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4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

BIOLOGY

ACID RAIN

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH
4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

A QUICK

OVERVIE
W
• Definition
• Forms of Acid Rain
• Causes of Acid Rain
• Effects of Acid Rain
• Ways to Overcome It

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH
4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

WHAT IS

ACID RAIN
?
• Rain that contains a high concentration of pollutants (SO2 & NO2)
• Caused by air pollutants such as cars and industrial processes
• Is easily defined as rain, fog, sleet or snow

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH
4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

WHAT IS

ACID RAIN
?

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH
4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

THE FORMS OF

ACID RAIN
WET DEPOSITION

• refers to acidic rain, fog and snow.


• as the acidic water flows down, living organisms are
affected.

DRY DEPOSITION

• refers to acidic gases and particles.


• half of the acidity in the atmosphere falls down
through dry deposition.

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH
4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

WHAT CAUSES

ACID RAI
N
Natural Causes:
• Volcano eruptions
• Wildfire
• Decaying vegetation
• Biological processes

Man-made Causes
• Air pollution sources
• Use of coal for electrical power generation

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH
4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

NATURAL CAUSES

VOLCANOE
S
• Volcanoes emit sulfuric gases to
create higher than normal amounts
of acid rain or any other form of
precipitation

• This will affect vegetation cover and


health of residents within the
surrounding

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH
4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

NATURAL CAUSES

LIGHTNIN
G

Lighting strikes also naturally


produces nitric oxides that react
with water molecules via electrical
activity to produce nitric acid,
thereby forming acid rain.

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH
4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

NATURAL CAUSES

OTHER CAUSE
S

As well as volcano eruptions,


decaying vegetation also releases
sulfuric gases that contributes to
the forming of acid rain.

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH
4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

MAN–MADE CAUSES

AIR POLLUTION
• Use of coal for electrical power generation is the biggest
contributor to gaseous emissions.
• Automobiles and factories also release high scores of
gaseous emissions on a daily basis.
• As a result, these areas experience exceedingly high
amounts of acid rain

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH
4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

THE EFFECTS OF

ACID RAIN
• Aquatic Environment
• Forests
• Soil
• Vegetation Cover and Plantations
• Architecture and Buildings
• Public Health

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH
4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

THE EFFECTS ON

FORESTS

• Tress become vulnerable to diseases,


extreme weather, and insects by
destroying their leaves, damaging the
bark and arresting their growth.
• Forest damage is most evident in Eastern
Europe – Germany, Poland & Switzerland

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH
4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

THE EFFECTS ON

BUILDINGS

• Acid rain on buildings, especially


those constructed with limestone,
react with the minerals and corrode
them away.
• Modern buildings, cars, airplanes,
steel bridges and pipes are all
affected by acid rain.

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH
4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

THE EFFECTS ON

PUBLIC HEALTH
• Acid rain is too dilute to affect human health
• However, the dry depositions can cause serious
health problems when inhaled.
• Intensified levels of acid can cause lung cancer and
heart problems

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH
4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

WAYS TO OVERCOME

ACID RAI
N
• Cleaning up Exhaust Pipes and
Smokestacks
• Restoring Damages
Environments
• Alternative Energy Sources
• Individual, State and International
Actions

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH
4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

ALTERNATIVE

ENERGY SOURCE
S
• Wind energy, geothermal energy, solar
energy, hydropower and nuclear power.
• Harnessing these energy sources can offer
effective electrical power alternatives instead
of using fossil fuels
• Fuel cells, natural gas and batteries can also
substitute the use of fossil fuel

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH
4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

INDIVIDUAL,NATIONAL &

INTERNATIONAL
ACTIONS
Millions of people unknowingly
contributes to SO2 and NOx emissions.
Individuals should :

• turn of electrical appliances when


not in use
• use public transport
• use energy efficient electrical
appliances
• use hybrid vehicles

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH
4 CENGAL | SMK DAMANSARA UTAMA

ACID RAIN

THANK
YOU

ACID RAIN | MEGAT DANISH, SOFIAH HANIF, FAREENA FOHAD, ZALFEERA ZAKI, DAMIA MADIHAH