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PETROLEUM PRODUCTION ENGINEERING

TOPIC : SAND CONTROL


Lecturer: Ph.D Pham Son Tung
Group 1

STT Name MSSV


1 Hồ Minh Hiếu 31201075
2 Dương Văn Vào 31204453
3 Nguyễn Nam 31202249
4 Đoàn Thanh Huy 31201333
5 Đinh Bá Hoàng Nam 31202229
6 Lê Anh Dũng 31200611
7
8/20/2018
Nguyễn Hải Quân 1520070 1
OUTLINE

1
• Sand production

2
• Causes of sand production

3
• Sand Control Methods

4
• Choosing the Appropriate Method of Sand Control

• Use IPM – PROSPER to research sand production


5 influence of GRAVEL PACKING in cased hole

6 • References

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Sand production
• The migration of formation sa
nd caused by the flow
of reservoir fluids.

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Sand production
The production of sand is generally undesirable since it can:

• May partially or completely clog the well, impede wellbore access


low productivity.
• Damage surface equipment
• May leave there in a cavity which may result in caving of the formation and
collapse of the casing.
• Interfere with the operation of downhole equipment.

• Lost production time to change damage equipment or clean the sand filled
wellbore.
• Erode completion components.

• Cost of separating sand from the produced fluid

• Cost of sand disposal and control measures at the pay zone


• …….
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Causes of sand production
1. Unconsolidated formation

2. Reduction of pore pressure

3. High production rates

4. Onset of water production

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Causes of sand production
1. Unconsolidated formation

• The cementation of a sandstone


depend on cement
• Older sediments tend to be more
consolidated than newer sediments
• Sand production is likely from shallow,
geologically younger sedimentary , less
cement.

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Causes of sand production
2. Reduction of pore pressure

• Some reservoirs are believed to aid in the support of overburden.


• Lowering the reservoir pressure creates an increasing amount of stress on the
formation sand itself
• Cause the overburden to subside and crush a poorly consolidated formation and
result in sand production and serious casing damage.

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Causes of sand production
3. High production rates
• The high production rate imposes excessive
stresses on unconsolidated formations.
• If the stress exceeds the formation strength,
sand production will commence.
• Increasing the production rate is usually done
for a high water cut well.
• Reduction of downhole pressure
• Drawdown reservoir pressure increases

• Increases production rate may result in


collapse of the arch sand
production

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Causes of sand production
4. Onset of water production

• Capillary pressure holding sand grains are lost due to producing water.

• Flow frictional significantly increases due to more than one phase flow.

• High pressure gradient at the sandface due to higher flow rate for a desired net

production… increased mobility of sand grains

• Water may dissolve cementing materials between sand grains.

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Sand Control Methods

Stand Alone Screen


Sand Control
Screen Types
Expandable Screen

Open Hole Gravel Packs


Gravel Pack
Cased Hole Gravel Packs

Resin-coated sand
Chemical
methods Sand consolidation

Frac Packs

Combination
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Sand Control Methods
Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
• Area open to flow =4% to 10%+ (base pipe
open area = 9%)
• D50 < 75 µm.
• D40/D90 < 5 (Uniformity Coefficient (UC))
• Skin = 2 to >10
• Fines < 5 %

Advantages
• Moderate cost (lower than G.P.)
• Some solids control
Disadvantages
• Screen running problems
• Subject to erosion
• Easy to plug
• still not suitable in highly heterogeneous
reservoirs.
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Sand Control Methods
Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Screen Types :
Wire - Wrapped Pre - Packed Woven screens

Slotted liners

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Which? Depends on the well needs?
Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Wire – Wrapped Screen (WWS)

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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Wire – Wrapped Screen (WWS)
• D40/D90 < 3 (UC)
• Fines < 2%
• D10/D95 <10 (sorting ).
Advantages :
• Keystone slots
• High manufacturing efficiency
• Simplest and cheapest
• Most difficult to plug

Disadvantages :

• Cannot withstand erosion


• Inaccurate wire spacing can allow production of
formation sand or plugging
• Can be damaged when installed through
doglegs, high angle and horizontal section
because of vertical orientation between
wrapped wires and support rods
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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Wire – Wrapped Screen (WWS)

• But wire-wrapped screens still have a


relatively low inflow area

• The inflow area will depend on the wire


thickness, the slot width.

