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I. Introduction: The concepts of
politics and governance
1.1 The meaning of politics
• The study of who gets what, when and how.
• The exercise of power, the science of
government, the making of collective decisions,
the allocation of scarce resources and the
practice of deception and manipulation.
• The nature and organization of the State, the
structure, and functions of the high branches of
government, and the theory of political and civil
1.2 How politics can be studied
Political Philosophy
has a speculative and normative character in
so far as it is a discourse on what society
ought to be.
Political Science
empirical and analytical in so far as it
describes and defines the structure and
behaviour of political institutions.
Here is a list of things that you are
likely to study in politics:
Here is a list of things that you are likely to study in politics:
• The structure and makeup of political institutions: i.e, the state,
government, civil service, governmental ministries/departments,
think tanks, the United Nations, the European Union, other similar
organisations, voting systems, systems of government, different
countries’ political systems, the roles of certain individuals within
government, etc.
• Political ideologies: i.e, liberalism, conservatism, socialism,
anarchism, fascism, nationalism, feminism, environmentalism, etc.
• Political parties: i.e, their structure, their members, their views,
what they did while in government, if they have ever been in
government, etc.
• Political issues: immigration, climate change, the refugee crisis,
ongoing disputes, the outcome of elections and referenda, issues
from the past or issues that may arise in the future, etc.
1.3 The meaning of governance
The process of decision-making and the process
by which decisions are implemented (or not

• a : a systematic body of concepts especially
about human life or culture
• b : a manner or the content of thinking
characteristic of an individual, group, or
• c : the integrated assertions, theories and
aims that constitute a sociopolitical program
An ideology is a set of cultural beliefs, values,
and attitudes that underlie and justify either
the status quo or movements to change it.
The culture of every social system has an
ideology that serves to explain and justify its
own existence as a way of life. Ideology can
also underlie movements for social change,
which rely on sets of ideas that explain and
justify their purpose and methods.

A set of doctrines or beliefs that are shared by t

he members of a social group or that form the
basis of a political,economic, or other system.
Political Ideologies

