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MENSURATION

AND
CALCULATION
Measurements
Conversions
and
Substitutions
Definition of terms:
 Conversion- changing a unit of measurement from one
system to another.
Ingredient- something that enters into a mixture like a
recipe.
Mensuration- the act or process of measuring the volume
and the mass or weight of ingredients or raw materials, and
the temperature needed to cook food.
 Substitution- replacing something with another.
Temperature- the degree of hotness or coldness required in
cooking or preparing a certain recipe.
Common Measuring Terms in
cooking
Volume Abbreviation
Tablespoon tbsp or T
Teaspoon tsp or t
Cup c
Fluid Ounce fl oz
Pint pt
Quart qt
Gallon gal
Milliliter ml
Liter l
Mass and Weight Abbreviation
Pound lb
Ounce oz
Milligram mg
Gram g
Kilogram kg

Temperature Abbreviation
Fahrenheit F
Celsius C
Converting
Measurements
Dry or Weight Measurements
Quantity English Unit Metric Unit
1/16 teaspoon A dash

1/8 teaspoon or less A pinch or 6 .5 milliliter


drops

¼ teaspoon 15 drops 1 milliliter

½ teaspoon 30 drops 2 milliliters

1 teaspoon 1/3 tablespoon 1/6 ounce 5 milliliters

3 teaspoon 1 tablespoon ½ ounce 14 grams

2 tablespoons 1/8 cup 1 ounce 28 grams


4 tablespoons ¼ cup 2 ounces 56.7 grams

5 tablespoons plus 1 1/3 cup 2.6 ounces 73.7 grams


teaspoon

8 tablespoons ½ cup 4 ounces .25 pound 113.4 grams

10 tablespoons plus 2 2/3 cup 5.2 ounces 147.4 grams


teaspoon

12 tablespoons ¾ cup 6 ounces .375 pound 170 grams

16 tablespoons 1 cup 8 ounces .500 pound or ½ 226.8 grams


pound

32 tablespoons 2 cups 16 ounces 1 pound 453.6 grams

64 tablespoons 4 cups r 1 quart 32 ounces 2 pounds 907.2 grams


Wet or Volume Measurements
Quantity English Unit Metric Unit
jigger 1 ½ or 1.5 fluid 3 tablespoons 45 milliliters
ounces
1 cup 8 fluid ounces ½ pint 16 tablespoons 237 milliliters

2 Cups 16 fluid ounces 1 pint 32 tablespoons 474 milliliters

4 cups 32 fluid ounces 1 quart 64 tablespoons 946 millilitres

2 pints 32 fluid ounces 1 quart 4 cups .946 liters

4 quarts 128 fluid ounces 1 gallon 16 cups 3.8 liters

8 quarts 256 fluid ounces 2 gallons 32 cups 7.6 liters


or one peck
4 pecks One bushel

dash Less than ¼


teaspoon
Temperature Commonly Used in
Cooking and Baking
Fahrenheit (F) Celsius (C)
250 F 121 C

300 F 149 C

350 F 177 C

400 F 204 C

450 F 232 C
Measuring Ingredients
Correctly
Measuring Dry Ingredients
Measuring Wet Ingredients
Remember these tips:
1. Spray cooking oil on the liquid measuring cup in
measuring sticky ingredients like honey and
molasses. The cooking oil will facilitate the transfer
of these sticky ingredients to a different container.
2. Use a dry measuring cup in measuring shortening and
other malleable ingredients. Malleable ingredients are
those that are capable of being moulded or shaped.
3. Use a push-up measuring cup in measuring peanut
butter, sour cream, and other semi-malleable
ingredients.
4. Determine the correct amount of butter either by
using the labels on its wrapper or by treating softened
butter as a malleable ingredients.
Substituting
Ingredients
Dry Ingredients Amount Substitute
Allspice 1 tsp ½ tsp cinnamon and ½ tsp ground
cloves

Apple pie spice 1 tsp ½ tsp cinnamon, ¼ tsp nutmeg, and


½ tsp cardamom

Arrowroot starch 1 ½ tsp 1 tbsp. flour

1 ½ tsp cornstarch
1/3 tsp baking soda and ½ tsp cream of tartar
Baking Powder
¼ tsp baking soda and ½ cup sour milk or buttermilk
1 tsp (Decrease liquid called for in recipe by ½ cup.)

¼ tsp baking soda and ½ tsp vinegar or lemon juice


used with sweet milk to make ½ cup (Decrease liquid
called for in recipe by ½ cup.)

