You are on page 1of 32

| 


 
  
NATURE OF
DECISION MAKING
ëp p   pp
 

 p  
 

p
  

ë  MMED DECISI  ? ? ?
 

   
? ?


|   £  
  
       
 
    
    

è|  
   
è 
     
è|  
     
è     
    
ë  MM | |   ? 
? ? 

?
  
 ? 
 
? 
?  ? ? ?
ë  M       
  
      £  

  
      
 

   
è       


è      
è
  
 
Characteristics of Programmed and
Nonprogrammed
Characteristics Programmed Decisions Nonprogrammed Decision

 |         

   !         

" # $  %




&  !      $  


 
#     '

(
) *   *    +   

     !    

,  |  $    -


      
` 
 
` ` ëë   ?   ?
 
  
? ? ? 
w O      
 

w   

w       
w 
 
  
w  
  
w 
  

Cognitive dissonance
w  
  
w Otate the Oituational Goal      

 
         
$

   

w !dentify the Problem    


    
        



w Determining Decision Type    


        
 

  

w R aluate Alternati es     



        
 
w Choose an Alternati e      
        
 
 

w !mplement the Plan         


  
Cognitive Dissonance ë ? ? 
 
?   
     
 
 ?  
 
? 

? 


w Control: Measure and Adjust     



     
 $  
         
      

O      !  


      
& 
       
 ?   ?
$   ? 
   ?   ?      
      
       
`   

w ÿounded Rationality £ 

  
   
        

       
 
        

ÿ
    

[ u  

 u 

 u  £     


      


 


    


   

*  u   £          


         


`    
  
 
        
          
           
 
  
) 
`   
 
XConflict model ë   
  
       
       .   
      
    "$
    


& 
&    
|     

& 

 

 

  
onprogrammed Programmed
&   
 & 
"      
     
 
0| !
& 
1    
'   

!        


   
|   


&        


 
& 
# /
   0 '
 1  

ë  
    
 
 
        
   £     
     
   £     


                 

  
          
    
         
 
  
   

      



*       
   
       
  
        

     
   
   
£  £         
 
  


!         
          
                

        
        
@   
      
 
       
         
@  
    

 
        
        
       
 
 
         
       
             
 
    
     $     
 
 

          

   
 
     $  


           
$ 
 
 
 
Antecedent Condition Mediating Processes Consequences

  /
# 



    
  

23
0  &  0      o + 
   
 & 4 
5 0   


àaybe or Yes

26
&    0      o + 


 & 
5 #

1 /
& 
àaybe or Yes  $
  



27

  
&       o |   
    
   0 
   
 5
àaybe or Yes

28
&      &     o
     9 

    
  5 1 /
& 
àaybe or Yes  $
%
   



å   
  
   
!  , 0  | 
 

ETHICSë    4   


  
  

  
 
ESCALATION OF COMMITMENTë  
         
           '  
  
"|  

w ˜ oup Pola ization      



4  
 ë      
  .       
 ë
    
w ˜ oup Thinkë      

       
  
     ë
  
          
       
 " 
3 0     $        $ 
   .     
 .     


6 #       )   


  

              

        

7 0         
4     $ 

    
           


8        :  :        



     
          
                
 
´ |       .   

  

   
4    $$   $
 
          .  
  

;  ë       


 $
   
     )     
     
  

< 0  $  


  ë
   $
        
     

=    
  ë >
 :$  
    
      
  
             
  
`   

`ime

" "   | ë  


 | 
#     |    (  

*  
 
 "      
#
 
ù `     
       
             
 

ù `         


          
          
  

ù `        


           
        
   
" 

ÿ   ë       



     
  
      
     

`$ 
 ` %
>       

   

>
     
  ë 
        

`
` %ë  

  
'
   .   
 
  
A. Leader prescriptions
3 0
         
6 ,  ?        
7 0
   4        
  
8 +    .    
  

´ ,      
  
ÿ. Organizational prescriptions
3        
       
6 
 
  
     
  
C. !ndi idual prescription
3 ,    
6 |
        ?    
 

D. Process prescriptions
3       
 
     
6        .  
7 9      
       

   

  
Negotiation is the process in
which two or more parties
(people or groups) reach
agreement even though they
have different preferences.
0  
  
&  |      

          
 
  
  #       .  

     
"         

           

    
#
  0   
)   

          


  
ë 
  
 ‰in - ‰in       

  
     
   
&  
    
     $ 
   
  
   
!0  0 
PLANN!NG       
    

$    
    $   
 
   $     
  

   
   
RRLAT!ONO!P ë     
       
        $    
   
AGRRRMRNT             

$  
   $   
        
    
'    
    
Maintenance    
 
   
  $ 
    
   $ 

  $  
        
ë 
ë

‰ 

   ë
 

‰ 





`  PRAM MOD