Halliday Resnick Fundamental physics powerpoint lectures

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Halliday Resnick Fundamental physics powerpoint lectures

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PHY34210

Notre Dame,

London Programme,

Fall 2013

Prof. Paddy Regan

Dept. of Physics, University of

Surrey, Guildford, GU2 7XH, UK

E-Mail: p.regan@surrey.ac.uk

Course & General Information REGAN 2

• Lectures, usually, Tuesdays 2.15-5.00 PHY34210

– first lecture Tues 27th August 2010

– One ‘makeup’ lecture Mon. 30th Sept. 5.15 – 8pm (no class on Tues. 29th Oct)

• Grading

– 3 x 2 hour class examinations

• Exam 1 : Tues. 24th September (30%);

• Exam 2: Tues 5th November (35%),

• Exam 3: Tues. 26th November (35%)

• Some information about Prof. Paddy Regan FInstP CPhys:

– National Physical Lab. & University of Surrey Chair Professor in Radionuclide Metrology, ( staff since 1994).

– BSc University of Liverpool (1988); DPhil University of York (1991).

– Adjunct Assoc. Prof. at ND London 2002-7; Full Professor from 2007 - present

– Held post-doctoral research positions at:

• University of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia, USA (1991-2)

• Australian National University, Canberra, Australia (1992-4);

• Yale University (sabbatical researcher 2002 ; Flint Visiting Research Fellow 2004 – 2013)

– Co-author of >200 papers in nuclear physics; supervised 25 PhD students so far + 100 Masters.

– Led RISING and PreSPEC projects (major nuclear physics research project at GSI, Germany).

– Married (to a nurse), 4 kids.

– Understands gridiron, baseball, (ice) hockey etc., regular visitor to US (and other countries)

– Still plays squash and golf (poor, 27); formerly football (soccer), cricket & a bit of rugby (union).

– Occasional half marathons for the mental health charity, MIND (see

– http://uk.virginmoneygiving.com/Paddy-James-Clare-Regan

– Have also done some (physics related) media work in the UK and USA, see e.g.,

– http://www.bbc.co.uk/news/world-asia-pacific-12744973

REGAN 3

PHY34210

Course textbook,

Fundamentals of Physics,

published by Wiley & Sons.

http://www.wiley.com/WileyCDA/WileyTitle/productCd-EHEP001575.html

REGAN 4

PHY34210

PART 1 PART 2 PART 3

Lect 1: 27 Aug (Cp 1,2) * Lect 6: Mon. 30th Sept. Lect 11: 12 Nov. (13,14)

Lect 2: 03 Sept (Cp 3,4) (Ch. 7,8) 5.15 - 8pm Lect 12: 19 Nov. (15,16)

Lect 3: 10 Sept (Cp 5,6) * Lect 7: 01 Oct (Ch 9,10) Lect 13: Weds. 20 Nov

* Lect 8: 08 Oct. (Ch 11,12) (17,18) 5.15-8pm.

Lect 4: 17 Sept (revision) * Lect 9: 15 Oct. (revision)

Lect 14: 26 Nov Exam 3

Lect 5: 24 Sept Exam 1 Break, no lect. 22nd Oct.

No lect. 29th Oct (resched).

Course notes and past papers/solns can be found at the following link:

http://personal.ph.surrey.ac.uk/~phs1pr/lecture_notes/notre_dame/

REGAN 5

1st Section: PHY34210

• 1: Measurement

– Units, length, time, mass

• 2: Motion in 1 Dimension

– displacement, velocity, acceleration

• 3: Vectors

– adding vectors & scalars, components, dot and cross products

• 4: Motion in 2 & 3 Dimensions

– position, displacement, velocity, acceleration, projectiles,

motion in a circle, relative motion

• 5: Force and Motion: Part 1

– Newton’s laws, gravity, tension

• 6: Force and Motion: Part 2

– Friction, drag and terminal speed, motion in a circle

REGAN 6

2nd Section: PHY34210

– Work & kinetic energy, gravitational work, Hooke’s law, power.

• 8: Potential Energy and Conservation of Energy

– Potential energy, paths, conservation of mechanical energy.

• 9: Systems of Particles

– Centre of mass, Newton’s 2nd law, rockets, impulse,

• 10: Collisions.

– Collisions in 1 and 2-D

• 11 : Rotation

– angular displacement, velocity & acceleration, linear and

angular relations, moment of inertia, torque.

• 12: Rolling, Torque and Angular Momentum

– KE, Torque, ang. mom., Newton’s 2nd law, rigid body rotation

3rd section: REGAN

PHY34210

7

– equilibrium, centre of gravity, elasticity, stress and strain.

• 14: Gravitation

– Newton’s law, gravitational potential energy, Kepler’s laws.

• 15: Fluids

– density and pressure, Pascal’s principle, Bernoulli’s equation.

• 16 : Oscillations

– Simp. Harm. Mo. force and energy, pendulums, damped motion.

• 17 & 18 : Waves I and II

– Types of Waves, wavelength and frequency, interference,

standing waves, sound waves, beats, Doppler effect.

REGAN 8

Recommended Problems and Lecture Notes. PHY34210

solutions (later) for students to work through at their leisure.

Final grade will come from the three class exams.

http://www.ph.surrey.ac.uk/~phs1pr/lecture_notes/phy34210_13.ppt

and

http://www.ph.surrey.ac.uk/~phs1pr/lecture_notes/phy34210_13.pdf

REGAN 9

1: Measurement PHY34210

comparison to a reference STANDARD.

measurements they are to describe (i.e., you can’t use a ruler to

measure the radius of an atom!)

speed = distance / time). Thus, it often possible to define all other

quantities in terms of BASE STANDARDS including length

(metre), mass (kg) and time (second).

REGAN 10

SI Units PHY34210

7 base quantities, to form the International System of Units

Scientific Notation

In many areas of physics, the measurements correspond to very large

or small values of the base units (e.g. atomic radius ~0.0000000001 m).

This can be reduced in scientific notation to the ‘power of 10’ ( i.e.,

number of zeros before (+) or after (-) the decimal place).

e.g. 3,560,000,000m = 3.56 x 109 m = 3.9 E+9m

& 0.000 000 492 s = 4.92x10-7 s = 4.92 E-7s

REGAN 11

Prefixes PHY34210

• 1012 = Tera = T

For convenience, sometimes,

when dealing with large or small • 109 = Giga = G

units, it is common to use a prefix • 106 = Mega = M

to describe a specific power of 10

with which to multiply the unit. • 103 = Kilo = k

e.g.

• 10-3 = milli = m

• 10-6 = micro = m

1000 m = 103 m = 1E+3 m = 1 km

• 10-9 = nano = n

0.000 000 000 1 m = 10-10 m = 0.1 nm • 10-12 = pico = p

• 10-15 = femto = f

REGAN 12

Converting Units PHY34210

(e.g., Miles per hour and metres per second). This can be done most

easily using the CHAIN LINK METHOD, where the original value

is multiplied by a CONVERSION FACTOR.

NB. When multiplying through using this method, make sure you

keep the ORIGINAL UNITS in the expression

and (60 secs / 1 min) = 1

Note that 60 does not equal 1 though!

REGAN 13

Length (Metres) PHY34210

1/10,000,000 of the distance between the north pole and the equator.

Later the standards was changed to the distance between two lines

on a particular standard Platinum-Iridium bar kept in Paris.

light emitted from atoms of the isotope 86Kr.

during a time interval of 1/299,792,458 of a second.

• To Andromeda Galaxy ~ 1022 m

• Radius of earth ~ 107 m

• Adult human height ~2m

• Radius of proton ~ 10-15 m

REGAN 14

Time (Seconds) PHY34210

Original definition

1/(3600 x 24) of a day, 24 hours = 1day, 3600 sec per hours, thus

86,400 sec / day, 3651/4 days per year and 31,557,600 sec per year.

From HRW, p6

But, a day does not have

a constant duration!

to define 1 second as

the time for

9,192,631,770 oscillations

of the light of a specific

wavelength (colour) emitted

from an atom of caesium (133Cs)

REGAN 15

Mass (Kg, AMU) PHY34210

12

1 u = 1.66054 x 10-27 kg

Orders of Magnitude

It is common for physicists to ESTIMATE the magnitude of

particular property, which is often expressed by rounding up (or

down) to the nearest power of 10, or ORDER OF MAGNITUDE,

e.g.. 140,000,000 m ~ 108m,

REGAN 16

Estimate Example 1: PHY34210

estimate of the length, L , of the string in the ball.

4 3

Volume of string, V d L r

2

3

r r radius of ball 10cm/2 5cm 0.05m

assume cross - section of string ~ 3mm square

d

V 0.05m 3mm L 0.003m L

4 3 2 2

d 3

0.05m 3 4 0.05 0.05 0.05m 3

4

L 3

0.003m 2

0.003 0.003m 2

L 55.5m 60m

REGAN 17

PHY34210

E.g., 2: Estimate Radius of Earth (from the beach.)

From Pythagoras , d h

d 2 r 2 r h r 2 2rh h 2

2

d 2 2rh h 2 , but h r r

d 2 2rh r

sun moves around the earth during the

time between the ‘two’ sunsets (t ~ 10 sec).

t t ( 10 sec) 360(deg) 3600

(deg) (deg) 0 .04 o

2h

Now, from trigonome try, d r tan thus r 2 tan 2 2rh r

tan 2

2 2m 4m

if h human height ~ 2m, then substituti ng, r 8 10 6

m

tan (0.04 ) 4.9 10

2 o 7

REGAN 18

2: Motion in a Straight Line PHY34210

To locate the position of an object we need to define this RELATIVE

to some fixed REFERENCE POINT, which is often called the

ORIGIN (x=0).

In the one dimensional case (i.e. a straight

line), the origin lies in the middle of an

AXIS (usually denoted as the ‘x’-axis)

which is marked in units of length.

Note that we can also define x = -3 -2 -1 0 1 2 3

NEGATIVE co-ordinates too.

The DISPLACEMENT, Dx is the change from one position to

another, i.e., Dx= x2-x1 . Positive values of Dx represent motion in

the positive direction (increasing values of x, i.e. left to right looking

into the page), while negative values correspond to decreasing x.

Displacement is a VECTOR quantity. Both its size (or ‘magnitude’)

AND direction (i.e. whether positive or negative) are important.

REGAN 19

PHY34210

Average Speed and Average Velocity

We can describe the position of an

object as it moves (i.e. as a function

of time) by plotting the x-position

of the object (Armadillo!) at different

time intervals on an (x , t) plot.

total distance travelled (independent

of the direction or travel) divided by

the time taken. Note speed is a

SCALAR quantity, i.e., only its

magnitude is important (not its

direction).

From HRW

REGAN 20

PHY34210

The average VELOCITY is defined

by the displacement (Dx) divided

by the time taken for this

displacement to occur (Dt).

x2 x1 Dx

vav

t 2 t1 Dt

The SLOPE of the (x,t) plot gives

average VELOCITY.

Like displacement, velocity is a

VECTOR with the same sign as

the displacement.

is the velocity at a specific v lim Dt 0

moment in time, calculated by making Dt dt

Dt infinitely small (i.e., calculus!)

REGAN 21

Acceleration PHY34210

velocity (Dv) in a given time (Dt).

The average acceleration, aav,

is given by

dx2 dx1

v2 v1 dt dt Dv

aav

t2 t1 t2 t1 Dt

The instantaneous ACCELERATION

is given by a, where,

dv d dx d 2 x

a 2

dt dt dt dt

SI unit of acceleration is

metres per second squared (m/s2)

REGAN 22

PHY34210

Constant Acceleration and the Equations of Motion

For some types of motion (e.g., free

v v0

fall under gravity) the acceleration a aav

is approximately constant, i.e., if t 0

v0 is the velocity at time t=0, then

that the acceleration is a v0 initial velocity (at time t 0)

constant, we can derive a set

v velocity at time t

of equations in terms of the

following quantities a accelerati on (constant)

t time taken from t 0

and from these, one can calculate the other two from the following

equations of motion.

REGAN 23

Equations of Motion (for constant a). PHY34210

x x0

v v0 at (1) recalling that vav , then

t 0

since by definition , vav

v0 v

, 2vav v v0

2

1

substituti ng into (1) for v0 gives vav v0 at ,

2

1 2 d x x0

x x0 v0t at (2) , note v v0 at

2 dt

combining (1) and (2) to eliminate t , a and v0 gives

2 2 1

0

2

1 2

x x0 vt at (5)

2

REGAN 24

Alternative Derivations (by Calculus) PHY34210

dv d 2 x

a 2 by definition dv a dt

dt dt

dv a dt and thus for a constant

v at C , evaluated by knowing that at

t 0, v v0 v0 a 0 C thus, v v0 at (1)

dx

v dx v dt , v not constant, but v0 is, therefore

dt

by substituti on, dx v

0 at dt dx v0 dt a t dt

1 2

integratin g gives, x v0t at C , calculate C by

2

1

knowing x x0 at t t0 C x0 and x x0 v0t at 2 (5)

2

REGAN 25

Free-Fall Acceleration PHY34210

At the surface of the earth, neglecting any effect due to air resistance

on the velocity, all objects accelerate towards the centre of earth

with the same constant value of acceleration.

This is called FREE-FALL ACCELERATION, or ACCELERATION

DUE TO GRAVITY, g.

At the surface of the earth, the magnitude of g = 9.8 ms-2

Note that for free-fall, the equations of motion are in the y-direction

(i.e., up and down), rather than in the x direction (left to right).

Note that the acceleration due to gravity is always towards the centre

of the earth, i.e. in the negative direction, a= -g = -9.8 ms-2

REGAN 26

Example PHY34210

(a) how long does it take the ball to reach its maximum height ?

initial position is y0=0 and v v0 0 12ms 1

at the max. height vm a x=0 v v0 at t a 9.8ms 2 1.2s

(b) v 2

v0

2

2 a ( y y 0 ) (12) 2

2 a y 0 & v 0, v0 12 ms 1

,

1 2

v 2

v 2

0 (12 ms )

a g 9.8ms 2 y 0 2

7.3m

2a 2 9.8ms

REGAN 27

PHY34210

( c) How long does the ball take to reach a point 5m above its initial

release point ?

v0 12ms 1 , a 9.8ms 2 , y y0 5m

1 2 1

1

from y y0 v0t at 5m 12ms t 9.8ms 2t 2

2 2

assuming SI units, we have a quadratic equation, 4.9t 2 12t 5 0

recalling at 2 bt c 0 solutions are given by

b b 2 4ac

t t 0.5s AND 1.9s

2a

Note that there are TWO SOLUTIONS here (two different ‘roots’ to

the quadratic equation). This reflects that the ball passes the same

point on both the way up and again on the way back down.

REGAN 28

3: Vectors PHY34210

their size are called SCALARS.

– Examples of scalars include temperature, speed,

distance, time, mass, charge etc.

– Scalar quantities can be combined using the standard

rules of algebra.

• A VECTOR quantity is one which need both a

magnitude (size) and direction to be complete.

– Examples of vectors displacement, velocity,

acceleration, linear and angular momentum.

– Vectors quantities can be combined using special

rules for combining vectors.

Adding Vectors Geometrically

REGAN

PHY34210

29

b

Any two vectors can be added using the

VECTOR EQUATION, where the sum of s a b

vectors can be worked out using a triangle. a s

Note that two vectors can be b

added together in either order to

get the same result. This is called a

a s

the COMMUTATIVE LAW.

s b a a b

b

Generally, if we have more than

2 vectors, the order of combination b

c b c

does not affect the result. This is

called the ASSOCIATIVE LAW. s = '

a s

r a b c a b c r a r

REGAN 30

Subtracting Vectors, Negative Vectors PHY34210

b

b is the same magnitude as b s a b

but in the opposite direction.

a s

b

b as with usual algebra, we can

a s

re - arrange vector equations,

d

e.g., d a b d b a

d a b a b

Note that as with all quantities, we can only add / subtract vectors

of the same kind (e.g., two velocities or two displacements).

