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Fundamental

Counting Principle
Fundamental
Counting Principle
Fundamental Counting Principle can
be used to determine the number
of possible outcomes when there
are two or more characteristic

2
Fundamental Counting Principle
states that if an even has m
possible outcomes and another
independent even has n possible
outcomes , then there are m * n
possible outcomes for the two
events together

3
Theorem 1:
If an operation can be performed in n₁ ways, and if for each
of these a second operation can be performed in n₂ ways,
then the two operations can be performed together in n₁n₂
ways.

Examples:
• Calculate the number of ways a girl may dress if she has
3 skirts and 6 shirts.
• Answer: Let the number of skirts, p = 3

and the number of shirts, q = 6

The number of ways she can dress up = p x q

=3x6

= 18

4
Theorem 1:
Examples:
Lester wants to have either chocolate
or mango or strawberry ice-cream. He has options of either
cup or cone. How many combination actually he has for
ice-cream?
Answer: Number of flavors say p = 3

and the choice of cup or cone, say q = 2

The number of combinations of ice-cream = p x q

=3x2

=6

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Theorem 2:
If an operation can be performed in n₁ ways, and if for each
of these a second operation can be performed in n₂ ways,
and so forth then the sequence of k operations can be
performed in n₁n₂n₃….nₖ ways.
Examples:
• Suppose you wish to dine out in a restaurant. You have
choices among 3 soups, 4 types of rice dishes, 8 kinds
of curries and 5 desserts. Calculate in how many unique
ways you can make your order ?
• Answer: Number of soups = 3

Number of rice's = 4

Number of curries = 8

Number of desserts = 5

Total number of combinations = 3 x 4 x 8 x 5


= 480
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Theorem 2:
If an operation can be performed in n₁ ways, and if for each
of these a second operation can be performed in n₂ ways,
and so forth then the sequence of k operations can be
performed in n₁n₂n₃….nₖ ways.

Examples:
• A die is rolled 3 times. Calculate the total number of
possible outcomes.

• Answer: The number of outcomes in a roll of a die (say


m)= 6 (1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6)

The number of times the die is rolled (say n) = 3

The number of total combinations = mⁿmⁿ

= 6³ = 216

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Factorial Notation
The Factorial n, where n is any positive integer is denoted by n!. The Factorial of n is
defined as the product of positive consecutive integers from 1to n inclusive.

NOTATION:
n!=n(n-1)(n-2)(n-3)…3*2*1
n!=1*2*3…(n-1)(n)
thus:
n!=n(n-1)!
n!=n(n-1)(n-2)!

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• Examples
a) 5! = 5 × 4 × 3 × 2 × 1 = 120
b) 10! = 10 × 9 × 8 ×... × 3 × 2 × 1 =
3,628,800
c) 0! = 1 (this is a convention)
d) 2! = 2

• Evaluate:
1. (5!*3!)*/(6!*2!)
2. 0!
3. 70!

• Simplify:
1. (n+1)!/n!
2. (n+2)!/(n-1)!
9
COMBINATION
S
• A combination is an unordered collection of
some or all of the elements in a set. Since a
combination is an unordered collection, any
alteration in the order in which the elements
are arranged is not a new combination.
• Combination is an arrangement of objects, without
repetition, and order not being important.

• Another definition of combination is the number of


such arrangements that are possible.
FORMULA:
EXAMPLE:

• List all combinations of the letters ABCD in groups of 3.

ABC ABD ACD BCD (COMBINATION)


ABC ABD ACD BCD
ACB ADB ADC BDC
BAC BAD CAD CBD
PERMUTATION
BCA BDA CDA CDB
CAB DAB DAC DBC
CBA DBA DCA DCB
4C3 = n! .
r!(n-r)!
= 4! .
3!(4-3)!
= 4
Permutation
Cases
Case 1
Arranging “N” Objects
In general, n distinct objects can be arranged in n! ways.

Example:
Consider arranging 3 letters: A, B, C. How many ways can this be done?

ABC, ACB, BAC, BCA, CAB, CBA.

no of ways 3 × 2 × 1 = 6
Case 2
Number of Permutations
The number of permutations of n distinct objects taken r at a time,
denoted by Prn​, where repetitions are not allowed, is given by

Example:
In how many ways can a supermarket manager display 5 brands of cereals in
3 spaces on a shelf?
Case 3
Permutations of Different Kinds of Objects
The number of different permutations of n objects of which n1 are of
one kind, n2 are of a second kind, ... nk are of a k-th kind is

Example:
In how many ways can the six letters of the word "mammal" be arranged in a row?
Since there are three(3) "m"s, two(2) "a"s and one(1) "L" in the word "mammal"
Case 4
Arranging Objects in a Circle
There are (n−1)! ways to arrange n distinct objects in a circle (where
the clockwise and anti-clockwise arrangements are regarded as
distinct.)

Example:
In how many ways can 5 people be arranged in a circle?
Group 2
Calica, Ramilyn
Catapang, Mae Lorraine
Galvez, Gile
Manzo, Doericko
Pader, Lee Audrey
Samarita, Ylla Mae
Roxas, Mark Glenmer