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U V PATEL COLLEGE OF ENGINEERING

THE PRELIMINARY PROJECT


ENTITLED

“EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATION OF MAHUA(MADHUCA INDICA OIL):


PREPARATION, CHARACTERISATION AND ENGINE PERFORMANCE”

GUIDED BY: PRESENTED BY :


Prof. Ramnarayan Meena Hitendra Bhola (12012031002)
Asst. Professor Akash Nukani (12012031026)
MED, Sameer Patel (12012031052)
U.V.P.C.E Kherva U.V.P.C.E Kherva
INTRODUCTION
According to the IEA, 2007 report, if governments around the world continue with current policies, the world's energy
needs would be 55 % higher in 2030 than in 2005, with China and India accounting for much of this rising demand.
Some 84 % of the increase in primary energy demand will have to come from fossil fuels.

 The cost of petroleum oils is much higher


and its feed stock is depleting at very fast
rate.

 Pollution and green house effect due to


exhaust gas emissions increases day by day.

 On the other hand there is huge area


available in many countries for the
cultivation of the raw crops to produce
biodiesel.
OBJECTIVES

Production

Second
generation Engine
biodiesel performance
Characterization and emissions
Mahua
Biodiesel

Storage stability:
1) Open air
2) Dark
3) Underground
OBJECTIVES

1) To collect raw feedstock for biodiesel production.

2) To prepare biodiesel by standard method from collected feedstock.

3) To characterize chemical &physical properties of prepared biodiesel.

4) To study the performance on engine with fresh biodiesel for various parameters such as brake thermal efficiency,
specific fuel consumption, exhaust emissions etc.

5) To note the variation in storage stability of biodiesel parameter monthly (up to 2 months) samples dosed with (500,
1000, and 1500ppm) Stability testing parameter over the storage period (every 15 days).
CURRENT BIODIESEL FEEDSTOCK COST
(AS PER MARKET SURVEY)
Current bio-diesel Feedstock cost
140

120
120
110

100 95
85
Price /ltr in INR

80 75 75
65 65
60
50

40 35 37

20

Oil Feed stock


COLLECTION OF RAW FEED-STOCK

Mahua oil from vegetable oil refinery


FLOW DIAGRAM

Material stability

Mahua Bio-diesel
Storage stability

VCR ENGINE
PRODUCTION STEPS
 If FFA level in the raw oil is more than 4 %
 Two continuos process are used namely Esterification and transesterification
 Esteretification :

This reaction takes place in presence of acid catalyst such as sulphuric acid.
The methyl ester formed in this reaction is known as FAME. Fatty acid methyl ester.
 Then neutralization process is carried out by allowing the passage of hot water.
 Again this is heated up to a certain temperature to remove the moisture content.
 Transesterification :

The product of this reaction is BIODIESEL and Basic catalyst is used such KOH or NaOH.
 Again for neutralization hot water is added and then moisture is removed by heating.
The glycerol produced in this process is 99% pure and can be used directly
CONTINUED…
 If FFA level in the raw oil is less than 4 %
 Only transesterification process is done and we get biodiesel directly. Thereafter neutralization
and moisture removal process are being done.
ACID ESTERIFICATION
 Pre-heated raw mahua oil mixed with methanol (0.32% v/v) using H2SO4 as catalyst (1.24% v/v) for 1.45 hours
reaction at 60⁰ C temperature.

Δ 60-65 ˚C
H2SO4

(1) Pre Heating of Raw Oil (2) Esterification Process Using Acid
Catalysis
 After Esterification process acid value is reduced by 94.14 % , which is suitable for the main
Transesterification reaction.

pH reduced to 7

(3) Separation of Methanol from (4) Neutralized Esterified Oil


Esterified Oil
TRANSESTERIFICATION PROCESS
 Alkaline-catalyzed transesterification was carried out using a pre-treated sample that had an acid value of
1.19 mg KOH/gm of oil. A 0.25 %v/v methanol-to-oil and an alkaline catalyst (0.5% w/v KOH) were used for
the reaction for 45 minute