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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Wire – Wrapped Screen (WWS)

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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Pre - Packed Screen

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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Pre - Packed Screen
• Relatively uniform sand
• High porosity (over 30%)
• Combined with their very high permeabilities provide minimal pressure
drops
• The pre-packed screen provides sand control when gravel packing is not feasible.
• Open/Cased Hole Gravel Packs

Advantages :
• Two screens. The screen slots are sized to prevent the escape of gravel
packed between the screens.
• Use when gravel packing is not feasible
• Can withstand some erosion.
• Best in the upper part of a vertical well and in horizontal wells
• Long life in harsh production environments
• Easy and fast installation

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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Pre - Packed Screen

Disadvantages :

• Moderately expensive
• Easiest to plug
• Acid can damage the resin in the pre-
pack
• No better at resisting jetting of sand
than wire-wrapped screens.
• The equivalent inflow area for a pre-
packed screen can be less than 5%.

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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Pre - Packed Screen

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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Premium screens
2 type used :

Bonded Metal Mesh Screen


Non - bonded Metal Mesh Screen

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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Premium screens

Non - bonded Metal Mesh Screen Bonded Metal Mesh Screen


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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Premium screens Mesh filter :

Non - bonded Metal Mesh Screen Bonded Metal Mesh Screen

There are two options – Dutch


weave and Square weave

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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Premium screens Non - bonded Metal Mesh Screen

• The big advantage of non-bonded mesh screen is better performance in


unconsolidated formations.
• When it comes to very unfavorable conditions such as high percentage of fine
formations, dual shrouded screen will not plug off.
• Dual shroud protecting the inner mesh

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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Premium screens Bonded Metal Mesh Screen
• Prevent fine sand particle
• High resistance against erosion and plugging
• High tensile strength

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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Premium screens
• D40 / D90 < 5
• Fines < 5%
• D10/D95 <10

Advantages :
• Can withstand some erosion
• Inflow area of around 30%
• Depth filtration
• Porosity of the mesh can exceed 90%
• Best in compacting reservoirs or in harsh
installation environments - long, vertical,
horizontal, open hole wells.
Disadvantages :

• Expensive
• Relatively easy to plug
• Easily damaged in running operations

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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Slotted Liner Screen
Cut straight on the
center, this conventional
slot does not wear out.

Cut under a 6º angel,


this V- shaped slot is
non- clogging

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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Slotted Liner Screen

The single-slot staggered,


longitudinal pattern is generally
preferred because the strength of
the unslotted pipe is preserved

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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Slotted Liner Screen

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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Slotted Liner Screen

• Area open to flow =2% to 4%


• Skin = 4 to >10
Advantages :

• Lower cost of Wire – Wrapped


• Ease of installation
• Good for well sorted sands

Disadvantages :

• Low rotational strength


• Low inflow area 2 to 3 %
• Subject to erosion
• Low reliability
• Easily plugged

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Stand Alone Screen (SAS)
Testing and selection of screens

• Screen selection is then based on the lowest pressure drop (highest


permeability) combined with an acceptable level of sand retention.

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Expandable Sand Screen
Screen design

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Expandable Sand Screen
Screen design
Base Pipe

8/20/2018 Slotted base pipe 33


Expandable Sand Screen
Screen design
Filter media

Overlapping mesh design for expandable Woven mesh for expandable screens
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screens 34
Expandable Sand Screen
Expansion techniques

Use rotary expansion tools powered by hydraulics


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Expandable Sand Screen

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Expandable Sand Screen
Application :

• Area open to flow =6% to >10%


• Skin = 0 to >5
• Open hole and cased hole

Advantages :

• Largest screen possible


• Little or no annulus
• Potential isolation capacity

Disadvantages :
• Higher cost
• New, unproven reliability
• Subject to erosion in cased hole
• Compliant expansion not proved yet
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Gravel Packing
• Gravel packing has been used by the oil industry since the 1930s.
• Conclude : Gravel and Screen

