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Why Bacteria Associated with Oil and Gas Production?

Mechanisms f0r bacterial growth
★ Mathematical Models

A mathematical model for reservoir souring, as caused by

the growth of sulfate reducing bacteria, is available.
The model is a one-dimensional numerical transport model
based on conservation equations, and includes bacterial
growth rates and the effect of nutrients, water mixing,
transport, and adsorption of H2S in the reservoir

★ Model of Colony Growth

Detection of Bacteria
● API Serial Dilution Method
● Enzymatic Assay
● Electrochemical Determination
● Colorimetry
● Most Probable Number Technique
● DNA Sequencing
Bacterial Corrosion
● Mechanisms For Microbial Corrosion

1. Cathodic depolarization

2. Formation of occluded area on metal surface

3. Fixing the anodic sites

4. Underdeposit acid attack

Simultaneous mechanisms of
❏ Ph Regulation
❏ Biocide Enhancers

Corrosion Monitoring

The monitoring techniques in this review include measurements

of electrochemical properties,measurements of physical metal
loss,and enumeration of sessile organisms
Corrosion Monitoring
Bacterial Hydrogenase

This test can be used to monitor oil and gas

systems for the development of potentially corrosive
bacterial populations, and to assess the efficacy of control
measures, including biocide treatment, because the
hydrogenase test yields negative results when this pivotal,
corrosion-causing enzyme has been denatured.
Corrosion Monitoring
Lipid Biomarkers

Methods for examining consortia are based on the

detection of lipid biomarkers that are characteristic for
different classes of microbes. These can be analyzed by gas
chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry.

Electron Microscopy

Side stream sampling devices can be used to collect

biofilm and corrosion samples. The biofilm,inorganic passive
layers,and metal attacked samples can be characterized with
scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray
analysis.Results of one such study showed a correlation b/w
biofouling and corrosion attack of carbon steel samples
Assessment of activity of biocides
1.Impedance Microbiology

2.Redox Potential

Treatment with Biocides
Previously Fractured Formations

Non Biocidal Control

Bio Competitive Technology

Inhibitors for Bacterial Technology

Periodic Change of Ionic Strength

These include oxidizers, such as chlorine and bromine
products, and non-oxidizing biocides, including
isothiazolones, quats, organobromines, and glutaraldehyde.

Biocides are needed to control the activity of the

bacteria in a system, but biocides alone usually will not
solve a microbiologic problem.

Examples for Biocides are

formaldehyde,glutaraldehyde,bisulphite adduct,chlorine-CHO
green biocide enhancer
Biocide Compounds
1)Ammonium based

bis[tetrakis(hydroxymethyl)phosphonium] sulfate


n-Butyl benzisothiazolinone,2-Benzoisothiazolin-3-one etc

3)Halogen compounds

Chlorine dioxide,Bromine Chloride etc

4)Nitrogen compounds

Sodium pyrithione,Tetramethylol acetylene diurea etc

Effervescent Biocide Compositions
Compositions of this kind generally include one or more
biocidal ingredients delivered in the form of an effervescent
tablet. It has been discovered that effervescent tablets
provide a useful delivery method for delivering biocidal
agents to oil field fluids because

1.They alleviate problems encountered with the application of

dry biocides, i.e., water-soluble bags and

2.The effervescent action of the tablet when it dissolves in

the fluid serves to disperse the biocidal agent.