is a set of related beliefs about political theory

and policy held by an individual, group of
individuals or a particular social class.
political ideologies form the basis of how they
view the world around them and the proper
role of government in the world.
Characteristics of ideology
• Ideologies provide an explanation for
problems that confronts modern societies by
providing futuristic visions.
• Ideology is action-oriented.
• Ideologies mobilize a large number of people.
2.1 The basic tenets of the major
political ideologies
one of the major political ideologies of the world. It
focuses on individualism, self-reliance, personal
responsibility, equality before the law and limited
a political philosophy based on belief in progress,
the essential goodness of the human race, and
the autonomy (see autonomy 2) of the individual
and standing for the protection of political and
civil liberties
Liberalism is a political philosophy or worldview
founded on ideas of liberty and equality.
Liberals espouse a wide array of views
depending on their understanding of these
principles, but generally they support ideas and
programmes such as freedom of
speech, freedom of the press, freedom of
religion, free markets, civil rights, democratic
societies, secular governments, gender equality,
and international cooperation
An economic and political doctrine advocating
governmental ownership and direction of
production and services but which would retain
existing institutions as a means of regulating
them. It is also viewed as an ideology which
opposes capitalism and tries to provide a more
humane and socially viable substitute. Moreover,
cooperation is preferred over competition.
Furthermore, socialism adheres to social equality
which is the main way to attain spcial stability
and cohesion.
Distinctive Ways of Understanding
• Socialism is seen as an economic model.
• Socialism as an instrument of the labor
• Socialism as a political creed that
encompasses community, cooperation,
equality, class politics and collective
The term conservatism is derived from the term
It is a political philosophy that tends to support
the status quo and advocates change only in
moderation upholding the value of tradition and
seeks to preserve all that is good about the past.
A point of view that emphasizes tradition and
established institutions and give greater attention
to social entities than to individuals having the
inclination to oppose any change in the political
It is a moderate or reformist brand of socialism
that favor the balance between the market
and the state rather than the abolition of
capitalism. It an ideological stance that
supports a full balance between major
capitalism, on the one hand, and state
intervention, on the other side.
It is an economic, social and political system
seeking government ownership of the means
of production and services directed by a
process of scientific administration and
universal assent. It is an extreme left-wing
ideology based on the revolutionary socialist
teachings of Karl Marx, characterized by
collective ownership and a planned economy.
Thus, each should work to their capability and
will receive according to their needs.
Fascism, modern political ideology that seeks to
regenerate the social, economic, and cultural
life of a country by basing it on a heightened
sense of national belonging or ethnic identity.
Fascism rejects liberal ideas such as freedom
and individual rights, and often presses for the
destruction of elections, legislatures, and
other elements of democracy.
Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights
Fascism, modern political ideology that seeks to
regenerate the social, economic, and cultural
life of a country by basing it on a heightened
sense of national belonging or ethnic identity.
Fascism rejects liberal ideas such as freedom
and individual rights, and often presses for the
destruction of elections, legislatures, and
other elements of democracy.
Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All
rights reserved.
Fascism, modern political ideology that seeks to
regenerate the social, economic, and cultural
life of a country by basing it on a heightened
sense of national belonging or ethnic identity.
Fascism rejects liberal ideas such as freedom
and individual rights, and often presses for the
destruction of elections, legislatures, and
other elements of democracy.
Microsoft ® Encarta ® 2009. © 1993-2008 Microsoft Corporation. All rights
• 3.1 Nature
Power can be defined in many ways. Most
simply, it is the ability to get what you want,
or as scholar Kenneth Boulding said, power is
"the ability to change the future."
Dimensions of power
1. Issue
The first face (or dimension), as proposed by such theorists as Dahl
who saw power as a 'relation among people'. It is the ability of one
person to achieve compliance by others who change how they
behave as a result of the power being exerted. It can be seen in
systems of ruling elites, where few people have significant power.
As such, power is direct, with identification of an issue and a
singular response to this. It is, in essence, about making decisions.
In governmental power, this can be seen when the government makes
a decision, typically through law-making, that requires obedience
by the broader population. Such decisions may be debated openly
with opportunity for consultation and challenge along the way.
Despite this openness, the focus is still on decision.
This can be seen as an 'open face', where it is clear who is making the
decision and why they are making it. As this can be seen, it is more
likely to be trusted and consequently obeyed with little question.
2. Agenda
The second face, as proposed by theorists such as Bachrach and
Baratz, adds the more subtle system of power, where decision is
made within a complex system. In this situation, power is not just
about making decisions, but also about setting the agenda that
leads to decisions. In other words, if you can control the context
within which decisions are made, then you can influence those
In governmental power, this can be seen in decisions made 'behind
closed doors' and in the 'corridors of power', where who is deciding
and why is seldom clear. In such contexts, power is held not only by
elected officials but also by the whisperers and assistants who set
up meetings, shape agendas and write the minutes.
This can be seen as a 'secretive face', where it is not clear who is
making the decision. This can lead to problems as other people
suspect that there are corrupt elements to the choice, such as
those based on political agendas and personal gain.
3. Manipulation
Lukes adds a third face, that of even more subtle aspect of
manipulating the psychology of anyone and everyone affected. This
can be seen as similar to the Marxist view of ideological power,
where the ability to control what people think of as being 'right' can
lead to acceptance of biased decisions without question.
In governmental power, this appears in propaganda, spin and crafting
of speeches that are deliberately designed to change minds before
the decision is announced. For example if legislation against trade
unions is planned, then a provocative rhetoric of how these unions
cause problems may be started some time beforehand. Any union
action then plays directly into the government's hands.
This can be seen as a 'deceptive face', where trickery and psychological
methods are the primary tool in shifting values and changing what
people consider to be important. The problem with this method is
that when it is discovered, it can lead to a sharp loss in trust and
consequent betrayal effects.
Coercive Power- This kind of power involves the usage of
threat to make people do what one desires.

Coercive power is the application of negative influences.