Gravel Screen
• The size of gravel pack sand that should • Pre-Pack, Slotted liner, wire-wrapped,
be used depends on size of the woven screen.
formation sand and Uniformity • Screen or slotted liner openings should
Coefficient, Sorting be no larger than the smallest gravel
• Very high permeability—about pack sand diameter.
120darcies - but prevents formation
sand entering the well

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Gravel Packing

Gravel packing is the predominant method in use today :

Disadvantages
Advantages
• Carrier fluid is injected into the
• Lower cost formation which may damage the
• high efficiency reservoir permeability and restrict
• High production rate production.
• Completing multiple zones with gravel
packs is difficult, and almost all well
repairs involve the removal of the
screen and gravel pack

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Gravel Packing

Open Hole Gravel Packs Cased Hole Gravel Packs

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Gravel Packing
Open Hole Gravel Packs

• Originally used in deviated or vertical wells, since the mid-1990s, open hole gravel
packs became a common form of sand control; particularly in horizontal wells

• Pack the annular space with gravel sized to stop formation sand from being produced
and size the screen to prevent the gravel from escaping.

• When successfully installed, they prevent the formation from collapsing and
therefore reduce fines production

• Operationally, they can be challenging (particularly with respect to fluid selection


and deployment), and like all forms of sand control, success is not guaranteed. A
gravel pack must be designed.
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Gravel Packing
Open Hole Gravel Packs
Design
Gravel
• GP sand is (by design) 5-6 times
larger than formation sand D50 particle
size.
• Besides determining the size of the gravel,
it is worth analysing the gravel
permeability.
• Natural gravels are therefore commonly
used due to their lower costs.
• Synthetic proppants such as ceramics will
have higher permeabilities due to their
improved roundness and higher strength.
• Better quality gravels will be rounder,
more spherical, stronger, have less out of
range particles and a narrower size range

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Gravel Packing
Open Hole Gravel Packs

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Gravel Packing
Open Hole Gravel Packs
Design
Screen
• Sizing the screen, by comparison, is easier

• The screen aperture should be the largest


size that stops all of the gravel from
passing through, generally no larger than
75% of the smallest gravel diameter

• In any case, this rule of thumb needs to be


validated with laboratory testing to
ensure that the screen works in
combination with the selected.

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Gravel Packing
Open Hole Gravel Packs

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Gravel Packing
Open Hole Gravel Packs
Circulating pack sequence

Gravel pack ports


Slurry

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Gravel Packing
Open Hole Gravel Packs
Circulating pack sequence

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Gravel Packing
Cased Hole Gravel Packs
Design Gravel

• Gravel Size
• Permeability
• Amount gravel

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Gravel Packing
Cased Hole Gravel Packs
Gravel Size :
About 5 - 6 times the D50 of the formation sand in most cases, but there are
some cases where larger gravel is acceptable and more productive.
• Step one: plot the formation size distribution
• Step two: determine the 50% intercept grain size

100 95

• Step three: gravel size – for gravel pack: 6 x 95 micron = 570 micron =
8/20/2018 32 mesh. Use 20 – 40 mesh 49
Gravel Packing
Cased Hole Gravel Packs
Gravel Size :

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Gravel Packing
Cased Hole Gravel Packs
Gravel Size :

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Gravel Packing
Cased Hole Gravel Packs
Permeability

Depending on :
• Roundness
• Sorting

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Gravel Packing
Cased Hole Gravel Packs
Permeability
• Sorting
 is a measurement of how similar the grain sizes are between largest and
smallest
 Depend on D10/D95 :
 A sand with a D10 of 0.0075” and a D95 of 0.0025” would have a D10/D95
= 3 (well sorted)
 A sand with a D10 of 0.006” and a D95 of 0.00008” would have
D10/D95=75 (very poorly sorted).