We can not add differing quantities e.g., apples and oranges!)

REGAN 31

Components of Vectors PHY34210

be done using their COMPONENTS.

The component of a vector is the ay

a

projection of the vector onto the

x, y (and z in the 3-D case) axes in the a sin

Cartesian co-ordinate system.

Obtaining the components is known as

RESOLVING the vector.

The components can be found using the rules x

for a right-angle triangle. i.e. ax

a x a cos and a y a sin a cos

this can also be written in

MAGNITUDE - ANGLE NOTATION as

ay

a a a , tan

2

x

2

y

ax

REGAN 32

Unit Vectors PHY34210

It specifies a DIRECTION. The unit vectors for the Cartesian

co-ordinates x,y and z are given by,iˆ, ˆj and kˆ respective ly.

addition/subtraction of vectors simple.

One can simply add/subtract together

z1 k̂

1 x

the x,y and z components to obtain ĵ

the size of the resultant component in

y

1 iˆ

that specific direction. E.g,

a a xiˆ a y ˆj a z k , b bxiˆ by ˆj bz kˆ

ˆ

then if s a b using vector addition by components

s (a x bx )iˆ (a y by ) ˆj (az bz )kˆ s xiˆ s y ˆj s z kˆ

REGAN 33

Vector Multiplication PHY34210

One results in a SCALAR QUANTITY (the scalar or ‘dot’ product).

The other results in a VECTOR called the vector or ‘cross’ product.

For the SCALAR or DOT PRODUCT,

a.b a cos b a b cos also, a . b b . a

In unit vecto r notation,

a.b a x iˆ a y ˆj a z kˆ . bx iˆ by ˆj bz kˆ but since

cos0o 1 and cos 90o 0 expanding this reduces to

a.b a x bx a y by a z bz

since iˆ.iˆ ˆj. ˆj kˆ.kˆ 1 (11cos0 o 1) and

iˆ. ˆj iˆ.kˆ ˆj.kˆ 0 (11cos 90o 0)

REGAN 34

Vector (‘Cross’) Product PHY34210

The VECTOR PRODUCT of two vectors a and b

produces a third vector whose magnitude is given by

c ab sin The direction of the

is the angle between resultant is perpendicular

the two initial vectors to the plane created by the

initial two vectors, such that

also a b b a and

b

a b a xiˆ a y ˆj a z kˆ bxiˆ by ˆj bz kˆ c a

but a xiˆ bxiˆ a xbx iˆ iˆ 0 and

a xiˆ by ˆj a x by iˆ ˆj a xby kˆ, thus

a b a y bz by a z iˆ a z bx bz a x ˆj a xby bx a y kˆ

REGAN 35

Example 1: PHY34210

ˆ

a i 4 ˆj , b 3iˆ 2 j , c iˆ 2 ˆj

ˆ

r a b c i 4 ˆj 3iˆ 2 j iˆ 2 ˆj

r 3iˆ 4 ˆj rx 3 , ry 4

y

4

r 3 4 5 , tan 53.1o

2 2

3

a r

c

x

b

Example 2: REGAN

PHY34210

36

What are the (a) scalar and (b) vector products of the two vectors

aˆ 2iˆ 3 ˆj 4kˆ and bˆ 4iˆ 20 ˆj 12kˆ

(a) Scalar Product : a . b ab cos 2iˆ 3 ˆj 4kˆ . 4iˆ 20 ˆj 12kˆ

recalling only iˆ.iˆ ˆj.ˆj kˆ.kˆ 1, iˆ.ˆj iˆ.kˆ ˆj.kˆ 0

then a . b a x bx a y by a z bz (2.4) (3. 20) (4.12)

a . b 8 - 60 - 48 -100

(b) Vector Product, a b 2iˆ 3 ˆj 4kˆ 4iˆ 20 ˆj 12kˆ

recalling a b a y bz by a z iˆ a z bx bz a x ˆj a x by bx a y kˆ

a b

(3).(12) (20).( 4) iˆ (4).( 4) (12).( 2) ˆj (2).( 20) (4)(3) kˆ

36 80 iˆ (16 24) ˆj (40 12) kˆ

a b 44 iˆ 40 ˆj 52 kˆ 4 . 11 iˆ 10 ˆj 13kˆ

REGAN 37

PHY34210

4: Motion in 2 and 3 Dimensions

The use of vectors and their components is very useful for describing

motion of objects in both 2 and 3 dimensions.

Position and Displacement

If in general the position of a particle can be

descibed in Cartesian co - ordinates by

r xiˆ yˆj zkˆ , then the DISPLACEME NT is

Dr r2 r1 x2 i y2 ˆj z 2 k x1i y1 ˆj z1kˆ

ˆ

x x i y y ˆj z z kˆ

2 1 2 1 2 1

e.g ., if r1 3i 2 j 5k and r2 9iˆ 2 ˆj 8kˆ

ˆ ˆ ˆ

then Dr r2 r1 (9 (3))iˆ (2 2) ˆj (8 5)kˆ 12iˆ 3kˆ

REGAN 38

Velocity and Acceleration PHY34210

Dr Dxiˆ Dyˆj Dzkˆ Dx ˆ Dy ˆ Dz ˆ

vav i j k

Dt Dt Dt Dt Dt

While the instantaneous velocity is given by making Dt tend to 0, i.e.

dr d ( xiˆ yˆj zkˆ) dx ˆ dy ˆ dz ˆ

v i j k

dt dt dt dt dt

v vxiˆ v y ˆj vz kˆ

Similarly, the average acceleration is given by,

v2 v1 Dv Dvxiˆ Dv y ˆj Dvz kˆ Dvx ˆ Dv y ˆ Dvz ˆ

aav i j k

Dt Dt Dt Dt Dt Dt

While the instantaneous acceleration is given by

dv d (vxiˆ v y ˆj vz kˆ) dvx ˆ dv y ˆ dvz ˆ

a i j k

dt dt dt dt dt

REGAN 39

Projectile Motion PHY34210

The specialist

velocity, v0 and a constant free-fall acceleration, g .

Examples of projectile motion are golf balls, baseballs, cannon balls.

(Note, aeroplanes, birds have extra acceleration see later).

what we have recently learned about vectors and their components

to analyse this type of motion in detail.

The initial projectile velocity

v0

(at t 0) is v0 v0 x iˆ v0 y ˆj

v0 sin

where v0 x v0 cos

and v0 y v0 sin

v0 cos

More generally, v vxiˆ v y ˆj where vx v cos and v y v sin

REGAN 40

Horizontal Motion PHY34210

horizontal direction (neglecting any effect due to air resistance).

Thus the velocity x x0 v0 xt (equation of motion 1)

x (horizontal) direction and v0 x v0 cos 0 , thus x x0 v0 cos 0 t

component in the

Vertical Motion

y y0 v0 y t gt v0 y sin 0 t gt

1 2 1 2

vy

2 2

v y v0 sin 0 gt and v y2 v0 sin 0 2 g y y0

2

v0

Max. height occurs when v0 sin

v y 0, i.e., v0 sin 0 gt

v0 cos

REGAN 41

PHY34210

The Equation of Path for Projectile Motion

Given that x x0 v0 cos 0 t and y y0 v0 sin 0 t

1 2

gt

2

x x0 1 x x0

2

y y0 v0 sin 0 g

v 0 cos

0 2

0v cos

0

1 x x0

2

y y0 tan 0 x x0 g

2 v0 cos 0 Note that this is an

equation of the form

y=ax+bx2 i.e., a parabola

(also, often y0=x0=0.)

REGAN 42

The Horizontal Range PHY34210

1 2

2

2

1

0 v0 sin 0

R R

g

v0 cos 0 2 v0 cos 0

R sin 0 gR 2 2v02 cos 0 sin 0

2 R

cos 0 2v0 cos 0

2

g

since in general vy=0

2 cos 0 sin 0 sin 2 0 , then v0

v02 sin 2 0 v0 sin Max

R height

g

(note assumes y y0 ) (y0,x0)

v0 cos Range

Example REGAN

PHY34210

43

fence is 150 m away ? Assume that the fence is at ground level, air

resistance is negligible and the initial velocity of the baseball is 50 m/s.

Recalling that the range 150m is given

v02 sin 2 0

by R , v0 50ms 1 , g 9.8ms 2

g

gR 9.8ms- 2 150m 1470

sin2 0 2 1 1

v0 50ms 50ms 2500

2 0 sin 1 0.588 36o OR 143o

0 18o or 71.5o

R

How far must the fence be moved back for no homers to be possible ?

2

v0 sin 2 0

R is a maximum when sin2 0 max 1, i.e., when 2 0 900 ,

g

50ms 1 50ms 1

thus 0max 45 Rmax

o

2

255m 840 feet!

9.8ms

REGAN 44

Uniform Circular Motion PHY34210

A particle undergoes UNIFORM CIRCULAR v

MOTION is it travels around in a circular arc at a

v

a

CONSTANT SPEED. Note that although the

speed does not change, the particle is in fact

a r

ACCELERATING since the DIRECTION OF THE

VELOCITY IS CHANGING with time. a

The velocity vector is tangential to the instantaneous

v

direction of motion of the particle.

The (centripetal) acceleration is directed towards the centre of the circle

Radial vector (r) and the velocity vector (v) are always perpendicular

The PERIOD OF REVOLUTION time taken for the particle to go

around the circle. If the speed (i.e., the magnitude of the velocity for

UCM) of the particle v, the time taken is, by definition

Circumference 2r

T

velocity v

REGAN 45

Proof for Uniform Circular Motion PHY34210

yp xp

v v x i v y j v sin i v cos j , but sin

ˆ ˆ ˆ ˆ and cos , thus

r r

vyp ˆ vxp ˆ dv v dy p ˆ v dx p ˆ

v i j . Accelerati on is a i j

r r dt r dt r dt

dy p dx p v

but v yp v cos and v xp v sin

dt dt yp r

v dy p ˆ v dx p ˆ v 2 cos ˆ v 2 sin ˆ

a i j i j xp

r dt r dt r r

v2 v2

magnitude, a a x a y

2 2

cos sin , thus, a

2 2

r r

v 2 sin

a y r sin

ACCELERATI ON DIRECTION from tan tan ,

a x v cos cos

2

r

i.e., , accelerati on is along the radius.... towards centre of circle

Relative Motion REGAN

PHY34210

46

of velocity, position, acceleration etc. p

these must all be defined RELATIVE to

vAB const

a specific origin. Often in physical rAp

situations, the motion can be broken down rBp

into two frames of reference, depending B

rAB

on who is the OBSERVER. A

( someone who tosses a ball up in a

moving car will see a different motion

to someone from the pavement).

If we assume that different FRAMES OF REFERENCE always move

at a constant velocity relative to each other, then using vector addition,

rpA rpB rBA , v pA

d rpA rpB rBA i.e., acceleration

v pB vBA is the SAME for

dt

both frames of

d v pA v pB vBA d v pB reference!

a pA 0 a pB

dt dt (if VAB=const)!

REGAN 47

5: Force and Motion (Part 1) PHY34210

(i.e. it ACCELERATES), there must have been some form of

interaction between this body and it surroundings. Any interaction

which causes an acceleration (or deceleration) is called a FORCE.

Newtonian Mechanics first devised by Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1712)..

Note that Newtonian mechanics breaks down for (1) very fast speeds,

i.e. those greater than about 1/10 the speed of light c, c=3x108ms-1

where it is replaced by Einstein’s theory of RELATIVITY and (b)

if the scale of the particles is very small (~size of atoms~10-10m),

where QUANTUM MECHANICS is used instead.

Newton’s Laws are limiting cases for both quantum mechanics and

relativity, which are applicable for specific velocity and size regimes

Newton’s First Law REGAN

PHY34210

48

‘ If no force acts on a body, then the body’s velocity can not change,

i.e., the body can not accelerate’

This means that

(a) if a body is at rest, it will remain at rest unless acted

upon by an external force, it; and

and in the same direction unless acted upon by an external force.

So for example,

(1) A hockey puck pushed across a ‘frictionless’ rink will move

in a straight line at a constant velocity until it hits the side of the rink.

(2) A spaceship shot into space will continue to move in the direction

and speed unless acted upon by some (gravitational) force.

REGAN 49

Force PHY34210

The units of force are defined by the acceleration which that force

will cause to a body of a given mass.

The unit of force is the NEWTON (N) and this is defined by the

force which will cause an acceleration of 1 m/s2 on a mass of 1 kg.

If two or more forces act on a body we can find their resultant value

by adding them as vectors. This is known as the principle of

SUPERPOSITION. This means that the more correct version of

Newton’s 1st law is

‘ If no NET force acts on a body, then the body’s velocity can not

change, i.e., the body can not accelerate’

which relates the applied force to the resulting acceleration.

REGAN 50

‘ The net force on a body is equal to the product of the body’s mass

and the acceleration of the body’

We can write the 2nd law in the form of an equation: Fnet ma

As with other vector equations, we can make three equivalent equations

for the x,y and z components of the force. i.e.,

Fnet , x max , Fnet , y may and Fnet , z maz

components along that axis.

REGAN 51

If the net force on a body equals zero and thus it has no acceleration, PHY34210

the forces balance out each other and the body is in EQUILIBRIUM.

We can often describe multiple forces acting on the same body using

a FREE-BODY DIAGRAM, which shows all the forces on the body.

FA 220 N, FB ?, FC 170 N

FA 220 N

FA FB FC ma 0 FB FA FC

components along the x and y axes cancel Fc 170 N

y

FBy FAy FCy FA sin 47 FC sin FB

o

43o

Bx Ax Cx A

o

C 47o x

o

137

0

cos A

0.883

FC 170

28 0

and FA sin 47 FC sin 28 FB

o

o HRW

p79

FB 220 0.731 170 0.47 241 N

FB ?? N

REGAN 52

The Gravitational Force PHY34210

a second body. In most cases, this second body refers to the earth (or

occasionally another planet).

From Newton’s 2nd law, the force is related to the acceleration by

Fg ma taking components in the vertical direction

( y positive correspond s to upward ) then Fgy ma y m g

In vector form, we have Fg Fg ˆj mg ˆj mg

body, i.e, W = mg. This is equal to the size of the net

force to stop a body falling to freely as measured by someone at

ground level. Note also that the WEIGHT MUST BE MEASURED

WHEN THE BODY IS NOT ACCELERATING RELATIVE TO THE

GROUND and that WEIGHT DOES NOT EQUAL MASS.

Mass on moon and earth equal but weights not ge=9.8ms-2, gm=1.7ms-2

REGAN 53

The Normal Force PHY34210

The normal force is the effective ‘push’ a body feels from a body

to stop the downward acceleration due to gravity, for example the

upward force which the floor apparently outs on a body to keep it

stationary against gravity.

Normal Force, N

General equation for block on a table is

Fnet ma N Fg

y component, ma y N Fg N mg

N m a y g i.e., if block is at rest then

N m 0 g mg i.e. same magnitude as

gravitatio nal force but in opposite direction.

Note the NORMAL FORCE is ‘normal’ Gravitatio nal Force, Fg mg

(i.e. perpendicular) to the surface.

REGAN 54

Example PHY34210

general solution for the persons measured weight on the scales ?

a Fnet ma Fg N

N

Fy ,net may Fg N mg N

N m a y g

downward speed decreases!) the persons

weight INCREASES, if the lift accelerates

Fgy mg downwards (or decelerates upwards)

the persons weight DECREASES

compared to the stationary (or constant

velocity) situation.