It includes the ability to demote or to withhold other
rewards. The desire for valued rewards or the fear of
having them withheld that ensures the obedience of
those under power. Coercive power tends to be the
most obvious but least effective form of power as it
builds resentment and resistance from the people who
experience it. Threats and punishment are common
tools of coercion.
2. Reward Power
Reward power depends on the ability of the power wielder to
confer valued material rewards, it refers to the degree to
which the individual can give others a reward of some kind
such as benefits, time off, desired gifts, promotions or
increases in pay or responsibility.
As the name suggests, this type of power uses rewards, perks,
new projects or training opportunities, better roles and
monetary benefits to influence people. However an
interesting aspect of this type of power is that, it is not
powerful enough in itself, as decisions related to rewards
do not rest solely with the person promising them, because
in organizations, a lot of other people come into play like
senior managers and board.
3. Legitimate Power
This power emanates from an official position held by
someone, be it in an organization, beaurocracy or
government etc. The duration of this power is short
lived as a person can use it only till the time he/she
holds that position, as well as, the scope of the power
is small as it is strictly defined by the position held.
Also called "positional power," it is the power of an
individual because of the relative position and duties of
the holder of the position within an organization.
Legitimate power is formal authority delegated to the
holder of the position. It is usually accompanied by
various attributes of power such as a uniform, a title,
or an imposing physical office.
4. Expert Power
This is a personal kind of power which owes its genesis to
the skills and expertise possessed by an individual,
which is of higher quality and not easily available. In
such a situation, the person can exercise the power of
knowledge to influence people. Since, it is very person
specific and skills can be enhanced with time; it has
more credibility and respect.
Expert power is an individual's power deriving from the
skills or expertise of the person and the organization's
needs for those skills and expertise. Unlike the others,
this type of power is usually highly specific and limited
to the particular area in which the expert is trained and
5. Referent Power
This is a power wielded by celebrities and film stars as they
have huge following amongst masses who like them,
identify with them and follow them. Hence, they exert
lasting influence on a large number of people for a large
number of decisions; like from what car to buy to which
candidate to choose for a higher office in the country.
Referent power is the power or ability of individuals to attract
others and build loyalty. It is based on
the charisma and interpersonal skills of the power holder. A
person may be admired because of specific personal trait,
and this admiration creates the opportunity for
interpersonal influence. Here the person under power
desires to identify with these personal qualities, and gains
satisfaction from being an accepted follower
4.1 The State as different from the Nation as a
political concept

STATE – A community of persons more or less

numerous, occupying a definite portion of
territory, having a government of their own
where the people render habitual obedience
and free from control.
Elements of State
People – refers to the population or inhabitants.
Territory – refers to the aerial, fluvial and
terrestrial domains.
• Government – The agency or instrumentality
through which the will of the state is
expressed, formulated and acted upon.
Classifications of Government
Legitimate Perverted
Ruled by One
Monarchy Tyranny
Ruled by the Few
Aristocracy Oligarchy
Ruled by the many
Polity Democracy
Forms of Government
According to Distribution of Powers
a. Unitary Government power is held by one
central authority.
b. Federal
Government powers is divided between one
central and several regional authorities.
Forms of Government
According to Executive Legislative Relationship
a. Presidential – A form of government in which
executive branch exists separately from the
legislature. The President is constitutionally
independent of the legislature because they
are directly elected by the people.
b. Parliamentary
A form of government where fusion of powers
between the executive and legislative branch
Functions of Government
a. Peace and Oreder
b. Social Justice
c. Economic Development
d. Cultural Transformation
e. Sovereignty and Self-determination
f. Foreign Relations
Branches of Government
a. Executive
b. Legislative
c. Judiciary
A group of people who share the same history,
geography, language, customs, and sometimes
Difference between State and Nation

State Nation
• A political concept • It Is a racial-cultural concept
• Sovereign • People continue as a nation
even if they do not remain
• Inhabited by heterogeneous • Inhabited by homogeneous
group of people group of people
4.2 Globalization as a context of
relations among nation-states
GLOBALIZATION – also known as Global
Industrialism is a process of forging
international, political, religious and socio-
cultural interconnections. The concept of
sovereign nation-states is increasingly being
challenged by globalization.
II. Philippine democratic politics
5. Historical Background of Philippine
Democratic Politics
5.1 The evolution of Philippine politics,
government, and governance.
a. Pre Spanish Government
b. Philippines under Spanish Rule
c. American Period
d. Commonwealth
e. Japanese Occupation
f. The Philippine Republic
Emilio Aguinaldo
Manuel L. Quezon – 1935-1944
Jose P. Laurel – 1943-1945
Sergio Osmena – 1944-1946
Manuel Roxas – 1946-1948
Elpidio Quirini – 1948-1953
Ramon Magsaysay – 1953-1957
Carlos P. Garcia – 1957-1961
Diosdado Macapagal- 1961-1965
Ferdinand Marcos – 1965 – 1986
Corazon Aquino - 1986-1992
Fidel V. Ramos - 1992-1998
Joseph Estrada - 1998-2001
Gloria Macapagal-Arroyo - 2001-2010
Benigno Aquino - 2010-2016
Rodrigo R. Duterte - 2010-Present
6. The Executive

