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Values and Attitudes

The basic convictions that a specific mode of conduct

or end state of existence is personally and socially
Values are stable and enduring
Values are learned
Importance of Values

Values are the foundation for understanding of

attitudes and motivation
Values influence attitudes and behaviour
Types of Values
Terminal Values
 Refers to the desirable end states of existence
 Freedom, self respect, Happiness, Sense of
Accomplishment, Family Security

Instrumental Values
 Preferable modes of behaviour or means of
achieving one’s terminal values
Values across Cultures
GLOBE Framework for Assessing Cultures:

1. Individualism vs Collectivism
 US - high on individualism, Most Asian
countries more collectivist
2. Quantity of life vs Quality of life
 Assertiveness, acquisition of money and material
goods and competition vs
 Value relationships, show sensitivity and concern for
the welfare of others
Values across Cultures
3. Uncertainty Avoidance
Preference for structured vs unstructured situations
Feels threatened by uncertain and ambiguous
4. Long-term vs short-term orientation
 Futuristic
 Value past and present, respect tradition and fulfilling social
5. Performance vs Humane Orientation
 The degree to which society encourages performance
improvement and excellence
 Rewards individuals for being fair, altruistic, generous and caring
Values across Cultures

6. Performance vs Humane Orientation

 The degree to which society encourages performance
improvement and excellence
 Rewards individuals for being fair, altruistic, generous and

A learned predisposition to respond in a consistently

favourable or unfavourable manner with respect to an
object, person or situation
A general feeling or evaluation - positive or negative
about some person, object or issue
Attitudes are less stable than values
Factors that determine Attitude
Individuals are not born with attitudes
Attitudes are learned
Most of our attitude is shaped during our formative
The THREE factors that determine attitude are :
(1) Environment (2) Experience &
(3) Education
Attitude-Behaviour Relationship (A-B)

The relationship between Attitude and Behaviour gets

enhanced by the following Moderating Variables:

1. Importance of an Attitude
2. Its Specificity (eg. Turnover/satisfaction)
3. Its Accessibility - More frequently expressed
4. Social Pressure
5. Direct Experience
Cognitive Dissonance
Incompatibility between two or more attitudes or
between attitude and behaviour
Any form of inconsistency or incompatibility
causes discomfort
Individuals try to seek a stable state in which there
is minimum dissonance
Changing Attitudes
Barriers to Changing Attitudes:
Insufficient Information
Prior Commitments
Changing Attitudes

How to change an unfavourable employee

Depends on:
Who you are
The strength of the employee’s attitude
Magnitude of change desired
Technique chosen to change attitude
Changing Attitudes

1. Who you are:

 By someone who is liked, is credible, convincing
 Employee (others) see you as believable,
knowledgeable, and unbiased
 You present your arguments clearly and
2. The strength of the employee’s attitude:
 Can be changed if not strongly committed to it
 Not publicly expressed
Changing Attitudes
3. Magnitude of change desired
 Will form a new attitude if it does not vary greatly from his
current attitude
4. Technique chosen to change attitude
Oral persuasion most effective when
you use positive, tactful tone
Present strong evidence to support your position
Tailor your argument to the listener
Use logic
Are able to reach out to them at the emotional level
Work Related Attitudes
Job Satisfaction
Job Involvement
Organisational Commitment
Job Satisfaction
Factors Influencing Job Satisfaction:
 The work itself (mentally challenging work)
 Working Conditions (supportive work
 Pay (equitable rewards)
 Promotion Opportunities
 Supervision – technical assistance & behavioural
 Co-workers – technically proficient and socially
 Participation
Outcomes of Job Satisfaction/Dissatisfaction
 Productivity
 Engagement/Participation
 Commitment
 Citizenship Behaviour
 Absenteeism
 On the job accidents
 Work Grievances
 Attrition
Outcomes of Job Dissatisfaction