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INDUCTIVE AND

DEDUCTIVE
Teaching Methods
LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Cognitive: Differentiate between the


inductive and deductive teaching methods

Affective: Explain two advantages and


disadvantages of each teaching method

Psychomotor: Develop a simple inductive


and deductive Bible study lesson at home
EXERCISE
WHICH SENTENCE BELOW
SOUNDS BETTER?

(1) Did you took breakfast before


coming to class today?

(2) Did you take breakfast before


coming to class today?
WHICH SENTENCE BELOW
SOUNDS BETTER?

(1) Did my words come across as


offensive to you earlier?

(2) Did my words came across as


offensive to you earlier?
WHICH SENTENCE BELOW
SOUNDS BETTER?

(1) Didn’t she knew you have an


allergic reaction to peanuts?

(2) Didn’t she know you have an


allergic reaction to peanuts?
WHICH SENTENCE BELOW
SOUNDS BETTER?

(1) Who did you scolded on the


phone just now?

(2) Who did you scold on the


phone just now?
WHICH SENTENCE BELOW
SOUNDS BETTER?

(1) What did you say?

(2) What did you said?


GRAMMAR RULE
• The formula for asking a question in the
simple past tense is:

• Did / Didn’t + [subject] + [root form /


present tense of verb]

Note: The simple past is a verb tense that


is used to talk about a finished action that
happened or existed in the past.
INDUCTIVE TEACHING METHOD
• An approach to teaching
whereby teachers give examples
to the learners and let the
learners use the examples to
figure out the rule or concept by
themselves

• Learner-centered
INDUCTIVE TEACHING METHOD

• Example-driven, bottom-up teaching

• The teacher gives learners the data


and lets learners draw their own
conclusions from the data. The
learners notice how the concept is
used, and figure out and verbalize the
rule
INDUCTIVE TEACHING METHOD

GENERAL
EXAMPLES PRACTICE
RULE
INDUCTIVE TEACHING METHOD

• Comes in many forms:


• Discovery learning
• Inquiry-based learning
• Problem-based learning
• Case-based teaching
• Just-in-time teaching
ADVANTAGES OF THE
INDUCTIVE TEACHING METHOD
Learners are trained to be familiar with rule discovery; this could
enhance learning autonomy and self-reliance

Learners’ greater degree of cognitive depth is “exploited”

The learners are more active in the learning process rather than being
passive recipients. It will give them more motivation in learning

Involves learners’ pattern-recognition and problem-solving abilities


that interest and challenge particular learners
DISADVANTAGES OF THE
INDUCTIVE TEACHING METHOD

Time and energy-consuming

Concepts are given implicitly and may lead the learners to formulate
wrong concepts of the rule taught

Can place the emphasis on the teachers who are planning the lesson
instead of the learners’ objectives

May frustrate some learners who would prefer to simply being told the
rules
DEDUCTIVE TEACHING METHOD
• A more traditional approach to
teaching whereby teachers give
the rule or concept first by
defining it and then provide
learners with examples or
illustrations to demonstrate it.

• Teacher-centered
DEDUCTIVE TEACHING METHOD

• Rule-driven, top-down teaching

• Learners learn the rule first and


then given opportunities to apply
the rule afterwards.

• Direct-instruction
DEDUCTIVE TEACHING METHOD

GENERAL
PRACTICE EXAMPLES
RULE
ADVANTAGES OF THE
DEDUCTIVE TEACHING METHOD
Goes straight-forwardly to the point and can, therefore, be time-
saving

A number of rule aspects can be more simply and clearly explained


than elicited from examples

A number of direct practice / application examples are immediately


given

Respects the intelligence and maturity of many adult learners in


particular and acknowledges the role of cognitive process in learning

Confirms many learners' expectations about classroom learning,


particularly for those who have an analytical style
DISADVANTAGES OF THE
DEDUCTIVE TEACHING METHOD

May be off-putting for some learners, especially younger ones

Younger learners may not be able to understand the concepts or


terminology given

Encourages a teacher-fronted, transmission-style classroom, so it will


hinder immediate learner involvement and interaction

Explanation is seldom as memorable as other forms of presentation


(for example: demonstration)

Encourages belief that learning is simply a case of knowing the rule


COMPARISON OF THE
TWO METHODS

INDUCTIVE APPROACH DEDUCTIVE APPROACH

Learner-centered Teacher-centered

Learners are active participants


Learners are passive listeners
Learner autonomy is encouraged

More effective for young learners More effective for adults

Requires more time More efficient use of time


WHEN TO USE EACH METHOD?

INDUCTIVE APPROACH DEDUCTIVE APPROACH

Experience-oriented Content-oriented

Developmental / Formulation of
concept, principles, skills, Factual information
attitudes, and values

Information not available – needs Similar information directly


to be discovered yet available – no effort to look for it
APPLICATION: BIBLE STUDY
• The inductive approach proceeds from the
sensible, visible, tangible experiences of the
person and leads, with the help of the Holy
Spirit, to more general conclusions and
principles.
• The deductive method begins with the
general principles or truths of the faith and
apply them to the concrete experiences of
those to whom teaching is addressed.
INDUCTIVE TEACHING METHOD

Life Aspect of
Response
Experience Faith
DEDUCTIVE TEACHING METHOD

Aspect of Life
Response
Faith Experience
EXAMPLE
(DEDUCTIVE BIBLE STUDY)
RESPONSIBILITY FOR ADVOCACY
(CHALLENGING MORAL AND
THEOLOGICAL REFLECTION)

1. Faith Content
• The scripture passage of Jesus and the
money changers in the temple would be
studied, followed by some information
that would clarify the reason their
presence in the temple was infuriating
back in Jesus’ day
RESPONSIBILITY FOR ADVOCACY
(CHALLENGING MORAL AND
THEOLOGICAL REFLECTION)
2. Life Experience
• Learners are asked to describe a time
they were angry over something they felt
was unjust or when they saw someone
being taken advantaged of
• Additional questions may be posed:
• Who/what reminds you of money
changers in today’s society? What
might Jesus suggest as an appropriate
response?
RESPONSIBILITY FOR ADVOCACY
(CHALLENGING MORAL AND
THEOLOGICAL REFLECTION)

3. Response
• Ask the learners to assess themselves:
“Give yourself a grade regarding your
overall tendency to engage in
advocacy and list two political or
personal situations to which you are
willing to pay more attention.”
COMPARISON
INDUCTIVE BIBLE STUDY DEDUCTIVE BIBLE STUDY
Existential approach Kerygmatic approach

Starts with the specifics of Starts with proclamation of the


human experience and faith and applies it to human
examining them in light of the existence
Word of God
Suitable for energetic learners. Suitable for passive thinkers.
Lessons gleaned from Encourages learners to
“digging” stay with the become sponges. Lessons are
learner, are internalized and often forgotten once the
easily shared with another. teaching time is over.
LEARNING OBJECTIVES

Cognitive: Differentiate between the


inductive and deductive teaching methods

Affective: Explain two advantages and


disadvantages of each teaching method

Psychomotor: Develop a simple inductive


and deductive Bible study lesson at home
THANK YOU 