REGAN 55

Tension PHY34210

body in a specific direction. This assumes that the string/rope is taught

(and usually also massless).

For a frictionless surface and a massless, frictionless

pulley, what are the accelerations of the sliding and

N

hanging blocks and the tension in the cord ?

x components , Fnet , x Ma Mx T

M T y components ( a downward thus amy )

Fnet , y mamy T mg

magnitudes must be equal, aMx amy a

T

mg

m mamy Ma Mx mg a

FgM Mg M m

mg Mmg

Fnet , x T Ma Mx M T

Fgm mg M m M m

REGAN 56

Newton’s Third Law PHY34210

Two bodies interact when they push or pull on each other. This leads

to Newton’s third law which states,

‘ When two bodies interact, the forces on the bodies from each other

are always equal in magnitude and opposite in direction ’

Normal Force, N

‘ for every action there is an equal

but opposite reaction ’

The forces between two interacting

bodies are called a ‘third-law pair

forces’.

e.g., Table pushes up block with

force N, block pushes down table

with force Fg, where Fg=N Gravitatio nal Force, Fg mg

REGAN 57

Example PHY34210

N T cos50o

N T

T

y x

40 o

50o

mg = 40 o

g x 15kg

40 o mg

T N Fg ma 0

x component, T 0 mg sin Fx ,net 0

T mg sin 15kg 9.8ms 2 sin 400 94.5 N

y component, 0 N mg cos 0

N 112.6 N

REGAN 58

6: Force and Motion (Part II) PHY34210

between their surfaces is known as FRICTION. The properties of

frictional forces are that if a force, F, pushes an object along a surface

(e.g., a block along a surface),

fs is equal in magnitude and opposite in direction to the

component of the pushing force, F, along the surface.

f s,max, which is given by f s,max=msN where ms is the coefficient

of static friction.

3) If the body begins to move along the surface, the magnitude of the

frictional force reduces to fk=mkN, where mk is the coefficient of

kinetic friction.

REGAN 59

Drag Force and Terminal Speed PHY34210

When a body passes through a fluid (i.e., gas or a liquid) such as a ball

falling through air, if there is a relative velocity between the body and

the fluid, the body experiences a DRAG FORCE which opposes this

relative motion and is in the opposite direction to the motion of the

body (i.e., in the direction which the fluid flows relative to the body).

1

to the relative speed of the body in the fluid D C r Av 2

by a DRAG COEFFICIENT, C, which is 2

experimentally determined. The magnitude

of the drag force is given by the expression for D, which depends

on the fluid density (i.e. mass per unit volume, r), the effective

cross-sectional area, A (i.e. the cross-sectional area perpendicular to the

direction of the velocity vector), and the relative speed, v.

REGAN 60

PHY34210

Note that the drag coefficient. C, is not really a constant, but rather

a quantity associated with a body which can varies with the speed, v.

(for the purposes of this course, however, assume C = constant).

The direction of the drag force is opposed to the motion of the object

through the fluid. If a body falls through air, the drag force due to the

air resistance will start at zero (due to zero velocity) at the start of the

fall, increasing as the downward velocity of the falling body increases.

Ultimately , the drag force will be cancel the downward accelerati on.

In general, Fnet , y may D Fg

For ' terminal speed' , a y 0, thus

1 2 Fg 2mg

CrAvt Fg 0 vt

2

2 CrA CrA

REGAN 61

Forces in Uniform Circular Motion PHY34210

constant speed, v, the MAGNITUDE of the ACCELERATION, a, is

given by a = v2/r, where a is called the centripetal acceleration.

We can say that a centripetal force accelerates a body by changing the

direction of that body’s velocity without changing its speed.

Note that this centripetal force is not a ‘new’ force, but rather a

consequence of another external force, such as friction, gravity or

tension in a string.

Examples of circular motion are

(1) Sliding across your seat when your car rounds a bend:

The centripetal force (which here is the frictional force between

the car wheels and the road) is enough to cause the car to accelerate

inwards in the arc. However, often the frictional force between you

and your seat is not strong enough to make the passenger go in this

arc too. Thus, the passenger slides to the edge of the car, when its push

(or normal force) is strong enough to make you go around the arc.

REGAN 62

PHY34210

(2) the (apparent) weightlessness of astronauts on the space shuttle.

Here the centripetal force (which causes the space shuttle to orbit the

earth in a circular orbits) is caused by the gravitational force of the

earth on all parts of the space shuttle (including the astronauts).The

centripetal force is equal on all areas of the astronauts body so he/she

feels no relative extra pull etc. on any specific area, giving rise to a

sensation of weightlessness.

Newton’s second law) by : F = ma = m v2/r

Note that since the speed, radius and mass are all CONSTANTS so

is the MAGNTIUDE OF THE CENTRIPETAL FORCE. However,

DIRECTION IS NOT CONSTANT, varying continuously so as to

point towards the centre of a circle.

REGAN 63

Example: PHY34210

coasters have to go to ‘loop the loop’

of radius r ?

forces on the roller coaster are gravity Fg N

(downwards) and the normal

force (also inwards). The total acceleration is

also inwards (i.e., in the downwards direction).

v2 v2

g v gr

r r

i.e., independen t of mass!

REGAN 64

7: Kinetic Energy and Work PHY34210

Laws and Forces. However, an alternative way is describe the motion

in terms of the ENERGY of the object.

MOTION of an object. It is related to the mass and velocity of a body

by K= 1/2 mv2 , where m and v are the mass and velocity of the body.

The SI unit of energy is the Joule (J) where 1 Joule = 1kg.m2s-2.

Work:

`Work is the energy transferred to or from an object by means of a

force acting on it. Energy transferred to the object is positive work,

while energy transferred from the object is negative work.’

For example, if an object is accelerated such that it increases its

velocity, the force has ‘done work’ on the object.

REGAN 65

Work and Kinetic Energy PHY34210

The work done (W) on an object by a force, F, causing a displacement,

d, is given by the SCALAR PRODUCT, W = F.d =dFcos where

Fcos is the component of the force along the object’s displacement.

This expression assumes a CONSTANT FORCE (one that does not

change in magnitude or direction) and that the object is RIGID (all

parts of the object move together).

Example: If an object moves in a straight line with initial velocity, v0

and is acted on by a force along a distance d during which the velocity

increases to v due to an acceleration, a, from Newton’s 2nd Law the

magnitude of the force is given by F = max . From the equations of

motion v2=vo2+2axd . By substituting for the acceleration, ax, we have,

d

1 2 2

2a x

v v0 ,

Fx

m

1 2 1 2

a x Fx d mv mv0 DK work done

2 2

1 2 1 2

mv mv0 DK work done is the Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem

2 2

REGAN 66

Work Done by a Gravitational Force. PHY34210

Since the gravitational force acts DOWNWARDS, and equals Fgr=mg ,

the work done in moving the object upwards in the presence of this

force is W=F.d = mg . d where d is the (vector) displacement in the

upward direction, (which we assume is the positive y-axis).

Wgr mg.d mgd cos , mg and d are in opposite directions ,

180o , W mgd. sign shows gravity tr ansfers KINETIC

ENERGY to GRAVITATIO NAL POTENTIAL ENERGY.

When the object falls back down, 0 and W mgd

sign implies gravitatio nal force transfers energy TO the

object from potential energy to kinetic.

REGAN 67

Work Done Lifting and Lowering an Object. PHY34210

the upward displacement, work (Wa) is done on the object by this

applied force. The APPLIED FORCE TRANSFERS ENERGY TO

the object, while the GRAVITY TRANSFERS ENERGY FROM it.

From the work - kinetic energy the orem,

DK K f K i net work done Wa Wg .

If the object is stationary before and after the lift

(v 0 at start and finish) then DK 0 Wa Wg

Wa Wg and Wa mgd cos where is the angle

between Fg (i.e. ' downwards' ) and the displaceme nt, d .

If the object is lifted up, 1800 and the work done by the

applied force, Wa mgd . If the object falls, 0o , Wa mgd

Spring Forces and Hooke’s Law REGAN

PHY34210

68

For a PERFECT SPRING, stretching or compressing gives rise to

RESTORING FORCE which is proportional to the displacement

of the spring from its relaxed state. This is written by Hooke’s Law

(after

Robert Hooke,

17th century British scientist) as

Frestoring kd , where k spring constant, stiffness of the spring.

In the 1 - d case, we can simply use the x - direction F kx

The work done by a perfect spring can not be obtained from F.d, as the

force is not constant with d. Instead, the work done over the course of

the extension/compression must be summed incrementally.

xf

1

Ws F j Dx , as Dx 0 then, Ws xif Fdx xif (kx)dx kx2

x x

2 xi

1 2 1 2 1 2

2

1 2

Ws kx f kxi k xi x f if xi 0, Ws kx f

2 2 2 2

REGAN 69

Work Done by an Applied Force PHY34210

During the displacement of the spring, the applied force, Fa, does

work, Wa on the block and the spring restoring force, Fs does work Ws.

The change in kinetic energy (of the block attached to the spring)

due to these two energy tra nsfers is given by

DK K f K i Wa Ws

Thus, if DK 0 , Wa Ws

If the block attached to a spring is stationary before and after its

displacement, then the work done on the spring by the applied force

is the negative of the work done on it by the spring restoring force.

Work Done by a General Variable Force. REGAN

PHY34210

70

DW j F j ,ave Dx. Total work done equals sum of all j th increments ,

W DW j F j ,ave Dx. As Dx 0 , W j ,ave D xi F x dx

x f

F x

j j j , Dx 0

of F ( x) against x.

In 3 - D, F Fx iˆ Fy ˆj Fz kˆ. If Fx only depends on x, Fy on y and

Fz on z , the by SEPARATING THE VARIABLES if the particle

moves through an incrementa l displaceme nt, dr dxiˆ dyˆj dzkˆ ,

the increment of work in dr, dW , is given by

dW F.dr Fx dx Fy dy Fz dz , then the total work is

rf xf yf zf

W dW Fx dx Fy dy Fz dz

ri xi yi zi

REGAN 71

Work-Kinetic Energy Theorem PHY34210

xf xf xf

W F x dx max dx m dx

dv

xi xi xi

dt

dv dv dx dv

using the CHAIN RULE, . v

dt dx dt dx

dv dv

we can CHANGE THE VARIABLE, m dx mv . dx mvdv

dt dx

xf vf vf

dv

W m dx mvdv m vdv

xi

dt vi vi

1 2 1 2

W mv f mvi K f K i DK ,

2 2

which is the WORK - KINETIC ENERGY THEOREM

REGAN 72

Power PHY34210

POWER done due to a force responsible for doing work, W in a time

period, Dt is given by Pave = W/D t .

dW

The INSTANTANEOUS POWER is given by P

dt

The SI unit of power = Watt (W), where 1 W= 1 J per sec=1 kg.m2/s3

Note that the imperial unit of horsepower (hp) is still used, for

example for cars. 1hp = 746 W

The amount of work done is sometimes expressed as the product of the

power output multiplied by time taken for this. A common unit for this

is the kilowatt-hour, where 1kWh = 1000x3600 J = 3.6 x106J = 3.6MJ.

We can also describe the instantaneous power in terms of rate at

which a force does work on a particle,

dW F cos dx dx

P F cos F cos v F .v

dt dt dt

REGAN 73

Example 1: PHY34210

locomotives, at opposite ends of a 6.4km track accelerating towards

each other with a constant acceleration of 0.26 m/s2 if the mass of

each train was 122 tonnes (1 tonne =103kg) ?

x x0 3.2 103 m, v0 0, a 0.26ms- 2

The velocity of the trains at collision is then

v 2 0.26ms 2 3.2 103 m 40.8ms 1

The kinetic energy of each locomotive is given by

1 2 1

K mv 1.22 10 kg 40.8ms

2 2

5

1 2

108 J

Example 2: REGAN

PHY34210

74

floor through a displacement of

d 3iˆm

-3m in the direction, while at the same

time a steady (i.e. constant) force of

F=(2i-6j) Newtons pushes against the

crate,

(a) How much work does the wind force do

F 2iˆ 6 ˆj N

on the crate

during this displacement ?

W F .d 2iˆ 6 ˆj N . 3iˆ m 6 J

Thus, the ' wind' force does 6 J of NEGATIVE WORK on the crate

i.e. it transfe rs 6 J of kinetic energy FROM THE CRATE

(b) If the crate had a kinetic energy of 10J at the start of the

displacement, how much kinetic energy did it have at the end of the

-3m ? Work-kinetic energy the orem, W ΔK 6 J K f 10 J

K f 6 10 J 4 J i.e., block is slowed down by wind force.

REGAN 75

Example 3: PHY34210

frictionless floor with a constant speed k v m

of v until it hits and compresses a perfect

spring, with a spring constant, k.

At the point where the spring is compressed

such that the block is momentarily stopped,

by what distance, x, is the spring compressed ? x

Using the work - energy the orem, the work

v=0

done on the block by the spring force is

1 2

Ws kx . The work is also related to the change

2

in kinetic energy of the block, i.e., W ΔK K f K i

1 1 m

kx2 0 mv 2 x v

2 2 k

REGAN 76

8: Potential Energy & Conservation of Energy PHY34210

configuration of a systems of objects.

associated with the separation between two objects attracted to each

other by the gravitational force. By increasing the distance between

two objects (e.g. by lifting an object higher) the work done on the

gravitational force increases the gravitational potential energy of the

system.

associated with compression or extension of an elastic object (such as

a perfect spring). By compressing or extending such a spring, work

is done against the restoring force which in turn increases the elastic

potential energy in the spring.

REGAN 77

Work and Potential Energy PHY34210

of the work done (W) by the force on the object (e.g., gravitational

force on a falling object or the restoring force on a block pushed by a

perfect spring), i.e., DU=-W

Conservative and Non-Conservative Forces

If work, W1, is done, if the configuration by which the work is done is

reversed, the force reverses the energy transfer, doing work, W2.

If W1=-W2, whereby kinetic energy is always transferred to potential

energy, the force is said to be a CONSERVATIVE FORCE.

The net work done by a conservative force in a closed path is zero.

The work done by a conservative force on a particle moving between

2 points does not depend on the path taken by the particle.

transfer from kinetic to thermal energy. This can not be transferred

back (100%) to the original mechanical energy of the system.

REGAN 78

Determining Potential Energy Values PHY34210

xf xf

W F ( x)dx , DU F ( x)dx . For GRAVIT. POT. ENERGY,

xi xi

yf

mg dy mg dy mgy f

yf yf

DU F ( y )dy yi

yi yi

yi

DU grav mg y f yi mgDy

Only CHANGES in gravitatio nal Pot. energy are meaningful ,

i.e., it is usual to define U i 0 at yi , then U y mgy

For the ELASTIC POTENTIAL ENERGY,

xf xf xf

1 2 x f

i

xi xi xi

2

1

DU elas k x 2f xi2 . Pot energy is relative, thus we chose

2

U 0 at xi 0 Then, U x kx , x is extension/ compressio n.

1 2

2

REGAN 79

Conservation of Mechanical Energy PHY34210

Emech K U . If the system is isolated from its environmen t and

no external force causes any internal energy changes,

DK W & DU W , DK DU K f K i U f U i

K f U f K i U i i.e, The sum of the kinetic and potential energies

( the mechanical energy) is the same for all states of an isolated system,

i.e. the MECHANICAL ENERGY of an ISOLATED SYSTEM where

there are only conservati ve forces is CONSTANT.

This is the PRINCIPLE OF CONSERVATI ON OF MECHANICAL

ENERGY (note, conservati on is due to CONSERVATI VE FORCES ).