Bay leaf
1 whole ¼ tsp crushed
Bread 1 slice dry 1/3 cup dry breadcrumbs

1 slice sof ¾ cup sof breadcrumbs

Chives, finely chopped

2 tsp 2 tsp green onion tops, finely chopped

Chocolate, chips semisweet


1 oz 1 oz sweet cooking chocolate
Chocolate, semisweet
1 2/3 oz 1 oz unsweetened chocolate and 4 tsp
sugar

Chocolate unsweetened
1 oz or square 3 tbsp. Cocoa and 1 tbsp. butter or fat

Cocoa 1 oz (square) unsweetened chocolate


¼ cup or 4 tbsp. (Decrease fat called for in recipe by ½
tbsp.)

Corn
1 doz ears 2 ½ cups cooked
Cornmeal, self-rising
1 cup 7/8 cup plain, 1 ½ tbsp. baking powder,
and 11/2 tsp salt

Corn starch (for thickening) 2 tbsp. all-purpose flour


1 tbsp.
2 tbsp. granular tapioca

Cracker crumbs
¾ cup 1 cup dry bread crumbs

Dates
1 lb 2 ½ cups pitted
Dill plant, fresh or died

3 heads 1 tbsp. dill seed

Flour, all-purpose (for 1 ½ tsp cornnstarch, arrowroot starch, potato


thickening) starch, or rice starch
1 tbsp granular tapioca

1 tbsp waxy rice flour


1 tbsp
tbsp browned flour
1 ½ tbsp whole wheat flour

½ tbsp whole wheat flour and1/2 tbsp all-


purpose flour
1 tbsp quick-cooking tapioca
1 cup and 2 tbsp cake flour
Flour, all-purpose 1 cup rolled oats, crushed
½ cup cornmeal or soybean flour and 2/3 cup all
purpose flour
¾ cup whole wheat flour or bran flour and ¼ cup all-
1 cup sifed purpose flour
1 cup rye or rice flour
¼ cup soybean flour and ¾ cup all-purpose flour
½ cup cornmeal, bran, rice flour, or whole wheat
flour and ½ cup all purpose flour

4 cups sifed
1 lb
3 1/3 cups, unsifed
Flour, cake 1 lb 4 ¾ cups

1 cup sifed 1 cup minus 2 tbsp sifed all-purpose


flour (7/8 cup)

Flour, self-rising
1 cup minus 2tsp all-purpose flour, 1 ½
1 cup tsp baking powder, and ½ tsp salt

Garlic

1 clove, small 1/8 tsp garlic powder


Garlic salt

1 tsp 1/8 tsp garlic powder plus


7/8 tsp salt

Ginger 1 tsp candied ginger rinsed


in water to remove sugar,
1/8 tsp then finely cut
1 tbsp raw ginger

Maple sugar (grated and ½ cup 1 cup maple syrup


packed)

1 tbsp 1 tbsp white, granulated


sugar
Marshmallows,
miniature
1 cup 8-10 regular

Onion powder 1 medium onion, chopped

1 tsbp
4 tbsp fresh chopped onion

Pimiento 1 tbsp dried red bell peppes, rehydrated

2 tsbp
3 tbsp fresh red bel pepper, chopped
Pumpkin pie spice
½ tsp cinnamon, ¼ tsp ginger, 1/8 tsp
1 Tsp allspice, and 1/8 tsp nutmeg

Sugar, brown 1 cup firmly 1 cup granulated sugar


packed

1 lb 2 ¼ cups firmly packed

Tapioca, granular

1 tsbp 2 tbsp pearl tapioca


1 ½ cups corn syrup (Decrease liquid
called for in recipe by ¼ cup.)
Sugar, granulated
1 1/3 cups molasses (Decrease liquid
called for in recipe by 1/3 cup.)
1 cup powdered sugar
1 cup

1 cup brown sugar, firmly packed

¾ cup honey (Decrease liquid called for


in recipe by ¼ cup; for each cup of
honey in baked goods, add ½ tsp soda.)
Wet Ingredient Amount Substitute
Broth, beef or chicken 1 bouillon cube dissolved in 1 cup
boiling water
1 cup
1 envelope powdered broth base
dissolved in 1 cup boiling water
1 ½ tsp powdered broth base dissolve in
1 cup boiling water
Butter 7/8 to 1 cup hydrogenated fat and ½ tsp
salt
1 cup 7/8 cup lard and ½ tsp salt

1 cup magarine
Buttermilk (sour milk) 1 cup plain yogurt

1 cup 1 cup whole or skim milk and 1 tbsp lemon


juice or white vinegar
1 cup milk and 1 ¾ tsp cream of tartar

Chili sauce 1 cup tomato sauce, ¼ cup brown sugar, 2


tbsp vinegar, ¼ tsp cinnamon, dash of
1 cup ground cloves, and dash of aaspice
1 cup catsup. ¼ tsp cinnamon, dashes of
ground cloves and allspice
Coconut cream

1 cup 1 cup whipping cream


Coconut milk
1 cup evaporated milk and ½ tsp coconut
1 cup extract

Corn syrup 1 ¼ cup light brown sugar and 1/3 cup


water
1 cup
7/8 cup honey (Baked goods will brown
more.)

