding surfaces

Lubrication: The process of reducing

frictional resistance between
moving/sliding surfaces, by the
introduction of lubricants in between them,
is known as lubrication.
Functions of Lubricant
1.It reduces surface deformation, wear and tear,
2.It reduces the loss of energy in the form of heat
(or) it acts as a coolant.
3.It reduces the energy loss, so that machine
efficiency is enhanced.
4.It reduces the expansion of metal by local
frictional heat.
5.It avoids seizure of moving parts.
6.It avoids the unsmooth relative motion of the
moving parts.
7.It reduces the maintenance and running cost of
the machine.
Mechanism of Lubrication:
The lubrication is affected mainly
by three types of mechanisms.
1.Fluid film or thick film or
hydrodynamic lubrication
2. Boundary Lubrication or thin film

3.Extreme pressure lubrication

Fluid film or thick film or hydrodynamic lubrication
In this mechanism the moving surfaces are
separated from each other by a fluid thick film of at
least 1000Å thick.
The lubricant should have minimum viscosity under
working conditions.
This occurs in the case of a shaft running at a fair
speed with low load
Delicate instruments, light machines like
watches, clocks, guns, sewing machines, specific
instruments etc. are provided with this type of
Hydrocarbon oils are considered to be
satisfactory lubricants for fluid film lubrication.
Boundary Lubrication or thin film lubrication
This is at high load and low speed. This is happens
• A shaft starts moving from rest. (or)
• The speed is very low (or)
• The load is very high and
Under such conditions Viscosity of the oil is too
low, the friction is reduced with a thick protection
layer of one or two molecules hence it is known as
boundary lubrication
Ex: Vegetable and animal oils mixed with mineral
oils, Graphite & Molybdenum disulphide used for
boundary lubrication
Extreme pressure lubrication
Under heavy load and high speed operating
conditions, the liquid lubricants cannot service as
lubricants at that high pressure and high temperatures.

Some additives are added to the lubricant to with

stand at high pressure and high temperatures . Such as
The chlorinated esters, sulphurized oils and tricresyl
phosphate, these additives react with metallic surfaces,
at high temperatures to form metallic chlorides,
sulphides or phosphides in the form of durable films.
These films can with stand very high loads and high
Classification of Lubricants
The lubricants are classified into 4
types based on their physical state.
1.Liquid Lubricants, (or)
Lubricating oils
2.Semi-solid, Lubricants (or) Greases
3.Solid Lubricants
Liquid Lubricants
These lubricating oils provide a continuous fluid film over
the metallic surfaces.
These lubricating oils are sub classified into 4 types.
• Animal & Vegetable oils: The animal and vegetable oils
• Mineral Oils: Obtained by the distillation of petroleum.
• Blended oils: To improve the typical properties of oils,
additives are added. These are called as “Blended oils”
• Synthetic lubricants: Synthetic lubricants have been
developed, to meet the requirements at operating conditions;
these can serve as lubricants in the temperature range -50 to
250 oC. They have high viscosity index.
E.g.: Polyglycol ethers, fluoro and chloro hydro carbons,
organo phosphates and silicones
Semisolid Lubricants: (Greases)
Lubricating grease is a semi-solid, consisting of a soap
and liquid lubricating oil. The Greases are to 6 types.
• Calcium based grease: (or) Cup –greases.
Emulsions of oils with calcium soaps
• Soda Base greases:
Petroleum oils mixed with sodium soaps.
• Lithium base greases:
Petroleum oils these are thickened by mixing lithium soaps.
• Aluminium Soap Grease:
Aluminium – soap greases are special purpose lubricants.
• Barium – Soap Grease:
Barium – soap greases are buttery (or) fibrous texture
• Rosin – soap Grease: (Axle greases) These are very cheap
Prepared by adding lime to resin & fatty oils.
Solid Lubricants
Solid lubricants are used, where
1.The liquid lubricating oils and grease cannot be
used as lubricants.
2.Combustible lubricants must be avoided.
3.Contamination of grease or lubricating oil is
4.The operating temperatures (or) load is too high.

Graphite & Molybdenum disulphide: (MoS2)
Lubricating Emulsions :

An emulsion is a two phase system, one being

dispersed as fine droplets in the other. In order to
prevent over heating of the tool, efficient cooling and
lubrication is required. This is done by emulsions.

Two types of emulsions are used for lubricants:

i) Oil in water type emulsions (or) cutting


ii) Water in oil type emulsions (or) cooling liquids:

Applications of Lubricants
1.Anti wear, anti oxidants, and antifoaming agents.
2. Demulsifying and emulsifying agents.
3. Rust and corrosion inhibitors.
4.In machinery as engine oil, compressor oils gear
oils, and piston oils.
5.As hydraulic, brake and gear box fluids.
6.Used in the soap and paint industries.
7.Synthetic lubricants are used in turbines, vacuum
pumps and semiconductor devices.