This can also be written as DEmech DK DU 0

REGAN 80

The Potential Energy Curve PHY34210

For the 1 - D case, the work done, W , by a force, F , moving an

object thr ough a displaceme nt, Dx equals, FDx , therefore , the

potential energy can be written as

DU x dU x

DU x W FDx F

Dx dx

e.g., Hooke' s Law, if the elastic potential is given by,

1 2

2

also , in the gravitatio nal case, U x mgh F mg

In the general, the force at position x,

can be calculated by differentiating

the potential curve with respect to x

(remembering the -ve sign). F(x) is minus

the SLOPE of U(x) as a function of x

REGAN 81

Turning Points PHY34210

K 0 at ymax , Emec mgymax

mechanical energy of the system

dU ( y )

is conserved and given by, F ( y) mg

U(x) + K(x) = Emec dy

where U(x) is the potential energy

and K(x) is the kinetic energy. Emec K ( y) U ( y)

1 2

Therefore, K(x) = Emec-U(x). mv mgy

2

Since K(x) must be positive ( K=1/2mv2),

the max. value of x which the particle

has is at Emec=U(x) (i.e., when K(x)=0).

Note since F(x) = - ( dU(x)/dx ) ,

the force is negative.

Thus the particle is ‘pushed back.

i.e., it turns around at a boundary.

Equilibrium Points REGAN

PHY34210

82

equal to its potential energy (i.e., kinetic energy equals zero). If no

force acts on the particle, then dU/dx=0 (i.e. U(x) is constant) and

the particle does not move. (For example, a marble on a flat table top.)

zero at precisely that point, but even a small displacement from this

point will result in the particle being pushed further away (e.g., a

ball at the very top of a hill or a marble on an upturned dish).

displacement results in a restoring force which pushes the particle

back towards the stable equilibrium point. An example would be a

marble at the bottom of a bowl, or a car at the bottom of a valley.

REGAN 83

PHY34210

U(x)

x

B D

C

A

where dU/dx = 0

B is an unstable equilibrium ( d 2U/dx2 = -ve )

D is a neutral equilibrium ( d 2U/dx2 = 0 )

REGAN 84

Work Done by an External Force PHY34210

We can extend this to a system of more than one object.

external force acting on that system.

No friction (conservative forces)

W DK DU DEmec

Including friction

From Newtons 2 nd law, F f k ma ,

the force (thus accelerati on) is constant,

therefore we can use v 2 v02 2ad

v 2 v02

By substituti on, F m f k and

2d

1 2 1 2

Fd mv mv0 f k d DK f k d

2 2

Conservation of Energy REGAN

PHY34210

85

‘ The total energy of a system, E, can only change by amounts of

energy that are transferred to or from the system. ’

Work done can be considered as energy transfer, so we can write,

W DE DEmec DEth DEin

DEmec is the change in mechanical energy, DEth is the change in thermal

energy (i.e., heat) and DEin is the change in internal energy of the system.

If a system is ISOLATED from it surroundings, no energy can be

transferred to or from it. Thus for an isolated system, the total energy

of the system can not change, i.e., DE DE DE DE 0

mec th in

which means that for an isolated system, the total energies can be

related at different instants, WITHOUT CONSIDERING THE

ENERGIES AT INTERMEDIATE TIMES.

REGAN 86

Example 1: PHY34210

skelter of height, h. Assuming the

h=10m

slide is frictionless, what is the speed of

the child at the bottom of the slide ?

Emec,i Emec, f U i K i U f K f

1 2

U i mgh , U f 0, K i 0, K f mv

2

1 2

mgh 0 0 mv v 2 gh

2

Note that this is the same speed that the child would have

if it fell directly from a height h.

Example 2: REGAN

PHY34210

87

ledge of height, h above the ground,

attached by a bungee cord of length L

L. Assuming that the cord obeys h

Hooke’s law and has a spring constant, x

k, what is the general solution for the m

maximum extension, x, of the cord ?

By CONSERVATI ON OF MECHANICAL ENERGY,

DK DU 0 , if v 0 at top and bottom, K i K f 0

1 2

DK 0 also, DU DU grav DU elas mg Dy 0 kx

2

kx mg L x mgL mgx

1 2 1 2

kx mgx mgL 0 ,

2 2

mg mg 2 2kmgL

solving this quadratic equation, x , x ve root

k

9: Systems of Particles REGAN

PHY34210

88

Centre of Mass (COM): The COM is the point that moves as though

all the mass of a body were concentrated there.

For 2 particles of mass, m1 and m2 separated by d , if the orgin of x - axis

coincides with the particle of mass m1 , the centre of mass of the system is

m2

xcom d . More generally, if m1 is at x1 and m2 is at x2 , the COM

m1 m2

m1 x1 m2 x2 m1 x1 m2 x2

is defined by xcom where M is the total mass

m1 m2 M

The general form for a n-particle system is given by

m1 x1 m2 x2 m3 x3 m4 x4 1 n

xcom

M

M

m x , similarly,

i 1

i i for 3 - D

1 n

1 n

ycom

M

m y

i 1

i i and zcom

M

mi zi . In vector form, if r xiˆ yˆj zkˆ

i 1

1 n

ˆ ˆ ˆ

then rcom xcomi ycom j zcom k and rcom

M

mi ri

i 1

REGAN 89

Centre of Mass for Solid Bodies PHY34210

Solid objects have so many particles (atoms) that they can be considered

to be made up of many infinitess imally small MASS ELEMENTS, dm.

1 1 1

Then, xcom

M xdm , ycom

M ydm , zcom

M zdm ,

M dm

where r , where dV is the volume occupied by mass, dm.

V dV

1 1 1

substituti ng, xcom

M xdm

rV xrdV xdV and similarly,

V

1 1

ycom ydV , zcom zdV ,

V V

Note that the centre of mass need not necessaril y lie in the volume of the

object (for example a doughnut or an igloo).

Law for a System of Particles.

REGAN 90

Newton’s 2nd PHY34210

Mrcom m1r1 m2 r2 m3r3 mn rn

differenti ating with respect to time,

dmn rn

since, mvn we get

dt

drcom

M Mvcom m1v1 m2 v2 m3v3 mn vn

dt

dvn

differenti ating once again, and recalling an

dt

and Newton' s 2 nd law,

dvcom

M Macom m1a1 m2 a2 m3 a3 mn an

dt

Fcom F1 F2 F3 Fn

REGAN 91

Linear Momentum PHY34210

The LINEAR MOMENTUM is defined by p mv

dp d mv mdv

F ma (for m is constant).

dt dt dt

Thus we can re-write Newton’s 2nd law as

‘ The rate of change of the linear momentum with respect to time is

equal to the net force acting on the particle and is in the direction of

the force.’

For a system of particles, the system has a total linear momentum, P which

is the vector sum of the individual particle linear momenta, i.e.,

P p1 p2 p3 pn m1v1 m2 v2 m3v3 mn vn P M vcom

the total mass of the system, M, and the velocity of the centre of mass,

REGAN 92

Conservation of Linear Momentum PHY34210

dP dvcom

Since, F m macom , in a closed system, if the

dt dt

net external force is zero, and no particles enter or leave the

dP

system, then, Fnet 0 P constant i.e., Pi Pf

dt

This is the law of CONSERVATION OF LINEAR MOMENTUM

which we can write in words as

‘In no net external force acts on a system of particles, the total linear

momentum, P , of the system can not change.’

‘ If the component of the net external force on a system is zero along

a specific axis, the components of the linear momentum along that

axis can not change.’

Varying Mass: The Rocket Equation REGAN

PHY34210

93

For rockets, the mass of the rocket is is not constant, (the rocket fuel is

burnt as the rocket flies in space). For no gravitational/drag forces,

By conservati on of momentum, Pi Pf

The initial P of the rocket plus the exhaust a) time = t

fuel equals the P of the exhaust products plus

v

the P of the rocket after time interval, dt. M

Mv dMU M dM v dv

if vrel is the relative speed between th e rocket and

the exhaust products (and dM - ve) , then, v dv vrel U b) time = t+dt

Mv dMU M dM vrel U

Mv dM v dv vrel M dM v dv v+dv

-dmM+dm

Mv dMv dMdv dMvrel Mv Mdv dMv dMdv

U

dM dv

0 dMvrel Mdv vrel M

dt dt

dv 1st rocket

if R is the rate of mass loss, then, we obtain Rv rel M Ma equation

dt

REGAN 94

Rv rel is called the THRUST (T ) of the rocket engine. PHY34210

which is Newton' s 2 nd law. To find the velocity as the mass changes,

dM

Mdv vrel dM dv vrel

M

vf Mf

dM

Integratin g, we obtain, dv -v

vi

rel

Mi

M

where vi and v f

are the initial and final rocket vel ocities, correspond ing to rocket

masses of M i and M f respective ly.

1

Since, in general, x dx ln x , then

Mf Mi 2nd rocket

v f vi vrel ln M f ln M i vrel ln v rel ln

M equation

Mi f

thus increase in velocit y greatest for small M f (use of multi - stage rockets! )

REGAN 95

Internal Energy Changes and External Forces PHY34210

mechanical energy via a force, F. (Note that up to now each part of an

object has been rigid). In this case, the energy is transferred internally,

from one part of the body to another by an external force.

ΔEint Fd cos

where d is the displaceme nt of the CENTRE OF MASS and is the

angle between th e directions of the force F and displaceme nt d .

ΔE mec ΔK ΔU Fd cos

10: Collisions REGAN

PHY34210

96

bodies exert forces on each other for a short time.’

Impulse

For a head on collision between tw o bodies, the 3rd force pair, -F(t) F(t)

F(t) and -F(t) acts between th e two at time, t.

F(t) is a TIME - VARYING FORCE.

From Newton' s 2 nd law, these forces will change the linear momenta

of both bodies. The amount by which p changes depends on the time

interval, Δt , during which the se forces act.

pf tf

From Newton' s 2 law dp F t dt

nd

dp F t dt IMPULSE, J

pi ti

on by F(t) (right hand side). This is also equal to the product of the strength and

duration of the applied force, and the AREA UNDER THE CURVE of F t versus t.

REGAN 97

The IMPULSE -LINEAR MOMENTUM THEOREM states PHY34210

collision is equal to the IMPULSE that acts on that body,

i.e., p f pi Dp J

Since, impulse is a VECTOR, we can also write this in

component form,

p f x pix Dp x J x , p f y pi y Dp y J y , p f z piz Dp z J z

If Fave is the time averaged force over a period, Δt ,

the magnitude of the impulse is given by J Fave Dt

E.g A 140g is pitched with a horizontal speed of vi=39m/s. If it is hit

back in the opposite direction with the same magnitude of speed

what is the impulse, J, which acts on the ball ?

J p f pi mv f vi taking the initial velocity direction as the

NEGATIVE direction, J 0.1439 39kgms1 10.9kgms1

REGAN 98

Momentum and Kinetic Energy in Collisions PHY34210

the collision, meaning that there must be some amount of kinetic

energy in the system prior to the collision. During the collision, the

kinetic energy and linear momentum are changed by the impulse from

the other colliding body.

If the total kinetic energy of the system is equal before and after

collision, it is said to be an ELASTIC COLLISION.

However, in most everyday cases, some of this kinetic energy is

transferred into another form of energy such as heat or sound.

Collisions where the kinetic energies are NOT CONSERVED

are known as INELASTIC COLLISIONS.

not change, even though the linear momentum of each of the

colliding bodies may change.

PHY34210

REGAN 99

By CONSERVATI ON OF LINEAR MOMENTUM, Pi Pf

total momentum before collision total momentum after collision

For a 2 BODY COLLISION,

p1,i p2,i p1, f p2, f m1v1,i m2 v2,i m1v1, f m2 v2, f

stick after collision (e.g., a rugby tack le! ) , then m1v1,i m1 m2 V

For an isolated system, the velocity of the centre of mass can not change

in a collision as the system is isolated and there is no net external force.

Recalling P Mvcom m1 m2 vcom m1v1 m2 v2

P p p2

vcom 1

m1 m2 m1 m2

Elastic Collisions in 1-D REGAN

PHY34210

100

the total kinetic energy after the collision. Note that the kinetic energy

of each body may change, but the total kinetic energy remains constant.

before elastic collision after elastic collision

For a head - on collision between tw o billiard balls, with mass, m2 at rest.

By conservati on of linear momentum, m1v1,i m1v1, f m2 v2, f

m1 v1,i v1, f m2 v2, f (1 - D case, magnitudes along same axis).

In an elastic collision the total kinetic energy is conserved

1 1 1

2 2 2

m1 m2 2m1

which leads to, v1, f v1,i and v2, f v1,i

m1 m2 m1 m2

Note that v2 ,f is always positive (i.e. m2 is always pushed forward).

REGAN 101

m1 m2

PHY34210

2m1

For 1 - D elastic collisions , v1, f v1,i & v2, f v1,i

m1 m2 m1 m2

These lead to the following limiting cases.

1) Equal masses, m1 m2 (e.g. pool balls) : v1, f 0 , v2, f v1,i

i.e., for a head - on collision between equal masses, the projectile stops

following collision and the target moves off with the projectile ' s velocity.

2) Massive target, m2 m1 (e.g., golf ball on a cannon ball) :

2m1

v1, f v1,i , v2 ,f v1,i i.e., light projectile bounces back with

m2

similar ve locity (but opposite direction) to incoming projectile .

Heavy targ et moves forwards with small velocity.

3) Massive projectile m1 m2 (e.g., cannon ball on golf ball) :

v1,f v1,i , v2 ,f 2v1,i i.e. heavy projectile continues forwards at approx.

unchanged velocity, light targ et moves off with twic e the projectile velocity.

Example 1: REGAN

PHY34210

102

Nuclear reactors require that the energies of neutrons be reduced by

nuclear collisions with a MODERATOR MATERIAL to low energies

(where they are much more likely to take part in chain reactions). If the

mass of a neutron is 1u~1.66x10-27kg, what is the more efficient

moderator material, hydrogen (mass = 1u) or lead (mass~208u)?

Assume the neutron-moderator collision is head-on and elastic.

We want the MAXIMUM transfer of kinetic energy FROM THE NEUTRON for

a single collision as a function of moderator mass. The initial and final kinetic

1 1

energies of the orginal and scattered neutron are K i mn vn2,i and K f mn vn2, f

2 2

K i K f vn2,i vn2, f

The fractional energy loss per collision is F

Ki vn2,i

For a closed neutron - nucleus collision & the moderating nucleus initially at rest,

vn , f mn mMOD 4mn mMOD

from cons. of lin. mom. , thus F therefor e,

vn , i mn mMOD mn mMOD 2

F 4 / 4 1 for hydrogen proton (NB. water H 2 O) and ~ 4/208 ~ 1/50 for Pb!

