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METROLOGY & MEASUREMENT

What is Metrology?
 Metrology is derived from two Greek word, one is metro which means
measurement and other is logy which means science.

 Metrology is field of knowledge concerned with measurement and includes


both theoretical and practical problems with reference to measurement,

 Metrology is the name given to the science of pure measurement.

 Engineering Metrology is restricted to measurements of length & angle.


TYPES OF METROLOGY
Metrology is separated into following categories with
different levels of complexity and accuracy:

 1. Scientific Metrology
 2. Industrial Metrology
 3. Legal Metrology
 4. Fundamental Metrology
METROLOGICAL TERMINOLOGIES

 Accuracy is the closeness of agreement between a test result and the


accepted reference value.
 Precision is the closeness of agreement between independent test results
obtained under stipulated conditions.
 Repeatability conditions are where independent test results are obtained
with the same method on identical test items in the same laboratory by the
same operator using the same equipment within short intervals of time.
 Reproducibility conditions are where test results are obtained with the
same method on identical test items in different laboratories with different
operators using different equipment.
Repeatability and Accuracy
 Correction is the value which, added algebraically to the uncorrected result
of a measurement, compensates for an assumed systematic error.

 Drift is a slow change of a metrological characteristic of a measuring


instrument.

 Error of a measuring instrument is the indication of a measuring instrument


minus a 'true' value of the corresponding input quantity, i.e., the error has a
sign.
 Magnification In order to measure small difference in dimensions, the
movement of the measuring tip in contact with work must be magnified and,
therefore, the output signal from a measuring instrument is to be magnified
many times to make it more readable. In a measuring instrument,
magnification may be either mechanical, electrical, electronic, optical,
pneumatic principle or a combination of these.

 Measurand is a particular quantity subject to measurement.


Methods of measurement
3. Absolute method- This is also called fundamental method and is based on the measurement of
the base quantities used to define a particular quantity.

4. Comparison method - The value of a quantity to be measured is compared with a known


value of the same quantity related to it.

5. Substitution method - The quantity is measured by direct comparison on an indicating device


by replacing the measurable quantity with another which produces the same effect on the indicating
device.

6. Coincidence method - It is also called the differential method of measurement. In this, there
is a very small difference between the value of the quantity to be measured and the reference.
MEASURING INSTRUMENTS AND THEIR SELECTION
Transformation of a measurable quantity in to required information is a
function of measuring instruments.
CLASSIFICATION
1. On the basis of function
a. Length – measuring
b. Angle – measuring
c. Surface - roughness measuring
d. Geometrical - form checking

2. On the basis of accuracy


a. Most accurate instruments
b. Moderate accurate instruments
c. Below-moderate accurate instruments

3. On the basis of precision


a. Precision measuring
b. Non-precision measuring
ERRORS IN MEASUREMENT
Error in measurement = Measured value – True value
True value is the theoretical size of dimension free from any error.
TYPES OF ERROR
Absolute Error
Absolute error = |Actual value – Approximate value|
Relative Error
| Actualvalue  Approximatevalue |
Relative error = | Actualvalue |
Percentile Error
| Actualvalue  Approximatevalue |
Percentile error = 100
| Actualvalue |
STATIC ERROR- These are result of physical nature of various
components of a measuring system like intrinsic imperfection or
limitation of apparatus.

1. Reading error- these types of error apply exclusively to


instruments. These errors may be the result of parallax and optical
resolution etc.

2. Alignment error- This occurs if the checking of an instruments is


not correctly aligned with the direction of the desired measurement.

3. Characteristic error- it is the deviation of the output of measuring


system from the theoretical predicted performance or from the nominal
performance specification. Linearity, repeatability are the example of
characteristic error.
ALIGNMENT ERROR
LOADING ERROR - Poor contact between the working gauge or the instrument and work
piece causes an error. To avoid these error an instrument with a wide area of contact should not be
used.

DYNAMIC ERROR - It is caused by time variation in the measurand. It is the result of


incapability of the system to respond reliably with time.

CONTROLLABLE ERROR - These types of errors are regularly repetitive in nature and are of
similar form after systematic analysis is reduced effectively. These errors are also called systematic
errors.

RANDOM ERROR - These error are accidental, non-consistent in nature and they occur
randomly, they cannot be eliminated since no definite cause can be located.
LOADING ERROR
TYPES OF MEASUREMENT STANDARDS
1. Line standard
2. End standard
LINE STANDARD
According to this standard, the yard or metre is legally authorized.

A. Standard yard
it is made of one inch square cross section bronze bar and is 38 inches long. The bar has a ½ inch
dia. ½ inch deep hole, which are fitted with a 1/10th inch dia. gold plug.

B. Standard metre
The length of one metre is defined as the straight line distance, at c between the centre portion
of a pure platinum – iridium alloy of a total length of 1000 mm and having a web 0cross
0
section.
Line standard
LINE STANDARD
LINE STANDARD
END STANDARD
The need of end standard arises as the use of line standards and their copies was
difficult at various places in workshops. these are in the form of end bars and slip
gauges.
End Bars are made of high-carbon chromium steel having cylindrical cross section of 22.2
mm diameter with the faces hardened up to 64 RC at the ends are available in sets of various
lengths.

Slip Gauges are rectangular blocks of hardened and stabilized high-grade cast steel or the
ceramic compound zirconium oxide are available with a 9mm wide, 30-35 mm long cross
section.
Slip gauges are available in five grades of accuracies
Grade 00 Kept in standard room (Reference)
Grade 0 Setting comparators (Inspection)
Grade K Measuring other grade (Calibration)
Grade 1 Used in tool room (Inspection)
Grade 2 Used in workshops in gen use (workshop)

Measuring faces of slip gauges are forced and wrung against each other so that the
gauges stick together. This is known as wringing of slip gauges.
WRINGING OF SLIP GUAGES