Sie sind auf Seite 1von 20

Structures and Functions of the

Nervous System
Time for a Kahoot
Getting started
• Pick 4 people for the review.

• Join Google Classroom: 22312j


• Open Structure and Function notes.
Structure and Function
Learning Targets:
• Classify the major structures of the nervous
system (R)
• List the general functions of the nervous
system (K)
Nervous System
Anatomy Physiology

Organs are divided into two groups: A

1. Central Nervous System (CNS)


a. Brain
B
b. Spinal Cord
C
2. Peripheral Nervous System (PNS)
a. Nerves
Nervous System
Anatomy Physiology
Together, organs perform 3 main
functions
1. Sensory
monitor internal and external
environment
2. Integration
information from the sensory nerves
is integrated into the CNS by neurons
3. Motor Output
stimulation of muscles or glands to
move or secrete substances
Nervous Tissue
Learning Target: Identify and state the function
of the components of nervous tissue. (K)
1. Neuron (Nerve Cell)
a. specialized to react to physical and chemical changes in their
surrounding
b. Excitable- transmit information in the form of electrochemical
changes called nerve impulses along nerve fibers to other
neurons and other types of cells
c. Structures of a neuron-
1) Cell Body- contains the nucleus and organelles

2) Dendrites- receive info from other neurons

3) Axons- send impulses away from the cell body


2

1 3

4
Fun Fact:
A cell body diameter ranges from 5 - 135 µm
An axon diameter ranges from 1 - 20 µm
The axons length ranges from 2 mm - 1 m.

Let's scale this up!

The
classroom
will equal 1
cell body

How far would this axon travel


out of the room?
Up to 1.6 km (1 mile)- That’s all
the way to the HC library!!!!
2. Neuroglial cells-
a. Specialize to support the neuron

b. Non-excitable-do not send impulses

c. Four types in the CNS


1) Astrocytes– form connections between blood
vessels and neurons

A tissue sample from the brain. The area


where the astrocyte connects to the blood
vessel is called a foot process.
2) Oligodendrocytes-insulate neurons, form the
myelin sheath

Electron micrograph showing


branched oligodendrocytes with
processes extending to several
underlying axons
3. Microglial cells- engulf microbes and remove
wastes

Activated microglial cells in a rat brain.


When activated, these cells are
phagocytic helping to removing damaged
or dying cells.
4. Ependymal cells- help circulate cerebrospinal
fluid

Ependymal cells found in the 3rd ventricle of the brain


of a 32 week old fetus.
d. 2 types in the PNS
1) Satellite cells- surround and control the
chemical environment of the neuron

2) Schwann- insulate the neuron, form the


myelin sheath

What is the name of the similar cell in the CNS?


Fun Fact: For every nerve cell in your body there
are 50 glial cells.

If a person looses brain cells every day, how does a


child's brain increase in mass from 400 g to 1400g in
adulthood?

1. The number of glia cells increases tremendously.


2. More synapses are formed.

*When glia cells reproduce uncontrollably, a person


has cancer.
SAVE
• Choose SAVE

• Open in Google Drive

• Click on

• Move to Anatomy and Physiology- New Folder


Nervous System
How to exempt the final exam
• B or better grade for second semester
• Maximum of 2 tardies during the semester
• No unexcused absences

Marquette University Cadaver Lab


• C or better grade for second semester
• Zero tardies during the semester
• No unexcused absences

Upcoming Events:
Wednesday- Movie to Hidden Figures- For all
March 8th- MSOE fieldtrip- For science club members
April 1st- STEM conference for women @Johnson Controls
May 13th- STEM conference for women@ Medical College of Wis.
Homework
9.03 Cells of the nervous system worksheet
*Wear sweat pants or shorts tomorrow!