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Accuracy vs.

Precision
and the Scientific Method
A. Review
1. What does the pattern of averages
represent in slide two?
a) Pattern of averages = many repetitions
2. What is the purpose of repetition in science?
a) To over come human error or randomness
b) Eg. Large sample populations, same experiment
many times over with the same results.
3. Will repetition eliminate systematic errors?
a) NO! A scientist has to allow for margin of error
or adjust, like aiming higher to compensate or
mechanically adjust the scope.
4. Target Analogy to Sci. Method

1. Target is the expected outcome


2. The holes represent actual outcome
3. Precision and accuracy represent
analysis of results
4. In science we analyze expected vs.
actual outcomes and come to
conclusions
B. Review of Scientific Method
1. Observations and Research
2. Inferences
3. Hypothesis
4. Experiment
a) Variables
5. Results
6. Conclusion and Discussion
7. Part 1- Observations/Research
a) What are we interested in???? Come on
think!
b) RHS example-jet propulsion
c) Make observations and research the
topic
d) **Observations are measurable**
e) Research can come from a few areas or many. You
cannot make an educated guess with out knowing
something about the topic.
f) You can get information through:
i. Reading assignments in the text book.
ii. Using the internet.
iii.Remembering personal experience.
iv.Notes form lectures.
v. Books from library or personal.
2. Inferences
a) Not measurable
b) What is an inference?????
c) a logical interpretation of an
observation based on facts
d) I have my license now, therefore, I
am eligible to drive
3. Implications
Now that I have my license I will drive
everyday to school like my brother.

You may or may not drive to school


everyday like your brother. You may not
drive at all!

Implications are possible outcomes, but not


necessarily actual results. These are
assumptions or possibilities. Good luck with
that!
e. Deductive/Inductive reasoning
i. Adham: I've noticed previously that every
time I kick a ball up, it comes back down,
so I guess this next time when I kick it up,
it will come back down, too.
ii. Rizik: That's Newton's Law. Everything that
goes up must come down. And so, if you
kick the ball up, it must come down.
iii. Adham is using inductive reasoning,
arguing from observation,
– Inductive = Today’s science = going from
individual facts to large theories. while Rizik is using
iv. deductive reasoning, arguing from the law
of gravity.
• Deductive = Early science (philosophy) =
Start with the general idea and reduce it to
its smaller facts.
NEXT…
3. HYPOTHESIS
• We call this the educated “guess” based
on academic research.
– How would you explain this????
– Okay…it’s an “educated” (from facts) guess
that will be answered (hopefully) with…
4. Design and experiment/test
AKA. Materials and Methods
a) Otherwise known as the test procedure
b) Why is it important to be accurate and
precise??? Why is it important to be clear
and concise?
c) So it can be repeated…like excuses for
being tardy to class. You and your friends
stay late for lunch resulting in lateness, thus
you devise an excuse and see if that
works…
d) because we all know you’ll try it again if it
does work, it not move something else…
e) You must document everything done
in an experiment so others can
reproduce the experiment to confirm
(or disprove) your results.
f) Measurements must be recorded and
exact!
a. What are variables?????
i. Manipulated/Independent Variable:
i. What you change MV (IV)
ii. Responding/Dependant variable:
i. What responds to the  RV (DV)
iii. Control (s) the unchanged variable to
compare to the Manipulated  C
iv. Identifying variables assignment
(front)
v. What variable was your control, what was
your dependent variable, your independent
variable?
vi. This makes graphing easier;
1. your independent variable is on the X-axis and
2. your dependent variable is on the Y-axis.
3. Graphs are analytical tools to aide in interpreting
your data. (Note: graphs are used only in
quantitative data.)
5 – Analysis/Results (Quantitative and
Qualitative)
a) What does the data from your results tell you?
i. Hard numbers are stated here. No discussion or
interpretation of results is given. Graphs and data
tables are referenced so reader can see
mathematical results visually. Percent margin of
error is also part of results both systematic and
random. (Quantitative)
ii. When subject A consumed 2000 grams of black
licorice containing caffeine, systolic and diastolic
blood pressure increased by 10 points, 3000 grams
and so on. You describe what actually happened.
Time to play!!!!!
• Graph your height experiment Lab
• Measure Up Lab
i. In the graph your height experiment
identify controls and variables
a) C- same meter stick for all students
b) MV-inches (X axis)
c) RV-centimeters (Y axis)
d) Results expected outcome = 2.54 cm per in
and actual was______ with a margin of error.
e) What type of error did we have?
a) random because sticks were off slightly (human)
b) How did we adjust for error? Many samples
6-Conclusion –
a) Was your hypothesis right or wrong? You accept or
reject your hypothesis and discuss
i. A discussion of what you discovered by doing
this experiment. Any formulas you proved, or
derived by doing this experiment should be
discussed. Did you accomplish your purpose? In
other words – What did you learn. What tool was
most significant in explaining your findings?
(Inferences)
ii. If your hypothesis was wrong you should think
things over or trouble-shoot, write a new
hypothesis, and retest. (implications)
C. Significant Digits and Scientific
Notation
1. Sig. Fig. rules
a) Digits from 1-9 are always significant
(non zero).
b) Zeros between two other significant digits
are always significant
c) Final zeros to the right of the decimal
point are significant digits.
d) Zeros used solely for spacing the decimal
point (placeholders) are not significant.
13.501
Add all
the
Step 1
numbers
together