0.5 KOH% w/v

(6) Transesterification Process Using


(5) Pre Heating of Esterified Oil
Alkaline Catalysis
 Finally 98.12 % reduce in acid value of Mahua oil

pH reduced to 7

(7) Separation of Glycerol from (8) Neutralizing Transesterified


Transesterified Oil (FAME) Oil (FAME)
Final Product as per ASTM Standard

Mahua raw oil Mahua


Bio-diesel
CONCLUSION
 Acid value (Acid value titration )
A value indicating the amount of free acid present in a substance, equal to the number of
milligrams of potassium hydroxide needed to neutralize the free fatty acids present in
one gram of fat or oil also called Acid Value.
AV = (v - b) x N x 56.1 / w

Where, v is the titration volume in ml


b is the blank in ml Acid value = 0.2x56.1x0.1
N is the normality of the KOH solution
1.08
w is the weight of sample in gm
= 0.41 mg KOH/gm of oil
 Free Fatty Acid(FFA)
FFA% is the weight to weight ratio of FFA found in an oil sample. The weight of an oil
sample divided into the weight of the FFA in that sample.

AV = 1.99 FFA%
ACID VALUE COMPARISON
140
129.74

120

100
(mgKOH/gm of Oil)
Acid Value

80

60

40

27

20

0.41 2.12
0
MAHUA OI L MAHUA BI ODIESEL ACI D OI L ACI D OI L BI ODIESEL
Name of oil and biodiesel
FFA COMPARISON
70
65.19

60
54

50

40
%FFA

30

20

10

0.2 1.06
0
MAHUA OI L MAHUA BI ODIESEL ACI D OI L ACI D OI L BI ODIESEL
Name of oil and biodiesel
TASKS TO BE COMPLETED
Characterisation
 Properties like Density, Viscosity, Flash Point, Cloud Point, Calorific Value etc to be obtained.

Performance on VCR engine


 Blending 5% Biodiesel
 Blending 10% Biodiesel

Storage Stability
 In open air
 Underground
 In Dark region
SUMMARY OF BIODIESEL PRODUCTION PROCESS

Molar ratio Reaction Reaction Temp Catalyst Acid value


Reaction 0C
(methanol to oil) Time (h) concentration reduced to

6:1 2 65-67 0.7 % H2SO4 6.73

8:1 2 65-67 0.7 % H2SO4 4.24


Esterification
12:1 2 65-67 0.7 % H2SO4 2.37

14:1 2 65-67 0.7 % H2SO4 1.65

Transesterification 6:1 1 65 0.5 w/v KOH 0.52


COST ESTIMATION OF BIODIESEL

% Cost
1, 1%
1, 1% Mahua
11, 11% Particulars % Cost biodiesel
(Rs/litre)
0, 0%

Feedstock 85 35
Feed-stock
Chemicals
Chemicals 11 3
Tax
Manpower
Manpower 1 0.50
Utilities

Utilities 1 0.50
85, 87%
Tax 0 -

Total 39
REFERENCES
[1] Anca Diana Barbu, Ricardo Fernandez, Ann Gardiner, Ayla Uslu and James Greenleaf., Energy and environment
report 2008, EEA Report No 6, 2008.

[2] Poonam Singh Nigam, Anoop Singh., ‘Production of liquid bio-fuels from renewable
resources: A review’ Progress in Energy and Combustion Science, 37, 52-68, 2011

[3] S.N. Naik, Vaibhav V. Goud, Prasant K. Rout, Ajay K. Dalai., ‘Production of first and
second generation bio fuels: A comprehensive review’ Renewable and Sustainable

[4] International Energy Agency (IEA), From First to Second-Generation Bio fuel
Technologies. http://www.iea.org/publications/free/new/Desc. pdf; 2008.

[5] Larson ED., Biofuel production technologies: status, prospects and implications for trade
and development, Report No. UNCTAD/DITC/TED/2007/10.

[6] Stevens DJ, Worgetten M, Saddler J., Biofuels for transportation: an examination of policy
and technical issues, IEA Bioenergy Task 39, Liquid Biofuels Final Report 2001-2003.
[7] Mahua (Madhuca Indica) As A Source Of Biodiesel In India
Pratap S Kulkarni1, Dr Sharanappa G2, Dr Ramesh M R

[8]Future perspectives of 2nd generation biofuels : Rainer zah, Claudia Binder, Alfons.

[9]Solid acid catalyzed bio diesel production by simultaneous esterification and transesterification by Kulkarni M.,
Gopinath R.

[10]Technical Aspect of biodiesel production by transesterification : Meher L C., Naik S N.


TO BE CONTINUED…
Purchase of equipments, consumables and
chemicals

Magnetic Stirrer Chemicals and Consumables

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