6.1 The role of the Philippine President in

relation to his/her powers

a. Chief of State - Acts as the symbolic leader of

the country
b. Chief Executive - The president is the
head of the executive branch and is
responsible for running the
bureaucracy and enforcing the laws passed
by Congress.
c. Chief Executive - Executes the laws, appoints key officials,
grants pardons and reprieves

As part of the power to enforce the law, the Constitution grants

the president the power to pardon, or release from punishment,
people convicted of crimes. In theory, this power allows the
president to prevent a miscarriage of justice. Presidential
pardons are absolute, and they cannot be overturned. The
president can also grant reprieves, which are formal
postponements of the execution of a sentence.
d. Commander In Chief – Runs the
armed forces
e. Chief Diplomat
Negotiates with other countries
f. Chief Legislator
Signs or vetoes legislation,
introduces legislation, works with
Congress on the budget
g. Superpolitician
Helps his or her party raise money
and elect candidates
7. The Legislative

• 7.1 The role and responsibilities of the

Philippine Senate and the House of

LEGISLATURE – from the Latin word lex, legis

meaning law.
The legislative branch broadly deals with the
making, deliberation over, enactment,
amendment and repealing of laws.
Basic Structures
Unicameral – consists of one branch

Bicameral – consists of two chambers or

Composition – 24 Senators
Qualifications – natural born citizen
at least 35 y/o on election day
Registered voter
A resident of the Phils. For at
least 2 years prior to election
Term of office 6 years, maximum of 2 terms
House of Representatives
Composition – 200 District Reps., 50 Party List
Qualifications – Natural born citizen
At least 25 y/o on election day
Registered voter of the district
A resident of the district for 1
year prior to election
Term of office 3 years, maximum of 3 terms
Parliamentary Privileges
Immunity from offenses punishable by not
more than 6 years


Immunity from libel and slander
Powers of Congress
• Appointment of public officials
• Legislative Inquiry and Investigation
• Declare the existence of a state of war
• Ratify treaties (Senate)
• Authorize limited emergency powers for the
• Approve the government budget
Powers of Congress
• Undertake projects under the CDF
• Propose, review, and adopt bills for enactment
into law
• Overturn a presidential veto
• Allow a referendum
• Propose amendments to the constitution and
call for a constitutional convention
8. The Judiciary

• 8.1 The role and responsibilities of the

Philippine Judiciary
SUPREME COURT – the highest court of the
land. The final arbiter of all controversies and
disputes brought by parties to the courts of
Composition: One Chief Justice
14 Associate Justices
• Must be a natural born filipino citizen
• At least 40 years old
• 15 years or more as a judge of a lower court or
engaged in the practice of law in the
• Must be a person of proven competence,
integrity, probity and independence
Tenure of Office
• Members of the Supreme Court and judges of the
lower courts shall enjoy their office during good
• Members of the Supreme Court shall enjoy the
position until they are removed from
• Hold office until they reach 70 years old or
become incapacitated.
• Until dismissed by members of the SC for
probable cause.
Powers of the SC
1. Exercise original jurisdiction over cases
involving ambassadors, other public ministers
and consuls, and over petitions for certiorari,
mandamus, quo warranto, prohibition, and
habeas corpus
Certiorari – Special civil action requesting a
lower court or body to transmit the records
to the superior court for review.
Prohibition – a written order by which a superior
court commands a lower court to stop further
Mandamus – Order by a superior court to a
lower court to perform a certain act which it is
bound to do so.
Quo Warranto – An action by the government yo
recover an office or franchise from an
individual or corporation usurping or
unlawfully holding it.
2. Review judgment of lower courts. Cases
involving constitutionality, legality of taxes,
reclusion perpetua, and errors on questions of
3. Assignment of judges to the lower courts.
4. Order a change of venue for a trial.
5. Promulgate rules of court.
6. Appoint officials of the judiciary and hire
employees for the judicial branch.
9. Decentralization and Local