REGAN 103

Example 2: The Ballistic Pendulum PHY34210

of energy to measure the speed of

bullets fired into a wooden block vbul

suspended by string. Mblock

h

By conservati on of linear momentum, mbul vbul mbul M block vblock

Also know that is the block system is closed, we can assume

a conservati on of mechanical energy, then

1

mbul M block vblock

2

mbul M block gh

2

where h is the increase in height of the block as it swings upwards.

mbul vbul

2

1

2 mbul M block

mbul M block

vbul

2

2 gh

2

mbul M block 2

vbul 2 gh

mbul mbul

1-D Collisions with a Moving Target REGAN

PHY34210

104

m1v1,i m2 v2,i m1v1, f m2 v2, f m1 v1,i v1, f m2 v2,i v2, f

1 1 1 1 before elastic collision

m1v12,i m2 v22,i m1v12, f m2 v22, f

2 2 2 2

m1 v12,i v12, f m2 v22, f v22,i m1, v1,i m2, v2,i

m1 v1,i v1, f v1,i v1, f m2 v2, f v2,i v2, f v2,i

solving these simultaneo us equations, we obtain the general relations,

m1 m2 2m2 2m1 m2 m1

v1, f v1,i v 2 , i & v2 , f v1,i v2 , i

m1 m2 m1 m2 m1 m2 m1 m2

The subscripts 1 and 2 are arbitrary. Note, if we set v2,i 0 (stationar y

target) we obtain the previous results of

m m2 2m1

v1, f 1 v1,i & v2, f v1,i

m1 m2 m1 m2

Collisions in Two Dimensions REGAN

PHY34210

105

impulses of each body on the other y

determine the final directions following m2, v2,i

2 x

the collision. If the collision is not

head-on (i.e. not the simplest 1-D case) 1

in a closed system, momentum remains m1, v1,i

conserved, thus, for an elastic collision

m1, v1,f

where Ktot,I=Ktot,f , we can write,

1 1 1 1

P1,i P2,i P1, f P2, f and m1v1,i m2 v2,i m1v1, f m2 v22, f

2 2 2

2 2 2 2

For a 2-D glancing collision, the collision can be described in terms of

momentum components. For the limiting case where the body of m2 is

initially at rest, if the initial direction of mass, m1 is the x-axis, then,

x axis, m1v1,i m1v1, f cos 1 m2v2, f cos 2

y axis, 0 m1v1, f sin 1 m2v2, f sin 2

For an elastic collision, m1v12,i m1v12, f m2v22, f

11: Rotation REGAN

PHY34210

106

Now we discuss the mechanics of ROTATION, describing

motion in a circle.

A RIGID BODY refers to one where all the parts rotate

about a given axis without changing its shape.

(Note that in pure translation, each point moves the same

linear distance during a particular time interval).

defined by one that does not change position under rotation.

angular displacement D. The origin of this circular path is centred at

the axis of rotation.

Summary of Rotational Variables REGAN

PHY34210

107

fixed axis of rotation.

The ANGULAR POSITION, , of a body is then the angle between

a REFERENCE LINE, which is fixed in the body and perpendicular

to the rotation axis relative to a fixed direction (e.g., the x-axis).

If is in radians, we know that =s/r where s is the length of arc

swept out by a radius r moving through an angle . (Note

counterclockwise represent increase in positive .

axis of

Radians are defined by s/r and are thus rotation

pure, dimensionless numbers without

units. The circumference of a circle

(i.e., a full arc) s=2r, thus in radians,

the angle swept out by a single, full reference

revolution is 360o = 2r/r=2. Thus, r line

1 radian = 360 / 2 = 57.3o

s

= 0.159 of a complete revolution. x

The angular displacement, D represents the change in

REGAN 108

PHY34210

the angular position due to rotational motion.

In analogy with the translational motion variables, other angular

motion variables can be defined in terms of the change (D), rate of

change ( ) and rate of rate of change ( ) of the angular position.

s

Angular position (radians),

r

Angular displaceme nt (radians), D 2 1

D 2 1

Average Angular Velocity (radian per second), av

Dt t 2 t1

d

Instantane ous Angular Velocity (rad/s),

dt

D

Average Angular Accelerati on, (radians per s 2 ), av

Dt

d

Instantane ous Angular Accelerati on, (rad/s 2 ), av

dt

Relating Linear and Angular Variables REGAN

PHY34210

109

For the rotation of a rigid body, all of the particles in the body take the

same time to complete one revolution, which means that they all have

the same angular velocity,, i.e., they sweep out the same measure of

arc, d in a given time. However, the distance travelled by each of

the particles, s, differs dramatically depending on the distance, r, from

the axis of rotation, with the particles with the furthest from the axis

of rotation having the greatest speed, v.

at and ar are the tangential and radial accelerations respectively.

We can relate the rotational and linear variables using the following

(NB.: RADIANS MUST BE USED FOR ANGULAR VARIABLES!)

ds d dv d r d

s r ; v r r ; at r r

dt dt dt dt dt

v 2 r

2

Radial component of the accelerati on is ar r 2

r r

2r 2

Period of revolution , T

v

Rotation with Constant Acceleration REGAN

PHY34210

110

constant acceleration, we can derive a series of equations of motion.

By analogy, for CONSTANT ANGULAR ACCELERATION, there

is a corresponding set of equations which can be derived by

substituting the translational variable with its rotational analogue.

TRANSLATIONAL ROTATIONAL

v v0 at 0 t

1 2 1 2

x x 0 v0t at 0 t t

2 2

v 2 v02 2ax x0 2 02 2 0

v v0 0

x x0 t 0 t

2 2

1 2 1 2

x x0 vt at 0 t t

2 2

Example 1: REGAN

PHY34210

111

angular acceleration of =0.35rad/s2. ref. line

At time t=0 it has an angular velocity for 0=0

of 0=-4.6rad/s and a reference line on

its horizontal at the angular position, 0=0. axis of

rotation

(a) at what time after t=0 is the reference line at =5 revs ?

1

0 0t t 2 : 5rev 10 rad ; 0 0 ; 0 4.6rad / s ; 0.35rad / s 2

2

1 4.6 4.62 4 0.175 10 4.6 6.56

10π-0 -4.6t 0.35 t 2 t 32 s

2 2 0.175 0.35

rotating in one direction, then slows with constant deceleration before

changing direction and accelerating in the positive direction.

At what time does the grindstone momentarily stop to reverse direction?

0 0 4.6rad / s

t 2

13s

a 0.35rad / s

Kinetic Energy of Rotation REGAN

PHY34210

112

masses, mn , moving at different speeds, vn , the kinetic energy is

1 1 1 1

K m1v1 m2 v2 m3v3 mn vn2

2 2 2

2 2 2 n 2

1 2 2

K mn rnn . BUT is constant, thus K mn rn .

1 2

2 n

n 2

Now we can define I mn rn2 where

n

1 2

Kinetic energy of rotation is given by K I

2

Thus in general, a smaller moment of inertia means less work

is needed to be done (i.e. less K ) for rotation t o take place.

Calculating to the Rotational Moment of Inertia REGAN 113

PHY34210

For a rigid body, I mn rn2 where r is the perpendicu lar distance of the nth

n

particle from the rotation axis. For a continuous body, I mn rn2 r 2 dm.

The Parallel-Axis Theorem n

through the body’s centre of mass is known, we can use I=Icom+Mh2,

where, M= the total mass of the body, h is the perpendicular distance

between the parallel centre of mass axis and the axis of rotation and

Icom is the moment of inertia about the centre of mass axis.

If h 2 a 2 b 2 , I r 2 dm x a y b dm

2 2

I x 2 y 2 dm 2a xdm 2b ydm a 2 b 2 dm

1

Now, since x y R and since xcom

2 2 2

x dm, assuming we

M

take the centre of mass as the orgin, then by definition ,

2b xdm 2b ydm 0 I R 2 dm a 2 b 2 dm I com h 2 M

Example 2: REGAN

PHY34210

114

chlorine atom (mass 35u). The centres of the two atoms are separated

by 127pm (=1.27x10-10m). What is the moment of inertia, I, about an

axis perpendicular to the line joining the two atoms which passes

through the centre of mass of the HCl molecule ?

We can locate the centre of mass of the 2 - particle

a d-a

m x m2 x2

system using xcom 1 1 Cl

M m1 m2 com H

If the x co - ordinate for the centre of mass x 0 then,

mCl a mH d a mH

0 a d . Now d

mCl mH mCl mH

rotation axis

I com mi ri 2 mH d a mCl a 2

2

i

2 2

mH 1 35

u 127 pm

mH mH mCl 2

mH d d mCl d d I

2

I 15,250u. pm 2 (note units for rotational moments of inertia for molecules) .

Torque and Newton’s 2nd Law REGAN

PHY34210

115

depends not just on the magnitude of its Ft Frad

tangential component, Ft but also on how

far the applied force is from the axis of r

rotation, r. The product of Ft r =Frsin O

is called the TORQUE (latin for twist!) . r

perpendicu lar distance between O and a line running through F .

r is the MOMENT ARM OF THE FORCE F. SI unit of Torque is Nm,

which are equivalent to the unit of work W F.d . W in Joules, in Nm.

Torque acting on the particle is Ft r mat r , since, at r ,

mrr mr 2 I τ net Iα Newton' s 2 nd law for rotation.

Work and Rotational Kinetic Energy REGAN

PHY34210

116

1 2 1 2

DK K f K i mv f mvi W

2 2

since v rω , then mr f mr i W

1 2 1 2

2 2

Recalling for a single - particle body, I mr 2 ,

1 2 1 2

then W DK I f Ii

2 2

Work done, W Fs Ft rD D

Work done in an angular displaceme nt 1 to 2

2

is given by W d

1

dW d

POWER is given by P

dt dt

REGAN 117

12: Rolling, Torque and Angular Momentum PHY34210

a bicycle wheel on the ground) is COM

O motion. O

a combination of translational

and rotational motion.

P S P

A wheel rolling at a CONSTANT SPEED, means that the speed of the

centre of mass, vcom is constant. In a time interval dt , the centre of mass

travels the same distance as the distance the outside of the wheel moves

through an arc of length, s R , where R is the wheel radius and is

its angular displaceme nt.

d

The angular speed of the wheel about its centre is , while the speed

dt

ds d R d

of the centre of mass is given by vcom R R

dt dt dt

REGAN 118

PHY34210

The kinetic energy of rolling.

A rolling object has two types of R

COM

kinetic energy, a rotational O motion. O

kinetic energy due to the

rotation about the centre of

P S P

mass of the body and

translational kinetic energy due to the translation of its centre of mass.

We can view the situation as pure rotation about an axis through t he point, P.

1

The kinetic energy of this rotation is given by K I P 2 where I p is the

2

moment of inertia through t he point of contact wi th the ground, P.

From the PARALLEL AXIS THEOREM, we can write

1

I P I com MR and thus, K I com MR 2 2

2

2

K I com 2 M R I com 2 Mvcom

1 1 2 1 1 2

2 2 2 2

REGAN 119

Rolling Down a Ramp N PHY34210

If a wheel rolls at a constant speed, it R

has no tendency to slide. However, if this Fg sin

wheel is acted upon by a net force (such P Fg cos

as gravity) this has the effect of speeding

Fg

up (or slowing down) the rotation, causing

an acceleration of the centre of mass of the system, acom along the

direction of travel. It also causes the wheel to rotate faster. These

accelerations tend to make the wheel SLIDE at the point, P, that it

touches the ground. If the wheel does not slide, it is because the

FRICTIONAL FORCE between the wheel and the slide opposes the

motion. Note that if the wheel does not slide, the force is the STATIC

FRICTIONAL FORCE ( fs ).

Since the rotational frequency is given by R vcom , then

d R d vcom

by differenti ating both sides, acom R

dt dt

REGAN 120

Rolling down a ramp (cont.) N PHY34210

For a uniform body of mass, M and radius, R, R

rolling smoothly (i.e. not sliding) down a ramp Fg sin

tilted at angle, (which we define as the x-axis P Fg cos

in this problem), the translational acceleration

down the ramp can be calculated, from Fg

the force components along the slope, Fx ,net Macom, x f s Mg sin

where f s m s N m s Mg cos . Rot. form of Newton' s 2 nd law is Fr I .

The only force causing a rolling motion in the figure is the FRICTION at point P.

The gravitatio nal and Normal forces all act throug h the COM and thus have R 0.

acom

(note sign)

R

I com I com . acom, x I com acom, x

f s Macom, x Mg sin

R R R R2

I com acom, x g sin

Macom, x Mg sin acom

R 2

I com

1

MR 2

REGAN 121

The Yo-Yo : If a yo - yo rolls down a distance h it loses gravitatio nal PHY34210

1 2

energy in both trans lational K trans mv and rotational

2 R0 R

1 2

K rot I forms. As the yo - yo climbs back up the string,

2

it loses this kinetic energy and transfers it back to potential energy. Mg

The expression for the value of the accelerati on of the yo - yo rolling

down the string can be calculated assuming Newton' s 2 nd law (as for

a body rolling down a hill) with the following assumption s.

(1) the yo - yo rolls directly down the string (i.e. 900 ).

(2) the yo - yo rolls around the axle with radius R0 , not the outer radius, R.

(3) the yo - yo is slowed by the tension in the string rather tha n friction.

g

This analysis leads to the expression , acom

I

1 com2

MRO

REGAN 122

Example 1: PHY34210

A uniform ball of mass M=6 kg and radius R rolls

smoothly from rest down a ramp inclined at

30o to the horizontal.

(a) If the ball descends a vertical height of 1.2m

1.2m to reach the bottom of the ramp, what is the

speed of the ball at the bottom ?

By conservati on of mechanical energy, K i U i K f U f

1 1

Mgh 0 0 K rot K trans 2

Mvcom I com 2 .

2 2

2

For smooth rolling, vcom R and subsitutin g, I com

MR 2 for a sphere,

5

12 2 vcom

2

1 1 1 1 1

Mgh Mvcom I com Mvcom MR 2 Mvcom Mvcom

2 2 2

2 2

2 2 2 25 R 2 5

gh 10 gh

v 2

com 7

vcom 4.1ms 1 (note, Mass independen t, marble

10 7

and bowling ball reach bottom at same time! )

REGAN 123

Example 1 (cont): PHY34210

(b) A uniform ball, hoop and disk, all of mass M=6 kg and

radius R roll smoothly from rest down a ramp inclined

at 30o to the horizontal. Which of the three objects reaches

the bottom of the slope first ?

1.2m

2 1

The moments of inertia for a sphere MR ; disk MR 2 ; and hoop MR 2 .

2

5 2

The fraction of kinetic energy whi ch goes into TRANSLATIO NAL MOTION,

21

Mvcom vcom

f 1 2

. In general, I com MR , with a constant and

2

2 Mv 2 I com

2

1

com

2

R

1 2

Mvcom 1

f 2

vcom

2

1

1

2 Mv 2

com MR 2

1

2

2

R

1 2

For hoop, 1, f 0.5 ; For disk, , f 0.66* ; For sphere, , f 0.71.

2 5

Sphere rolls fastest, followed by the disk. Any size marble will beat disk.

REGAN 124

PHY34210

Torque was defined previously for a rotating rigid body as =rFsin.

More generally, torque can be defined for a particle moving along

ANY PATH relative to a fixed point. i.e. the path need not be circular.

z z

rxF

=

F redrawn

O at origin O

x F

x

r r

y F y r F

The torque is defined by r F . The direction of the torque is found using

the vector cross product right - hand rule, (i.e. perpendicu lar to both r and F ).

The MAGNITUDE OF THE TORQUE is given by rF sin r F rF

where r r sin and F F sin .

REGAN 125

Angular Momentum PHY34210

A particle of mass m, with velo city v (i.e. with linear momentum, p mv ),

has an ANGULAR MOMENTUM given by l r p mr v .

z z

rxp

= l l

p redrawn

at origin p

O x O p x

r

y r p y r p

(the right - hand rule shows that l is to both r and p, v ).

The magnitude of the angular momentum (in units of kg.m2 /s Js ) is

given by l rp sin r p p r where r r sin and p p sin .