Well Sorted – similar Poorly Sorted –


size grains with large wide range of grains
pores with very small pore

• Narrower ranges of gravel sizes can have much higher permeability than wider
ranges of sizes.
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Gravel Packing
Cased Hole Gravel Packs

Amount of gravel ?

• Length of perforated or open hole interval


• Annular dimensions
• Volume of perfs
• Target for gravel outside the perfs
• Excess

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Gravel Packing
Cased Hole Gravel Packs Design Screen

8/20/2018 Woven or premium screens 55


Gravel Packing
Cased Hole Gravel Packs Design Screen

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Pre - packed screens 56
Gravel Packing
Cased Hole Gravel Packs Design Screen

• Slot size stops gravel (inches or gauge)

• Pick the slot at 50% to 75% of this small size

Example :

 Gravel in range, pick the smallest


 Gravel Size : 40 – 20 mesh
 40 mesh is 0.0165”
 Slot size = 0.0165” x 0.75 = 0.012” or 12 gauge

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Gravel Packing
Cased Hole Gravel Packs Design Screen

Typical Screen Picks :

32 gauge

24 gauge

18 gauge

12 gauge

8 gauge for ceramic


6 gauge for sand

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4 gauge 58
Gravel Packing
Cased Hole Gravel Packs Design Screen

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Gravel Packing
Cased Hole Gravel Packs
Circulating pack sequence

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Choosing the Appropriate Method of Sand Control

Input :

• Reliability
• Productivity Experiments
• Cost Appropriate
• The ability to control water or gas Method of sand
• Skin control
Core analysis

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Choosing the Appropriate Method of Sand Control
• Green = good
• yellow = moderate
• red = poor

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Use IPM – PROSPER to research sand production influence of GRAVEL PACKING in
cased hole

Input data of well – X1 :


Fluid in reservoir : retrograde condensate
Parameters (PVT) unit
Reservoir pressure 2000 psig
Reservoir temperature 300 Deg F
Dew-point at reservoir temperature 4500 psig
Water gas ratio (WGR) 4 Bbl/MMscf
Separator pressure 1200 psig
Separator temperature 120 Deg F
Separator GOR 25000 Scf/STB
Separator gas gravity 0.7
Tank GOR 1 Scf/STB
Tank gas gravity 0.7
Condensate gravity 55 API
Water salinity 10000 Ppm
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Use IPM – PROSPER to research sand production influence of GRAVEL PACKING in
cased hole

Out put IPR

8/20/2018 64
Use IPM – PROSPER to research sand production influence of GRAVEL PACKING in
cased hole

Performing a System
Analysis

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Use IPM – PROSPER to research sand production influence of GRAVEL PACKING in
cased hole

Test sensitivities

8/20/2018 66
Use IPM – PROSPER to research sand production influence of GRAVEL PACKING in
cased hole

Test sensitivities

8/20/2018 67
Use IPM – PROSPER to research sand production influence of GRAVEL PACKING in
cased hole

Test sensitivities

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Use IPM – PROSPER to research sand production influence of GRAVEL PACKING in
cased hole

Output

STT First node Gravel pack Gas rate Dp completion Total skin
pressure permeability (MMscf/d) (psi)
(psi) (mD)

1 2000 40000 67.779 877.207 125.596

2 2000 80000 73.238 687.728 94.5251

3 3000 40000 47.965 417.891 91.6187

4 3000 80000 51.867 331.899 69.4944

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Use IPM – PROSPER to research sand production influence of GRAVEL PACKING in
cased hole

8/20/2018 70
Use IPM – PROSPER to research sand production influence of GRAVEL PACKING in
cased hole

8/20/2018 71
References

[1] Jonathan Bellarby (First edition 2009). Well completion design – chapter 3 :
sand control

[2] Schlumberger . Sand control : Why ? How ?

[3] http://www.sand-screen.com/product

[4] http://www.halliburton.com/en-US_stimulation_public/ps/sand
control/default.page?node-id=hgeyxsqx

[5] Trần Quang Phát. Sử dụng IPM – Proper để nghiên cứu ảnh hưởng
sinh cát của phương pháp gravel packing

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Thank you for your attention!

Questions
?

8/20/2018 73