Decentralization – the transfer of power and

authority from the central institutions to
lower or local levels of government.
Forms of decentralization
• Devolution – the transfer of power and authority from
the national government to local government units. It
is seen as political and territorial.
• Deconcentration – It is the transfer of power, authority
or responsibility or the discretion to plan, decide and
manage from the celtral to the local levels;
administrative and sectoral.
• Debureaucratization – It is the transfer of some public
functions and responsibilities, which government may
perform to private entities or non-government
organizations (NGOs)
Aims of the Local Government Code of
• To transform LGUs into self-reliant
communities and active partners in nation
building by giving them more powers,
authority, responsibilities and resources.
• Hopes to achieve economic development at
the regional and local levels by giving more
freedom in carrying out their programs that
are suitable for their areas.
Devolved functions to LGUs
• Community-based forestry
• Field health and hospital service
• School building program
• Telecommunications
• Social welfare services
• Tourism
• Public works
• Housing
• Agricultural extension
• Investment support
Devolved Regulatory Powers
• Reclassification of agricultural lands
• Enforcement of environmental laws
• Inspection of food products and quarantine
• Enforcement of national building code
• Operation of tricycles
• Processing and approval of subdivision plans
• Establishment of cockpits
9.1 Local Governance in the context of the 1991 Local
Government Code (LGC) of the Philippines and
National-Local Government dynamics .
Composition of the Local Government
Province – intermediate unit providing supervision
to the municipalities and component cities and
under it and performing services for the national
Cities and Municipalities – basic units of the local
govt. delivering services for the people who live
together in a community.
Barangay – basic unit of government. Provides face
to face interaction among the people.
Powers and Functions of Heads of Province,
Municipalities, Cities and Barangays
• Exercise general supervision and control over all
programs and projects.
• Enforce laws and ordinances .
• Initiate and maximize the generation of resources
and revenues, and apply the same to the
implementation of development plans, program
objectives, and priorities.
• Exercise such other powers and perform such
other duties and functions as may be prescribed
by law.
III. State-society interactions
10. Elections and Political Parties
10.1 The nature of elections and political parties in the
context of the Philippines. All citizens of the Phil

Legal Basis – Suffrage may be exercised by all citizens of the
Philippines not otherwise disqualified by law, who are at
least eighteen years of age, and who shall have resided in
the Philippines for at least one year and in the place
wherein they propose to vote for at least six months
immediately preceding the election. No literacy, property,
or other substantive requirement shall be imposed on the
exercise of suffrage. (Art. V Sec. 1)
It is defined as the right and obligation to vote
and be voted in public office.

Views on Suffrage
• A mere privilege – suffrage is not a natural
right but merely a privilege to be given or
withheld by law.
• A political right – suffrage enables a citizen to
participate in the process of government.
Theories on Suffrage
The Natural Right Theory – This theory claims
that the right to vote is a natural right and
inherent to every citizen. The state was
deliberately created by the people and hence
all the people have a natural right to
participate in the affairs of the government.
The Legal Theory
According to this theory, suffrage is not a
natural right, but a political right granted by
the law of the state
The Ethical Theory
The ethical theory considers the right to vote
as a means of self-expression of the individual
in political affairs. Suffrage provides for the
development of the human personality.
The Tribal Theory
In early Greeks and Roman States, suffrage
was extended only to the citizen class. Only
people who were accorded citizenship status
could vote. Nowadays, citizenship is essential
for voting. This practice is based on the Tribal
The Feudal Theory
The feudal theory claims that the right to vote
depends on a particular social status. The
simplest form of social status was ownership
of land.
Scope of Suffrage
Election – means by which people choose their
Plebiscite – the vote of the people of their choice
for against aproposed law submitted to them.
Referendum – the submission of a law passed by
the legislative body to the people for ratification
or rejection.
Initiative – a method in which people directly
propose a law.
Recall – a method by which an elective local official
may be removed from office during his tenure.
Qualifications in the exercise of
• At least 18 years of age
Persons disqualified to vote
• Those who have been sentenced to suffer
imprisonment for not less than one year.
• Those who committed any crime involving
disloyalty to the government such as sedition
and rebellion.
• Those declared as insane or incompetent
Party System
It is referred to as the interaction of parties
with each other.

a. One Party System
b. Two Party System
c. Multi Party System
One-Party System
Only one political party holds power either
because it towers above the others or it
suppresses all other parties.
Two-Party System
A system where the major political parties
alternate with each other in the exercise of
political power.
Multi-Party System
More than 2 political parties fight in an
election, and no single party gets the majority
control of power.
• Organize the Competition. Party exists primarily
as an organizing mechanism to win elections and
thus, gain control of the government.
• Unify the electorate.
• Inspire and inform voters
• Translate preferences into policy
• Help govern.
• Act as watchdogs
11. Civil Society and Social Movements

• 11.1 Political participation outside formal

12. Citizenship

12.1 The traditional and modern views of

citizenship, i.e., the state-centric vs.
participatory notions of citizenship
13. Integration
• 13.1 How the concepts/ideas learned in class
can be utilized in actual experiences