Newton’s 2nd

REGAN 126

Law in Angular Form. PHY34210

dp

Newton' s 2 nd law in transla tional form can be written as Fnet

dt

If the angular momentum of a particle is given by l r p mr v

Differenti ating both sides with respect to time gives,

dl d mr v dv dr

m r v mr a v v

dt dt dt dt

v v 0 since these vectors are parallel (sin 0)

dl

dt

mr a r ma r Fnet ri Fi net

i

dl

is equal to the vector sum of torques acting on the particle net .

dt

For a SYSTEM OF PARTICLES, the total angular momentum, REGAN 127

PHY34210

L is the VECTOR SUM of the angular momenta, l of the individual particles,

n

n

dL dli n

i.e., L l1 l2 l3 ln li net ,i

i 1 dt i 1 dt i 1

Only EXTERNAL torques change the TOTAL ANGULAR MOMENTUM ( L )

If net is the NET EXTERNAL TORQUE, i.e. the vector sum of all

dL

external torques, τ net , we obtain a form for Newton' s 2 nd law :

dt

The net external torque, net acting on a system is equal to the rate

of change of the total angular momentum of the system ( L ) with time.

REGAN 128

For a given particle in a rigid body rotating about a fixed PHY34210

axis, the magnitude of the angular momentum of a mass element Δmi , is

l ri pi sin 900 ri Dmi vi . r z

The angular momentum component parallel to the rotation Dm

(z) axis is liz li sin ri sin Dmi vi ri Dmi vi r

pi y

The component for the ENTIRE BODY is the sum

x

of these elemental contributi ons

n n n

n 2

i.e., L z liz Dmi vi ri Dmi r i ri Dmi ri

i 1 i 1 i 1 i 1

n

is a CONSTANT for all points on the rotating body and Dmi r2i I ,

i 1

the moment of inertia of the body about a fixed axis, we can write,

Lz I

Usually th e ' z ' is dropped, assuming that L is about the rotation axis.

REGAN 129

Conservation of Angular Momentum

dPHY34210

L

Since the net torque is related to the change in angular momentum by, τ net ,

dt

dL

if NO NET TORQUE acts on the system, then 0 and thus

dt

THE ANGULAR MOMENTUM OF THE SYSTEM IS CONSERVED.

This means that the net angular momentum at time ti , is equal to the net angular

momentum of the system at some other time , t f .

We can thus say that if the net external torque acting on a system is zero, the

angular momentum of the system, L remains constant, no matter wha t changes

take place WITHIN the system.

Similarly, if the COMPONENT of the net external torque on a system along a

fixed axis is zero, then the component of angular momentum along that axis

can not change, no matter wha t takes place within th e system.

The conservati on law can be written in algebraic form as I ii I f f .

This means that if the moment of inertia of a system decreases, its rotational

speed increases to compensate , (e.g., pirouettin g skaters, neutron stars and nuclei! )

REGAN 130

Example1: Pulsars (Rotating Neutron Stars) PHY34210

observed by chinese in 11th century

SN1987A

periodicities ~0.1-1s.

Vela supernova

remnant, pulsar

period ~0.7 secs

REGAN 131

Rotational period of crab nebula (supernova remnant) =1.337secs PHY34210

Lighthouse

effect

Star

quakes

optical

I ii k .MRi2 i I f f k .MR 2f f , k constant

i Tf

R f Ri Ri , T period of rotation

f Ti

Ri ( sun) ~ 7 108 m, Ti ( sun) ~ 2.5 106 s, T f ( pulsar ) ~ 1s

1s

R f ~ 7 10 m

8

~ 400 Km.

2.5 10 s

6

REGAN 132

PHY34210

TRANSLATIONAL ROTATIONAL

dp dl

Force , F ma Torque, I r F

dt dt

Momentum, Linear p mv Ang. Mom. l I r p

dp dL

Newtons 2 Law, F

nd

net

dt dt

Conservati on, Linear Mom. Angular mom.

dp dL

Fnet 0 net 0

dt dt

13: Equilibrium and Elasticity REGAN

PHY34210

133

constants (i.e. no net forces or torques acts on the body).

If both equal to zero, the object is in STATIC EQUILIBRIUM.

If a body returns to static equilibrium after being moved (by a restoring

force, e.g., a marble in a bowl) it is in STABLE EQUILIBRIUM.

If by contrast a small external force causes a loss of equilibrium, it has

UNSTABLE EQUILIBRIUM (e.g., balancing pennies edge on).

dp

F net 0 (i.e. balance of forces) for

dt

TRANSLATIO NAL EQUILIBRIU M

and

dL

net 0 (i.e. balance of torques) for

dt

ROTATIONAL EQUILIBRIU M

REGAN 134

The Centre of Gravity PHY34210

in an object. In principle these should all be added together

vectorially.

of the CENTRE OF GRAVITY (cog), which is the point

in the body which acts as though all of the gravitational force

acts through that point.

of the body, the centre of gravity and the centre of mass

are at the same place.

Elasticity REGAN

PHY34210

135

A solid is formed when the atoms which make up the solid take up

regular spacings known as a LATTICE. In a lattice, the atoms take up

a repetitive arrangement whereby they are separated by a fixed, well

defined EQUILIBRIUM DISTANCE (of ~10-9->10-10m) from their

NEAREST NEIGHBOUR ATOMS.

The lattice is held together by INTERATOMIC FORCES which can

be modelled as ‘inter-atomic springs’. This lattice is usually extremely

rigid (i.e., the springs are stiff).

Note that all rigid bodies are however, to some extent ELASTIC.

This means that their dimensions can be changes by pulling, pushing,

twisting and/or compressing them. STRESS is defined as the

DEFORMING FORCE PER UNIT AREA= F/A,

which produced a STRAIN, which refers to a unit deformation.

The 3 STANDARD type of STRESS are (1) tensile stress ->DL/L

(stretching) ; (2) shearing stress -> Dx/L (shearing) ; and (3) hydraulic

stress -> DV/V (3-D compression).

REGAN 136

PHY34210

STRESS and STRAIN are PROPORTIONAL TO EACH OTHER.

The constant of proportionality which links these two quantities is

know as the MODULUS OF ELASTICITY, where

F

The STRESS on an object for simple tension or compressio n is given by ,

A

where F is the magnitude of the force applied perpendicu larly to the area A

(This also defines the pressure at that point).

The STRAIN is the unit deformatio n. For tensil e stress, this is a dimensionl ess

ΔL

quantity defined by correspond ing to the fractional change in the length

L

of the object ( L is the orginal length, ΔL is the extension) .

REGAN 137

F

The YOUNG'S MO DULUS ( E ) for tensil e or PHY34210

F ΔL L+ L

compressiv e stress is defined by E DL

A L F

F

For SHEARING , the stress is still , but F is parallel

A

Δx Dx F

to the plane of the area. The strain is now , leading

l

F Dx L

to the SHEAR MODULUS, (G) where G F

A l

HYDRAULIC STRESS is defined as the fluid pressure P,

ΔV V

(i.e. force per unit area). The strain is defined as ,

V V-DV

where V is the initial volume and ΔV is the volume change. DV

DV

The BULK MODULUS ( B) is defined by P B

V

REGAN 138

PHY34210

for an object, over a wide range, Su (rupture)

there is a linear relationship. This means

that the sample would regain its original

dimensions once the stress was removed

(i.e., it is ‘elastic’). Sy (perm. deformed)

THE YIELD STRENGTH, Sy,of the specimen,

it will become PERMANENTLY DEFORMED.

Strain (Dl/l)

If the stress is increased further, it will ultimately

reach its ULTIMATE STRENGTH, Su, where the

specimen breaks/ruptures.

Example 1: REGAN

PHY34210

139

F=62kN

A cylindrical stainless steel rod has a radius r = 9.5mm and

length, L = 81cm. A force of 62 kN stretches along its length. A

81cm

F F 6.2 104 N 2

stress 2 2.2 108

Nm

A r

9.5 10 m

3 2

F=62kN

(b) If the Young’s modulus for steel is 2.2 x

1011 Nm-2, what

are the elongation and strain on the cylinder ?

Dl F l

From the definition of Young' s modulus, E Δl stress

l A E

Δl

0.81m 2.2 108 Nm 2 8.9 10 4

m

2

2.2 10 Nm

11

Dl 8.9 10 4 m

strain 1.110 4 0.11%

l 0.81m

14: Gravitation REGAN

PHY34210

140

mutual attraction of all bodies with mass to each other. He proposed

that each particle attracts any other particle via the m1m2

F G 2

GRAVITATIONAL FORCE with magnitude given by r

G=6.67x10-11N.m2/kg2=6.67x10-11m3kg-1s-2 is the gravitational constant

‘Big G’ (as opposed to ‘little g’ the acceleration due to gravity).

The two particles m1 and m2 mutually attract with a force m1

of magnitude, F. m1 attracts m2 with equal magnitude F

but opposite sign to the attraction of m2 to m1. Thus,

r

F and -F form a third force pair, which only depends on

the separation of the particles, r, not their specific positions. F

F is NOT AFFECTED by other bodies between m1 and m2. m2

THE SHELL THEOREM:

While the law described PARTICLES, if the distances between the

masses are large, the objects can be estimated to be point particles.

Also, ‘a uniform, spherical shell of matter attracts a particle outside

the shell as if all the shell’s mass were concentrated at its centre’.

Gravitation Near the Earth’s Surface REGAN

PHY34210

141

The earth can be thought of a nest of shells, and thus all its mass

can be thought of as being positioned at it centre as far as bodies

which lie outside the earth’s surface are concerned.

Assuming the earth is a UNIFORM SPHERE of mass M , the magnitude of

the gravitatio nal force from the earth on a particle of mass m, at a distance r ,

Mm

from the earth' s centre is given by : Fgrav G 2

r

If the particle is released, it will accelerate to the earth' s centre under gravity

with a GRAVITATIO NAL ACCELERATI ON, a g , whose magnitude is given

Mm GM

by Fgrav mag G 2 a g 2 . Thus the accelerati on due to gravity

r r

depends on the ' height' at which an object is dropped from.

average ag at earth’s surface = 9.83 ms-2 altitude = 0 km

ag at top of Mt. Everest = 9.80ms-2 altitude = 8.8 km

ag for space shuttle orbit = 8.70 ms-2 altitude = 400km

REGAN 142

PHY34210

We have assumed the free fall acceleration g equal the

gravitational acceleration, ag, and that g=9.8ms-2 at the earth’s surface,

In fact, the measured values for g differ. This is because

• The earth is not uniform. The density of the earth’s crust varies. Thus

g varies with position at the earth’s surface.

poles and extended at the equator. (rpolar is ~21km smaller than requator).

Thus g is larger at poles since the distance to the core is less.

• The earth is rotating. The rotation axis passes through a line joining

the north and south poles. Objects on the earth surface anywhere apart

these poles must therefore also rotate in a circle about this axis of

rotation (joining the poles), and thus have a centripetal acceleration

directed towards the centre of the circle mapped out by this rotation.

Centripetal Acceleration at Earth’s Surface REGAN

PHY34210

143

N

from Fnet mar N mag m 2 R

The normal force, N is equal to the weight, mg R

mg mag m ω 2 R g a g 2 R m

mag

R is the radius which the object rotates around

and is the rotational velocity.

S

R is max. at the equator, R Rearth 6.37 106 m.

Δθ 2 rads ‘above’ view,

can be estimated from looking from pole,

Δt 24 3600s

acentr 2 R 0.034ms 2 (cf. mag 9.8ms - 2 )

i.e. very small compared to mag . Assuming

RN

the weight equals the gravitatio nal accelerati on

is usually (on earth at least! ) well justified.

m

Gravitation Inside the Earth REGAN

PHY34210

144

inside it.’

Therefore, a particle inside a sphere only feels a m

net gravitational attraction from the portion of r

No

the sphere inside the radius at which it is at. net

Net

force

Force

In the example on the left, for r = M/V = constant

R

a planet of radius, R and total mass M.

An object of mass m, which burrows downwards such that it is now at

a distance r from the centre of the planet (with r < R ).

The object will experience a gravitational attraction from the mass of

the planet inside the ‘shell’ of radius r and none from the portion of

the planet between radii r and the outer radius R.

M ins rV r 43 r 3 and since the force experience d by the particle due to the

GM insm Gr 43 r 3 4Grr m

mass inside the shell is F 2

2

i.e. Fnet kr

r r 3

Gravitational Potential Energy REGAN

PHY34210

145

Mm

U G and defined to be zero at infinite separation (r ).

r

PROOF

In general, work done is W F r .dr , F r .dr F r dr cos ,

R

cos cos 1800 -1 F r .dr G 2 dr W F r .dr

Mm

r R

Mm 1 GMm GMm GMm

W G 2 dr GMm 2 dr 0

R

r R

r r R R R

W WORK REQUIRED to move a mass, m from a distance R out to .

Since potential energy and work done are related by the general expression ,

GMm

DU W U U R , U R W

R

Potential Energy and Force REGAN

PHY34210

146

only depend on the initial and final positions, NOT THE PATH TAKEN.

Since we can derive the gravitatio nal potential energy from the expression for

dU d Mm Mm

the force, the converse is also true. F G G

dr dr r r2

Escape Speed (Velocity)

A mass m projectile leaving a mass M planet of radius R has an

ESCAPE SPEED, v. This causes the object to move up with

constant speed, v against gravity, until it slows down to v 0 at infinite distance.

1 2 GMm

The kinetic energy , K mv ; The gravitatio nal potential energy, U .

2 R

At infinite distance, K U 0 (i.e. zero velocity and at the zero potential energy

configurat ion for r ). Thus from the principle of conservati on of energy

1 2 GMm 2GM 1

K U mvesc 0 vesc ; v earth

esc 11.2 kms

2 R R

Johannes Kepler’s (1571-1630) Laws REGAN

PHY34210

147

All planets move in elliptical

orbits with the sun at one focus.

• THE LAW OF AREAS:

A line that connects a planet

to the sun sweeps out equal

areas in the plane of the planet’s

orbits in equal times.

i.e., dA/dt=constant.

• THE LAW OF PERIODS:

The square of the period of a

b a

any planet around the sun is

b

proportional to the cube of

the semi-major axis of the orbits.

The Law of Orbits REGAN

PHY34210

148

mass of the planet-sun

system is approximately m

at the centre of the sun.

The orbit is described r

by the length of the

semi-major axis, a

M

and the eccentricity f f’

ea ea

parameter, e.

The eccentricity is defined

by the fact that the each

a

focus f and f’ are distance

ea from the centre of the ellipse. A value of e=0 corresponds to a

perfectly circular orbit.

Note that in general, the eccentricities of the planetary orbits are small

(for the earth, e=0.0167). Rp is called the PERIHELION (closest

distance to the sun); Ra is the APHELION (further distance).

REGAN 149

Rp Ra y PHY34210

r r

f ea ea f’ x

f f’

a rmax rmin Ra R p

In general for an ellipse, the eccentrici ty is defined by , rmax rmin Ra R p

r0 r0 r0

r rmax , rmin

1 cos 1 1

In Cartesian co - ordinates r x 2 y 2 , x r cos θ, y r sin θ

Ellipse is defined by the equation, 1 2 x 2 2r0 x y 2 r02

1 1 2r0

A Length of major axis 2 a rmax rmin RP Ra r0

1 1 1

2

A r

The length of the SEMI - MAJOR AXIS 0 2

2 1

REGAN 150

The Law of Areas PHY34210

the wedge of area swept out is a TRIANGLE of height, r , and base s rD .

The area swept out is approximat ely p

p

1 1

DA base height .rDθ.r.

2 2 m

r

This expression becomes more exact D DA

for smaller va lues of ΔA .

M

As D 0 and ΔA 0,

ΔA dA 1 2 d 1 2

r r

Δt dt 2 dt 2

where is the angular speed of the rotating line connecting the sun and planet

(i.e., rotational velocity of planet around the sun).

