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Chapter 4 : Chemical Composition of the Cell

m m
÷ §iverse group of substances that contain
÷ Carbon
÷ Hydrogen
÷ Oxygen
÷ Just as do carbohydrates
BUT! in lipids the proportion of oxygen is lower than Carbohydrates.

Example :
formula for stearic acid is CΐΗHΒΕOΑ

Either wise , some lipids contain nitrogen & phosphorus too .

Non-polar molecules 0 in soluble in water

dissolve readily in other lipids & in non-polar solvents

Medium sized molecules compared to the macromolecules of

polysaccharides , proteins and nucleic acid.

Õtore large
amounts of
energy for long

Reduce the loss of

Act as source of
water by


Form a major part

Act as metabolic of the structure of
source of water the cell
÷ At room temperature :
÷ FATÕ are solid
÷ Oils are liquid
÷ Fats + oils = triglycerides
÷ An ester that is formed through the condensation of one molecule of
glycerol and three molecules of fatty acids.
÷ The bonds formed are called ester bond.
÷ 3 molecules of water are removed in this reaction .
÷ ë  


Hydrolysis of triglycerides
- Each molecule of fatty acids consists of a long hydrocarbon chain with a
different number of carbon atoms.
- Fats often contain only saturated fatty acids
- Oils usually contain unsaturated fatty acids.

Fats and oils function

efficiently as energy
reserves and storage

Fats act as
They provide
38kJ per
against the
gram !
loss of heat

of fats and oils
but carbohydrates provide
only 17kJ per gram

÷ Õaturated fats - containing saturated fatty acids, solid at

room temperature
÷ Unsaturated fats - containing unsaturated fatty acids,
usually liquid in room temperature are called oils
Õ    Õ   
NÕ    Õ
Examples of food that contains a high Examples of food that contain a high
proportion of saturated fats : animal fats proportion of unsaturated fats : vegetables
(lard), red meat, coconut oil, palm kernel oils such as corn oil, olive oil and soybean
oil, full cream milk and butter. oil.
The fatty acids in saturated fats do not The fatty acids in unsaturated fats have at
have any double bond between the carbon least one double bond between the carbon
atoms. atoms. This means the carbon atoms in the
hydrocarbon chain are not bonded to the
maximum number of hydrogen atoms.
Cannot form any chemical bonds with Able to react with additional hydrogen
other atoms or react with additional atoms. (unsaturated fats with one double
hydrogen atoms. This is because all the bond are called monounsaturated fats.
bonds between the carbon atoms have the Those with two or more double bonds are
maximum number of hydrogen atoms called polyunsaturated fats.)
Õolids at room temperature Liquids at room temperature
Raises the level of L§L (bad cholesterol) in Increases the ratio of H§L (good
the blood cholesterol) to L§L and lowers the levels of
total cholesterol an L§L in the blood

Õaturated fats nsaturated fats

÷ Õimilar to triglycerides
÷ Long-chained molecules
÷ Produced by both animals and plants ; hard solids at room temperature
÷ Cause the waxes to be waterproof
÷ Found in the cuticles of the epidermis of leaves, fruits and seeds of some
÷ Õebum that is excreted from the oil glands in the skin contains wax that
softens the skin.
÷ Importance of waxes :
÷ Used to waterproof the external surfaces of plants and animals
÷ The cuticles of a leaf and the protective covering on an insectǯs body are waxes too
÷ Also a constituent of honeycomb in the skin contains wax that softens the skin.

the cuticle of a leaf is waxes.

÷ Have structure similar to triglycerides
÷ but one of the three fatty acid molecules is replaced by a phosphate group.
÷ The end of the phospholipids molecules containing the phosphate group 0
hydrophilic [love water].
÷ The other end, containing the hydrocarbon chains of the fatty acids 0
hydrophobic [hate water].
÷ Importance of phospholipids :
÷ Phospholipids bilayers ( double layers ) form the basic of all cell membranes.

hydrophilic head
( contains phosphates group )

÷ two hydrophobic
÷ fatty acid tails

- Have a complex ring structure
- Õynthesized in liver
- They occur in plants and animals.
- Example : cholesterol, testosterone , oestrogen and progesterone.

Õteroids unction

Cholesterol Õynthesis of bile salts, steroid

hormones and cell membrane

Testosterone Male reproductive hormones

Oestrogen, progesterone Female reproductive hormone

spect \ Nucleic acid Carbohydrates Proteins Lipids

Elements C, H, O, N, P C, H, O C,H , O, N, and C, H, O
some have s
and P
Monomer Nucleotides Monosaccharide Amino acids Fatty acids &
Types X§NA XMonosaccharide XEssential oFats and oils
XRNA X§isaccharide amino acids oWaxes
Xpolysaccharide XNon-essential oPhospholipids
amino acids oÕteroids
Importance oÕtore and oÕtorage and oForming cells , oÕtorage of
transmit supply of energy enzymes, energy
hereditary o ( 17kJ/g) antibodies and o38kJ/g
information hormones oMetabolic
oÕtorage of source of water