6.101 + 7.4 + 0.68 + 12.0


• 1.) Determine the least-significant place
of each term in the addition.
– The least-significant place of 6.101 is the
thousandths place.
– The least-significant place of 7.4 is the
tenths place.
• 2.) The result of addition should be
rounded to the same least-
significant place as the term with the
largest least-significant place.
– The result should be rounded to the tenths
place.
3) Round the result to the proper least-
significant place.
– The arithmetic result of 13.501 rounded to
the tenths place is 13.5.
Examples
• 2804
– 4 sig. fig
• 2.84
– 3 sig. fig
• 0.0029
– 2 sig. fig
• .003068
– 4 sig. fig
• .100
– 3 sig. fig. because final zero is trailing and therefore sig.
• 34, 780, 0.507,1.200, and 2
• Add these together and what is the final
answer using the rules of sig. figs.?
• Did you get the number 817.707?
• What is your final answer?
• You can only have an answer that is as
precise as the number containing the least
amount of sig. figs.
• 800
Scientific Notation
2) Rule for Addition and Subtraction - when
adding or subtracting in scientific notation, you must
express the numbers in the same power of 10. This
will often involve changing the decimal place of the
coefficient. (use lowest number of exponent)
3) Rule for Multiplication - When you multiply
numbers with scientific notation, multiply the
coefficients together and add the exponents. The
base will remain 10.
4) Rule for Division - When dividing with scientific
notation, divide the coefficients and subtract the
exponents. The base will remain 10.
5) Complete worksheets
Examples
• Express in Scientific Notation
– 5800
• 5.8 x 103
– 450,000
• 4.5 x 105
– 302,000,000
• 3.02 x 108
– 86,000,000,000
• 8.6 x1010
Examples
• 6.0 x 10-3 mg + 2 x 10-4 mg
– Change 2 to .2 to make 10-3
– Exponents now the same so add
– Make exponents the same
– 6.0 + .2 = 6.2 x 10-3
• 6 x 10-8 – 4 x 10-8
– 2 x 10-8
Examples
• (2 x 104m) (4 x 108m)
– 2 x 4 =8 x 1012 m2
– Add the exponents
• 6 x 108 kg/2 x 104 m3
– 6/2 = 3 x 104 kg/m3
– Subtract exponents
Direct Relationship y=mx+b

Direct Relationship
Inverse Relationship y= a/x
Quadratic relationship y=ax2 + bx +c
parabola
• In physics we measure:
– Distance in meters (m)
– Mass in kilograms (Kg)
– Time in seconds (s)
Assignments

• Chapter 2 practice problems 1-3,6-


8b,9a-9c,12a-12b,13-17b (starts on
page 20)
• Chapter 2 review problems 30-43 and
46-47 (starts on page 39)
• Chapter 2 study guide handout