The ang. mom. of the planet around the star is, L rp r mv r mr mr 2

dA 1 2 L dA

r . Thus, if L is conserved, constant.

dt 2 2m dt

REGAN 151

The Law of Periods PHY34210

Mm

F magrav G 2 mg m m

v2 rω

2

mrω 2

r

r r r M

Mm

G 2 mrω 2 GM r 3ω 2

r

2π

The period of revolution , T , substituti ng in we get

ω

4 π 2

4 2

3

GM r 3

2

T

2

r . For ellipse, r a semi - major axis.

T GM

T 2 4π 2

Exact vers ion of law predicts

G M m

3

a

T2

i.e., 3 constant for M m, ( Ta 3 3.0 10-34 yr 2 m -3for solar system).

2

a

REGAN 152

Satellites, Orbits and Energies PHY34210

The potential energy of system is given by

GMm K(r)

U , U 0 for infinite separation

r

The KINETIC ENERGY OF A CICRULARLY r

ORBITING SATELLITE, via Newton' s 2 nd law is Etot(r)

GMm v2 1 GMm

F 2 m K mv 2

r r 2 2r =-K(r)

U

Therefore, K for a satellite in a circular orbit.

2

The total mechanical energy is given by E U K

GMm GMm GMm

E K

r 2r 2r

i.e. the total energy is equal to the NEGATIVE OF THE KINETIC ENERGY

GMm

For an elliptical orbit substitute a (semi - major axis length) for r , ie. E

2a

Example 1: REGAN

PHY34210

153

surface as a period of 89 minutes. From this information, calculate

the mass of the earth ?

4 2

3

From Kepler' s 3 law : T

rd 2

r assuming M m

GM

r R h where R 6.37 106 m the earth' s radius

and G 6.67 10-11 m 3kg 1s 2

4π 2 R h 3

M earth

4 2

6.6 106 m 3

1 2

G T 2

6. 67 10 11 3

m kg s 89 60 s 2

M earth 6 10 24 kg

15: Fluids REGAN

PHY34210

154

Fluids (liquids and gases), by contrast with solids, have the ability to

FLOW. Fluids push to the boundary of the object which holds them.

DENSITY ( r ) : is the ratio of the mass Δm and the size of the volume

element ΔV , i.e., r DDMV . For a uniform density ρ MV .

Density has SI units of kg/m3 . In general, the density of liquids does

not vary (they are incompressible); gases are readily compressible.

Pressure: The pressure at any point in a fluid is defined by the limit of

the expression, p = DF /DA as DA is made as small as possible.

If the force is UNIFORM over a FLAT AREA, A, we can write p=F/A

The pressure in a fluid has the same value no matter what direction

the pressure WITHIN the fluid is measured. Pressure is a SCALAR

quantity (i.e.,independent of direction).

The SI unit of pressure is the PASCAL (Pa) where 1 Pa=1Nm-2. Other

units of pressure include ‘atmospheres’ (atm), torr (mmHg) and lbs/in2

where 1 atm = 1.01x105Pa=760 torr = 760 mm Hg =14.7 lb/in2

REGAN 155

Fluids at Rest PHY34210

For a tank of water open to air. The water pressure

AIR y=0

increases with depth below the air-water interface,

while air pressure decreases with height above the A F1 y 1

water. If the water and air are at rest, their pressures WATER y2

are called HYDROSTATIC PRESSURES. F2 mg

For water in STATIC EQUILIBRIU M, (stationar y and the forces on it balance)

F1 and F2 are the forces at the top and bottom of a cylinder of water wit h top

and bottom at depths y1 and y2 respective ly and cross - sectional area, A.

The mass of water in cylinder m rV ρA y1 y2 , V volume of cylinder.

Balancing the forces gives F2 F1 mg where F1 p1 A and F2 p2 A.

F2 F1 mg p2 A p1 A rA y1 y2 g p2 p1 r y1 y2 g

If y1 surface level, y2 h depth, p1 p0 atmospheri c pressure

ph p0 rgh (Principle behind the MERCURY BAROMETER)

The pressure at a point in a fluid in static equilibrium depends on the

depth of that point but NOT on any horizontal dimension of the fluid.

Pascal’s Principle REGAN

PHY34210

156

is transmitted undiminished to every portion of the fluid and to the

walls of its container ’

i.e. squeezing a tube of toothpaste at one end pushes it out the other.

We can write Pascal’s principle as Dp=Dpext, i.e. the change in pressure

in the liquid equals the change in the applied external pressure.

This is the basis behind the concept

of the HYDRAULIC LEVER. Fi Fo

A downward force on one platform (the load

‘input piston’) causes a change in Ao

Ai

pressure of the INCOMPRESSIBLE do

LIQUID, resulting in the movement

of a second platform (the ‘output piston’). di Fo

For equilibrium, there must be a

downward force due to a load on the

output piston which balances the upward

force, Fo.

The Hydraulic Lever REGAN

PHY34210

157

load

force Fo , from the load on the right hand piston Ao

Ai

produces a change in the pressure of the liquid do

Fi Fo Ao di Fo

Dp Fo Fi

Ai Ao Ai

If the input piston moves down a distance d i ,

the output piston moves upwards a distance d o such that the same volume V ,

of the incompress ible fluid is displaced at both pistons, then,

Ai

V Ai d i Ao d o d o d i if Ao Ai , d i d o

Ao

i.e., the output piston moves a smaller distance than the input piston.

Ao Ai

The OUTPUT WORK is given by W Fo d o Fi d i Fi d i

Ai Ao

With a hydraulic lever, a given force applied over a given distance can

be transformed to a greater force over a smaller distance.

Archimedes’ Principle REGAN

PHY34210

158

FORCE, Fb from the surrounding fluid acts on the body. The force is

directed upwards and has a magnitude equal to the weight, mfg of the

fluid that has been displaced by the body.

This net upward bouyant force exists because the water pressure around

the submerged body increases with depth below the surface (Dp=rgh).

Thus the pressure at the bottom of the object is larger than at the top.

If a body submerged in a fluid has a greater density that then fluid, there

is a net force downwards (Fg>Fb), while if the density is less than the

fluid, there will be net force upwards (since Fb<Fg).

For a body to float in a fluid, the magnitude of the bouyant force Fb,

equals to the magnitude of the gravitational force Fg or,

the magnitude of the gravitational force on the body is equal to the

weight, mfg of the fluid which has been displaced by the body.

The weight of a body in fluid is the APPARENT WEIGHT (Wapp)

where Wapp= actual weight - magnitude of bouyant force.

Since floating bodies have Fb=mg, their apparent weight is ZERO!

Flow of Ideal Fluids In Motion REGAN

PHY34210

159

matters are simplified by assuming an IDEAL FLUID.

moving fluid does not change in magnitude or direction.

B) INCOMPRESSIBLE FLOW: This assumes the fluid has constant

and fixed density (i.e. it is incompressible).

C) NONVISCOUS FLOW: Viscosity is a measure of how resistive a

fluid is to flow and is analogous to friction in solids. For example,

honey has a higher viscosity than water). An object moving through

an ideal, non-viscous fluid experiences NO VISCOUS DRAG force

(i.e. no resistive force due to the viscosity of the fluid).

D) IRROTATIONAL FLOW: In irrotational flow, a body can not

rotate about its own centre of mass as it flows in the fluid. (Note that

this does not mean that it can not move in a circular path).

The Equation of Continuity REGAN

PHY34210

160

a tube depends on the cross-sectional areas of the tube. (For example,

you can speed up the water exiting a hose by squeezing the end).

If we have a tube of cross-sectional area, A1,

which narrows to area A2. In a time interval, v1 v2

A2

Dt, a volume DV of fluid enters the tube, with A1

velocity v1. Since the fluid is ideal, and thus

incompressible, the same volume of fluid must exit the smaller end of

the tube with velocity, v2, some time interval later. The volume of fluid

element at both ends (DV) is given by the product of the cross-sectional

area (A) and the length it flows (Dx). Also, by definition, v=Dx/Dt thus,

Applying to both ends of the tube segment, DV A1v1Dt A2 v2 Dt

A1v1 A2 v2 EQUATION OF CONTINUITY. This can be rewritten as

RV Av constant w here RV is the VOLUME FLOW RATE.

If the density of the fluid is constant,

the MASS FLOW RATE, Rm rRV rAv constant

Bernoulli’s Equation REGAN

PHY34210

161

tube at a steady rate. If in time Dt , a volume of

fluid, DV enters the tube and an identical p1 ,v1

volume emerges from the other end. If y1, v1 y2

and p1 are elevation, speed and pressure of the y1

fluid entering the tube and y2, v2 and p2 are the same quantities for the

fluid emerging from the other end of the tube. These quantities are

related by the BERNOULLI’S EQUATION, which states,

p1 12 rv12 rgy1 p2 12 rv22 rgy2 which can be re - written as

p 12 rv 2 rgy constant. If the fluid does not change elevation in its flow,

then y1 y2 y 0, Bernoulli' s equn. reduces to p1 12 rv12 p2 12 rv22 .

For fluids at rest v1 v2 0, Bernoulli' s equn becomes p2 p1 rg y1 y2

streamline, the pressure of the fluid must decrease and vice versa.

Proof of Bernoulli’s Equation REGAN

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162

p2 ,v2

The work - kinetic energy the orem states W DK . p1 ,v1

i.e., the net work done on the system equals the change y2

in kinetic energy ΔK , resulting from the change in fluid y1

speed between th e ends of the tube. ΔK 12 Δmv22 12 Δmv12 12 ρΔV v22 v12

Δm ρΔV is the fluid mass entering and leaving the output in time interval, Δt .

The work done on the system is due to the work done by the grav. force

on the fluid element of mass Dm, during its vertical lift from the input to

the output level. i.e. Wg Dmg y2 y1 rDVg y2 y1 . The - sign

arises since the motion and gravitatio nal force are in opposite directions .

Work is also done ON the system by pushing the fluid through t he tube at

the entrance and BY the system to push forward fluid at the emerging end.

Since, in general, the work done is given by W FDx pAΔx pDV

The NET work done is W p p2 ΔV p1 ΔV p2 p1 ΔV . The work - kinetic

theorem W Wg W p ΔK rgDV y2 y1 ΔV p2 p1 12 rDV v22 v12

which gives, rg y2 y1 p2 p1 12 r v22 v12 Bernoulli ' s equation

16: Oscillations REGAN

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163

property of oscillatory motion is its FREQUENCY, f, which describes

the number of oscillations per second. The SI unit for frequency is

the Hertz (Hz), where 1 Hz = 1 oscillation per second =1 s-1.

Motion which regularly repeats is called periodic or harmonic motion.

The period, T , is the time to complete one oscillatio n, where T 1f .

For SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION, the time dependence of the

displaceme nt of a particle x, is given by xt xm cost where

xm is the AMPLITUDE (maximum value of x).

ANGULAR FREQUENCY defined by xm cost xm cos t T .

Since cos cos 2 , this leads to the relation t hat 2Tπ 2f .

is the PHASE ANGLE of the motion, which is determined by the

displaceme nt and velocity of the particle at time t 0.

t is called the PHASE of the motion.

REGAN 164

The Velocity of Simple Harmonic Motion PHY34210

The velocity of a particle undergoing simple harmonic motion can

be found by differentiating the displacement, x(t) with respect to time.

dxt d xm cost

vt xm sin t vm sin t

dt dt

where xm vm is called the VELOCITY AMPLITUDE.

Note, in SHM, the magnitude of the velocity is greatest when the

displacement is smallest and vice versa, since cos( )=sin(+/2)

The Acceleration of Simple Harmonic Motion

The acceleration can be found by differentiating the velocity in SHM,

dvt d xm sin t

at 2 xm cost

dt dt

2 xm am is known as the accelerati on amplitude.

at 2 xt , which is the signature equation for SHM

‘ In SIMPLE HARMONIC MOTION, the acceleration a(t), is

proportional to the displacement x(t), but opposite in sign, and the

two quantities are related by the square of the angular frequency 2 ’

REGAN 165

The Force Law for Simple Harmonic Motion PHY34210

From Newton' s 2 nd law, F ma F ma m -ω 2 x kx

which is HOOKE' S LAW ! This is CONSISTENT with the idea

of a RESTORING FORCE. Substituti ng for the SPRING CONSTANT,

then for a Simple Harmonic Motion, k m 2

Re - arranging this gives that the angular frequency for a simple harmonic

k

oscillator is related to the strength of the spring constant by

m

2π m

Thus the PERIOD of oscillatio n for a linear oscillator is T 2

ω k

‘ Simple Harmonic Motion is the motion which is described by a

particle of mass m subject to a force which is proportional to the

displacement of the particle but opposite in sign’

A LINEAR HARMONIC OSCILLATOR describes a system where the

force F x , is proportion al to x (rather th an some other power of x).

Energy in Simple Harmonic Motion REGAN

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166

1 2 1

2 2

U t kx k xm2 cos 2 t

The KINETIC ENERGY of the system is given by

1 2 1

2 2

K t mv m 2 xm2 sin 2 t

The MECHANICAL ENERGY, E, is defined as

E U K k xm2 cos 2 t m 2 xm2 sin 2 t

1

2

1

2

recalling that for SHM, k mω 2 , then since cos 2 sin 2 1,

2

2

E U K kxm cos t sin t kxm

1 2 2

1 2

2

Therefore, the mechanical energy of a linear oscillator is constant and

time independent.

Angular Simple Harmonic Motion REGAN

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167

fixed end

PENDULUM (also known as a

TORSION PENDULUM) is an angular torsion wire

version of the linear simple harmonic +m

oscillator. The disk oscillates in the

reference

horizontal plane, with the reference line

- m line, =0

oscillating with an oscillation amplitude m.

The torsion wire twists, thereby storing potential energy in the same

way that a compressed spring does in the linear SHO case. The torsion

wire also gives rise to the RESTORING TORQUE, .

For angular simple harmonic motion, rotating the disk throu gh an angle

from its rest position (at 0) causes a RESTORING TORQUE

given by τ -θ , where is called the TORSION CONSTANT.

By analogy wi th the simple harmonic oscillator case, the PERIOD

I

of an angular simple harmonic oscillator is given by T 2π

κ

Simple Pendulums REGAN

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168

mass m hanging from a massless string

l

of constant length l, fixed at the other

end to that which the bob is attached. m

τ r F rF l Fg sin lmg sin

The sign indicates that the torque , acts

to REDUCE the angular displaceme nt, . l

T

From Newton' s 2 nd law, I lmg sin

I mom. of inertia, angular accelerati on s=r

of the pendulum at angular displaceme nt, . Fgsin Fgcos

For small angular displaceme nt, in radians, Fg

lmg simple pendulums have SHM

sin I lmg

I ONLY for small values of .

lmg I l

2 T 2 , I ml 2 T 2 (no m dependence )

I lmg g

Real (‘Physical’) Pendulums REGAN

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169

to simple pendulums, but the restoring

component of the gravitational force, Fgsin, h cog

has a moment arm of distance h from the

pivot point. h is the distance from the pivot s=r

point to the centre of mass of the object. Fgsin Fgcos

For a physical pendulum, for small amplitudes ,

Fg

I

the period is given by T 2 . (For the simple pendulum, I ml 2 ).

mgh

For real pendulums I differs for each case. For a uniform rod of length l ,

I through th e centre (of mass) is 1

12 ml 2 . The PARALLEL AXIS THEOREM

ml m 1 2

gives that for a pivot at one end of the rod, I 0 1

12

2 l 2

2 ml

3

I ml 2 2l 8π 2l i.e. can measure

since T 2 2 2 g

mgh 3mg 2

l

3g 3T 2 g directly using

Focault’s pendulum

Damped Simple Harmonic Motion REGAN

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170

the oscillator and its motion are described as DAMPED.