Corn syrup, dark

1 cup ¾ cup light corn syrup and ¼ cup light


molasses
Cream, heavy (36% to 40% ¾ cup milk and 1/3 cup butter or
fat) margarine (for use in cooking or baking)
1 cup
2 to 2 ½ cups whipped

Cream, light (18% to 20% ¾ cup milk and 3 tsbp butter or margarine
fat) (for use in cooking or baking)
1 cup
1 cup evaporated milk, undiluted

Cream, whipped Chill a 13-oz can of evaporated milk until


ice crystals form. Add 1 tsp lemon juice.
Whip- until stiff.
Egg, whole, uncooked 3 tbsp and 1 tsp thawed frozen egg
2 ½ tbsp sifed, dry whole egg powder and 2
½ tbsp lukewarm water
1 large (3 tsbp) 2 yolks and 1 tbsp water (in cookies)
2 yolks (in custards, cream fillings, and
similar mixture)
2 whites as thickening agent

Egg white 2 tsp thawed frozen egg white


2 tbsp sifed, dry egg white powder, and 2
1 large ( tbsp) tbsp lukewarm water
1 cup 8 large egg whites
Gelatin, flavoured

3 oz 1 tbsp plain gelatine and 2 cups fruit juice

Honey

1 cup 1 ¼ cup sugar and ¼ cup water

Ketchup
1 cup tomato sauce, ¼ cup brown sugar,
1 cup and 2 tbsp vinegar (for use in cooking.)
Lemon juice

1 tsp juice ½ tsp vinegar

Lime

1 medium 1 ½ to 2 tbsp juice

Mayonnaise (for salad ½ cup yogurt and ½ cup


dressings) mayonnaise
1 cup 1 cup sour cream

1 cup cottage cheese


pureed in blender
Milk, buttermilk (or 1 cup plain yogurt
sour)
1 cup minus 1 tbsp. sweet milk and 1 tbsp.
lemon juice or vinegar (Allow to stand 20
1 cup minutes at room temperature.)

1 cup sweet milk and 1 ¾ tsp. cream of


tartar

Milk, skim
4 to 5 tbsp. non-fat dry milk powder and
enough water to make 1 cup or follow
1 cup manufacturer’s directions

½ cup evaporated ,milk and ½ cup water


Milk, sweetened Heat the following ingredients until sugar and
condensed butter are dissolve: 1/3 cup and 2 tbsp
evaporated milk, 1 cup sugar, and 3 tbsp butter
1 can (about 1 or margarine.
1/3 cups)
Add 1 cup and 2 tbsp dry milk ½ cup warm
water. Mix well. Add ¾ cup sugar and 3 tbsp
melted butter or margarine. Stir until smooth.

Milk, whole 1 cup reconstituted non-fat dry milk (Add 2


tbsp butter or margarine, if desired.)

1 cup ½ cup evaporated milk and ½ cup water

4 tbsp whole dry milk and 1 cup water (or


follow manufacturer’s directions.)
1 cup fruit juice or 1 cup potato water (for use
in baking.)
Shortening, solid
(used in baking) 1 cup minus 2 tbsp lard (7/8 cup)

1 cup
1 1/8 cup butter (Decrease salt called for in
recipe by ½ tsp.)

Shortening, melted

1 cup 1 cup cooking oil (Substitute only if recipe


calls for melted shortening,)
Sour cream, cultured ¾ cup sour milk or buttermilk and 1/3 cup
butter or margarine
Blend until smooth: 1/3 cup buttermilk, 1 tbsp
1 cup lemon juice, and 1 cup cottage cheese
1 cup plain yogurt

¾ cup milk, ¾ tsp lemon juice, and 1/3 cup


butter or margarine

Tomato juice

1 cup ½ cup tomato sauce and ½ cup water


Worcestershire sauce

1 tsp 1 tsp bottled steak sauce

Yogurt, plain 1 cup buttermilk

1 cup 1 cup cottage cheese blended until


smooth

1 cup sour cream