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HOW SOCIETY IS ORGANIZED

-Groups within society,


-In groups and Outgroups
-Reference groups
-Network
 Motivation

 Discussion

 Learning Assessment
Motivation
HOW SOCIETY IS ORGANIZED

Discussion
Groups Within Society
1.PRIMARY AND SECONDARY GROUPS:

Primary Group: is typically A primary group is


typically a small social group (small-scale
society) whose members share close, personal,
enduring relationships. These groups are marked
by members' concern for one another, in shared
activities and culture.
Examples include family, childhood friends, and
highly influential social groups.
• . SECONDARY GROUP: People in a secondary
group interact on a less personal level than in
a primary group. Since secondary groups are
established to perform functions, people’s
roles are more interchangeable. A secondary
group is one you have chosen to be a part of
Self-Categorization Theory
Self-categorization theory is a theory in social psychology that describes
the circumstances under which a person will perceive collections of peop
(including themselves) as a group, as well as the consequences of
perceiving people in group terms. Although the theory is often introduce
as an explanation of psychological group formation (which was one of its
early goals), it is more accurately thought of as general analysis of the
functioning of categorization processes in social perception and interacti
that speaks to issues of individual identity as much as group phenomena
was developed by John Turner and colleagues, and along with social
identity theory it is a constituent part of the social identity approach. It
was in part developed to address questions that arose in response to soc
identity theory about the mechanistic underpinnings of social
identification.
ASPECT OF PRIMARY AND
SECONDARY GROUP
1. SIZE AND EQUALITY
2. RELATIONSHIP AND COMMUNICATIONS
AMONG MEMBERS
3. GOALS AND MEMBERSHIP
4. GROUP STRUCTURE AND MEMBERS’
STATUSES AND ROLES
5. INFLUENCE TO MEMBERS AND NATURE OF
GROUP CONTROL
Social Identity Theory
• Social identity is the portion of an individual's self-
concept derived from perceived membership in
a relevant social group.[1] As originally formulated by
social psychologists Henri Tajfel and John Turner in the
1970s and the 1980s,[2] social identity theory introduced
the concept of a social identity as a way in which to
explain intergroup behaviour.
• Social identity theory is described as a theory that
predicts certain intergroup behaviours on the basis of
perceived group status differences, the
perceived legitimacy and stability of those status
differences, and the perceived ability to move from one
group to another.[3][5] This contrasts with occasions
where the term "social identity theory" is used to refer
to general theorizing about human social selves.
• 1.SIZE AND QUALITY In a society, secondary
group are more while primary are fewer.
• 2. RELATIONSHIP AND COMMUNICATIONS
AMONG MEMBERS:
• Primary group are characterized by personal,
close, and enduring relationships, secondary
groups are marked formal, impersonal, and
contractual relations.
3.GOALS AND MEMBERSHIP:
Also called “special interest groups” secondary groups
are created for the attainment of some specific interests
or ends.
4. GROUP STRUCTURE AND MEMBERS’ STATUSES AND
ROLES:
Most secondary groups are organized groups as they
commonly have formal structure.
5. INFLUENCE TO MEMBERS AND NATURE OF GROUP
CONTROL
Primary groups are marked by members’ care and
concern for each other.
IN-GROUPS AND OUTGROUP
IN-GROUPS

• IN-GROUPS: is a social group to which a


person psychologically identifies as being a
member. By contrast
• OUTGROUP: Is a social group with which an
individual does not identify.
3.REFERENCE GROUPS
• Is a social group that we are use as a standard of
comparison for ourselves regardless of whether
or not we are part of that group.
• Reference groups provide the benchmarks and
contrast needed for comparison and evaluation
of group and personal characteristics. Robert K.
Merton hypothesized that individuals compare
themselves with reference groups of people
who occupy the social role to which the
individual aspires.
3.REFERENCE GROUPS
• Reference groups act as a frame of reference to
which people always refer to evaluate their
achievements, their role performance, aspirations
and ambitions. A reference group can be either
from a membership group or non-membership
group. An example of a reference group being
used would be the determination of affluence. An
individual in the U.S. with an annual income of
$80,000, may consider himself affluent if he
compares himself to those in the middle of the
income strata, who earn roughly $32,000 a year.[3]
If, however, the same person considers the
relevant reference group to be those in the top
0.1% of households in the US, those making $1.6
million or more, then the individual's income of
$80,000 would make him or her seem rather poor.
4.NETWORKS
• A social network is a series or web of weak
social ties involving people or groups of
individuals connected to each other, such as
through friendship, family, business
relationship, academic institutions, religious
organizations and socio-political clubs.
4.NETWORKS
• Networks and the analysis of them is an inherently
interdisciplinary academic field which emerged from
social psychology, sociology, statistics, and graph
theory. Georg Simmel authored early structural
theories in sociology emphasizing the dynamics of
triads and "web of group affiliations".[2] Jacob
Moreno is credited with developing the first
sociograms in the 1930s to study interpersonal
relationships. These approaches were mathematically
formalized in the 1950s and theories and methods of
social networks became pervasive in the social and
behavioral sciences by the 1980s.[1][3] Social network
analysis is now one of the major paradigms in
contemporary sociology, and is also employed in a
number of other social and formal sciences. Together
with other complex networks, it forms part of the
nascent field of network science.