If the damping force is proportion al to the velocity

spring,

of the of the oscillatin g system, then Fd bv , constant, k

Fk=-kx

where, b is a DAMPING CONSTANT. The minus m

sign indicates that this force opposes the motion. Fb=-bv

water

From Newton' s 2 nd law, Fnet ma kx bv tank

d 2x dx

m 2 kx b 0 . The solution for this 2 nd order differenti al equation

dt dt

k b2

is given by xt xm e bt 2 m cos ' t where ω' is the angular

m 2m

k

frequency for the damped oscillator . For b 0 (no damping) ω' as in SHM.

m

If the damping constant is small, i.e., b km, then ω' .

The amplitude for a damped oscillator xm e bt 2 m Emec t 12 k xm e bt 2 m

2

const .

REGAN 171

Forced Oscillations and Resonances PHY34210

is said to undergo FREE OSCILLATION.

However, if there is an external force periodically pushing the system

(such as someone pushing a swing), this is known as FORCED or

DRIVEN OSCILLATION.

oscillations, namely the

at which the system would oscillate if it was disturbed and left to oscillate freely;

and the

(ii) ANGULAR FREQUENCY OF THE EXTERNAL DRIVING FORCE (d )

which is the angular frequency of the force causing the driven oscillations.

If =d, the system is said to be ‘in resonance’. If this condition is achieved, the

velocity amplitude, vm is maximised (and so approximately is the displacement, xm).

17: Waves - Part 1 REGAN

PHY34210

172

out over the space through which it passes. This is in contrast to

particles which imply a tiny concentration of matter which is capable

of transmitting energy by moving from one place to another.

There are THREE main types of waves:

a) Mechanical Waves: These are governed by Newtons’s Law and

can only exist within a medium (such as a taut string, water, air, etc.)

b) Electromagnetic Waves: These are massless objects which require

no medium to travel in. All EM-waves travel through vacuum at

the same, constant speed (‘the speed of light, c=3x108ms-1). Examples

of EM waves are visible light, UV and IR radiation, radio-waves,

x-rays and gamma-rays. (the only difference between these waves

is their wavelength and their mode of origin, (atomic, nuclear etc.)

c) Matter Waves: These are quantum descriptions of subatomic

particles such as electrons, protons etc. They are described by the

‘de Broglie’ wavelength, dependent on the particle’s (lin.) momentum.

Transverse and Longitudinal Waves REGAN

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173

which describes the shape of the wave (i.e. y=f(x)).

Alternatively, one can monitor the motion of a particular element of the

wave medium (e.g., a string) as function of time (i.e., y=f(t)).

oscillating string is perpendicular to the direction of travel of the wave,

the wave said to be TRANSVERSE (i.e. a transverse wave, such as

waves on a string.)

of the wave (as in sound waves), the motion is described at

LONGITUDINAL (i.e., transmitted via a longitudinal wave such as

sound).

Wavelength and Frequency REGAN

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174

element along its length) a function which

describes the shape of the wave as a function

of time t, is required. This means we need a

function of the form, y = f (x,t) , where y is the

displacement in the ‘up-down’ direction and x

is the position along the string.

For a sinusoidal wave, the displaceme nt y, as a

function of time t , for an element at position x

along the string is y ( x, t ) ym sin kx t

The amplitude (ym) is the magnitude of

the maximum displacement.

The phase is the argument of ( kx-t ).

As the wave passes through a string

element at a position, x, its phase

HRW p374 changes linearly with time.

REGAN 175

Wavelength and Angular Wave Number PHY34210

(parallel to the waves direction of travel)

between repetitions of the shape of the wave.

y x, t 0 ym sin kx t ym sin kx

By definition , the displaceme nt, y is the same

at both ends of a single wavelengt h, thus

y x,0 y x l ,0 ym sin kx ym sin k x l

Since the function sin repeats itself every 2

radians, thus if kx kx kl kl 2

2

The ANGULAR WAVENUMBE R, k

l

HRW p374

REGAN 176

Period, Angular Frequency and Frequency PHY34210

position on a vibrating string. This can be done by taking x=0.

HRW p375 The displaceme nt of the string at

x 0 as a function of time is then

y 0, t ym sin 0 t ym sin t

sin sin y 0, t ym sin t

The PERIOD OF OSCILLATION T, is defined as the time for any

string element to move through one oscillation. The displacement at

both end of the period of oscillation are, by definition, equal. Thus,

ym sin t1 ym sin t1 T ym sin t1 T

2

This can only be true if ωT 2π Angular Frequency,

T

1 ω

The frequency is defined as f

T 2π

Speed of a Travelling Wave REGAN

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177

Δx dx

WAVE SPEED v as the ratio of . If we take a

Δt dt

fixed point on the moving waveform which is defined by

having the same displaceme nt y, then the phase of the

waveform must remain constant since y ym sin kx t .

The phase, kx ωt const . differenti ating with respect

dx dx

to time gives k -ω0 v

dt dt k

2 2π 2

l

Re calling k and ω v 2 l f

T

l T l T

Wave Speed on a Stretched String REGAN

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178

For a wave to pass through a medium, the particles in the medium

must oscillate as the waves passes through. The medium must have

mass (so the particles have kinetic energy = 1/2mv2) and elasticity (for

potential energy = 1/2 kx2). The mass and elasticity of the medium

determine how fast the wave can travel through the medium.

A small string element of length Δl , forms a circular arc of Dl

F

radius R subtending an angle 2θ. If a force with a

R

magnitude equal to the tension in the string pulls v

O

tangential ly to the two ends, the horizontal components

cancel. The vertical components sum, providing the restoring force F of

magnitude of this force is, F 2τ sin θ 2 τθ τ Δl

R . The mass of the element

Δm μDl , where m is the linear density of the string. The speed of a wave

The string element moves in a circle, thus a v2

R . on an ideal stretched

string only depends

Dl v2

F ma leads to ma μDl v on the string’s tension

R R m and linear density.

Energy and Power of a Travelling Wave REGAN

PHY34210

179

2

dt

energy is given by dK 1

2

μ.dx ym 2 cos 2 kx t .

The rate at which t he kinetic energy of a string element is thus

dK 1 dx

2 μ. ym cos 2 kx t 12 μv ym cos 2 kx t

2 2

dt dt

the AVERAGE rate at which kinetic energy tra nsported is given by

dK 1

dt

2 μv ym cos 2 kx t ave 14 mv 2 ym2

2

average of cos 2 X 12

Recalling for an oscillatin g system, the average kinetic and potential energies

are equal, the AVERAGE POWER is the average rate which the total

dK

mechanical energy tra nsmitted by the wave i.e., P 2 12 mv ym

2 2

dt ave

The Principle of Superposition REGAN

PHY34210

180

simultaneously, their net effect is the sum of the individual effects.

Mathematically, this means, y' x, t y1 x, t y1 x, t

Overlapping waves add

algebraically to produce

a RESULTANT or NET WAVE.

Note however, that overlapping

HRW p383

waves do not in any wave affect

each others travel.

Interference of Waves

If 2 sinusoidal waves of the same wavelength and amplitude overlap,

the resultant wave depends on the relative PHASES of the waves.

If they are perfectly ‘in phase’ they will add coherently, doubling the

displacement observed for individual waves. By contrast, if they are

completely out of phase (peaks of one wave matched by troughs of the

other), they will completely cancel out resulting in a ‘flat’ string.

If y1 x, t ym sin kx t and y2 x, t ym sin kx t PHY34210

REGAN 181

from l and amplitude ym . They differ only by the phase constant .

From the principle of superposition, HRW p384

y ' x, t ym sin kx t ym sin kx t

Since, sin sin 2 sin cos

2

2

y ' x, t 2 ym cos sin kx t

2

2

2

and phase angle 2 . If 0, the two initial waves are ' in phase' the

waves interfere fully ' constructi vely'. If radians , the waves are

completely out of phase and interfere completely , DESTRUCTIV ELY.

If 2 sinusoidal waves of the same amplitude and wavelength travel in

the same direction along a stretched string, they interfere to produce a

resultant sinusoidal wave travelling in that direction.

Phasors REGAN

PHY34210

182

This is a vector whose amplitude is represented by the length which is

equal to the magnitude of the wave and which rotates around the origin

of a set of Cartesian co-ordinates. The angular speed of the phasor

about the origin is equal to the angular frequency, of the wave.

As the phasor rotates about the origin,

its projection, y1 onto the vertical axis y’m

y’=y1+y2

y2 y2

varies sinusoidally between +ym and -ym. y m,2

2 waves which travel along the same y1

string in the same direction can be ym,1 y1

added using a PHASOR DIAGRAM.

If y1 x, t ym,1 sin kx t and y2 x, t ym, 2 sin kx t , the

resultant is of the form y ' x, t ym' sin kx t where ym' and can

be found using the PHASOR DIAGRAM. Adding vectorial ly the phasors

y1 x, t and y2 x, t at any instant, the magnitude of the resultant equals

y ' x, t and is the angle between th e resultant and the phasor for y1 x, t .

Standing Waves REGAN

PHY34210

183

their sum can be found using the principle of superposition. There are

specific places along the resultant wave which DO NOT MOVE,

known as NODES. Halfway between neighbouring nodes (the

‘anti-nodes’) the amplitude of the resultant wave is maximised. Such

wave patterns are called STANDING WAVES since the wave patterns

do not move in the x-direction (i.e. they are stationary left to right).

HRW

opposite directions along a stretched string, their intereference with

each other produces a standing wave.

Analysis of Standing Waves REGAN

PHY34210

184

The two combining waves which make up the standing wave are

y1 x, t ym sin kx t and y2 x, t ym sin kx t .

From the principle of superposit ion, y ' x, t y1 x, t y2 x, t

y ' x, t ym sin kx t ym sin kx t .

Recalling sin sin 2 sin cos

2 2

y ' x, t 2 ym sin kxcost Note, this does not describe a travelling

wave, but rather a standing wave.

• The absolute value of [2ymsin(kx)] is the amplitude of oscillation at x.

• The amplitude varies with position for a standing wave.

The amplitude is zero if sin kx 0. i.e., for integer n where kx nπ 2π

λ x

amplitude is zero (i.e., nodes) occur at x n 2λ . For a standing waves,

adjacent nodes are separated by a distance of half the wavelengt h l2 .

Similarly, the max. amp. is 2 y for sin kx 1 kx n 12 x n 12 l2

Standing Waves and Resonance REGAN

PHY34210

185

a boundary of a string. The interference of the original (incident) and

reflected wave can interfere to give rise to a standing wave. (Note

that for ‘hard’ reflection, the reflection point must be a fixed node.)

HRW

continual sinusoidal wave is sent down from one end, it will be

subsequently reflected at the other end. The reflected wave and the

next transmitted wave will interfere. If more waves are continually

sent from the generator, many such waves can add coherently.

REGAN 186

PHY34210

At certain frequencies, such behaviour results in STANDING WAVE

PATTERNS on the string. Such standing waves ‘RESONATE’ at

fixed ‘RESONANT FREQUENCIES’. (Note that if the string is

oscillated at a non-resonant frequency, a standing wave is NOT set up.)

2L

A standing wave can be set up on a string of length L, by a wave if λ

n

v v

This correspond s to resonance frequencie s given by f n where

l 2L

v is the wavespeed along the string.

n 1 is called the fundamenta l mode or ' first harmonic'.

n 2 is called the second harmonic, n 3 the third harmonic and so on.

The frequencie s associated with thes e modes are often given the

symbols, f1,f 2 , f 3, , f n

Example 1: REGAN

PHY34210

187

stretched string interfere with each other. The amplitude of each

wave is 9.8 mm and the phase difference between them is 100o.

(a) What is the amplitude of the resultant wave due to the interefence

between these two waves ?

ym' 2 ym cos 2 9.8 mm . cos50 13 mm

2

0

wavelength) will give a resultant wave amplitude of 4.9 mm ?

Since ym' 2 ym cos 4.9mm 2 9.8mm cos

2

2

cos 2

4.9 mm

2 9.8 mm

0.25 2.6 radians

rads

2 rads / wavelength 0.42 wavelengt hs

2.6

phase difference is given by 2

Example 2: REGAN

PHY34210

188

Two sinusoidal waves y1(x,t) and y2(x,t) have the same wavelength

and travel together in the same direction along a string. Their

amplitudes are y1,m=4.0 mm and y2,m=3.0mm and their phase constants

are 0 and /3 respectively.

What are the amplitude, y’ and phase constant of the resulting wave ?

ym2 Adding the horizontal components

y' mh ym1 cos0 ym 2 cos3 4 3 cos3 5.5mm

Adding the vertical components

/

3 y' mv ym1 sin 0 ym 2 sin 3 0 3 sin 3 2.6mm

ym1 From Pythagoras theorem, the resultant wave has

y’m an amplitude of y' m 5.52 2.62 mm 6.1mm

ym2

-1 2.6

The phase constant is tan 0.44 rads

5.5

ym1 y ' x, t 6.1mmsin kx t 0.44rads

18: Waves - Part 2 REGAN

PHY34210

189

ray

Sound Waves: can be generally defined

as longitudinal waves whose oscillations

are parallel to the direction of travel P

through some medium (such as air).

wavefronts

planes

If a point source, P, emits sound ray

waves, wavefronts and rays describe the

direction of travel of the waves. Wavefronts correspond

to surfaces over which the wave has the same displacement value.

Rays are lines drawn perpendicular to wavefronts which indicate the

direction of travel of the waves. Note that in real bodies, wavefronts

spread out in 3 dimensions in a spherical pattern.

Far from the point source the wavefronts can appear as planes or

straight lines to an observer.

Speed of Sound REGAN

PHY34210

190

of the medium through which it travels.

As a sound wave passes through air, we can associate a potential energy

with periodic compressions and expansions of small volume elements.

The BULK MODULUS is the property which determines the volume

change in a material when exposed to an external pressure (p=F/A).

Dp

Recalling that the BULK MODULUS is defined by B

DV V

where ΔV/V is the fractional change in volume produced by a

change in pressure Δp. Since the signs of Δp and ΔV are always

opposite a minus sign is included to make B a positive quanity.

The speed of sound for a longitudin al wave in a medium is give by

B Vair(20oC)=343 ms-1

v where r is the density of the medium. Vwater(20oC)=1482 ms-1

r Vsteel = 5941 ms-1

The Doppler Effect REGAN

PHY34210

191

The Doppler effect describes how sound waves from a point source

(such as a car or train or star or galaxy!)) are apparently shifted in

frequency for an observer which is moving relative to that source.

The general expression for the DOPPLER FORMULA for sound waves is

v vD

f ' f where f is the emitted frequency of the source and

v vS

f ' is the detected frequency by the observer. v is the speed of sound through

the air, vD is the relative speed of the detector (or ' observer' ) relative to an

air - fixed frame and vS is the source speed relative to the same air - fixed

reference frame. (Note in most cases, either the source or the detector is

stationary , i.e., vD or vS 0).

When the motion of the detector or source are towards each other,

the sign on its speed gives an UPWARD SHIFT IN FREQUENCY.

When the motion of the detector or source are away from each other

the sign on its speed gives a DOWNWARD SHIFT IN FREQUENCY.

Example 1 REGAN

PHY34210

192

towards a stationary pole while emitting sound waves at a source

frequency of f =1250Hz.

v vD 343ms1 0

f ' f 1250 1

4245Hz. The - sign on bottom

1

v vS 343ms 242ms

gives an INCREASE in observed frequency for relative motion tow ards source.

(b) If the some of the sound waves reflect from the pole back to the

rocket, what frequency f ’’does the rocket detect for the echo ?

v vD 343ms 1 242ms 1

f ' f 4245 1

7240 Hz. The sign on top gives

v vS 343ms 0

an INCREASE in observed frequency for relative motion tow ards source (pole).

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