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Power BJT Switching

Transient Model of BJT
Capacitance Effect
• A forward-biased pn - junction exhibits two
parallel capacitances: a depletion-layer
capacitance and a diffusion capacitance.

• A reverse-biased pn-junction has only depletion


• Under transient conditions, they influence the

turn-on and turn-off behavior of the transistor.

• Due to internal capacitances, the transistor does

not turn on instantly.
Switching Characteristics
• Delay time (td) is defined as the time during
which the collector current rises from zero to 0.1
ICS and the collector-emitter voltage falls from
VCC to 0.9 VCC.

• Rise time (tr) is defined as the time during which

collector current rises from 0.1 ICS to 0.9 ICS .

• Storage time (ts) is usually defined as the time

during which collector current falls from ICS to
0.9 ICS .
Turn on and Turn off Time
• The tum-on time ton is the sum of delay time
td and rise time tr

• The turn-off time toff is the sum of storage

time ts and fall time tf
• A power MOSFET is a high power version of
• It is a unipolar device and its operation depends
on the flow of the majority carriers.
• It is a voltage-controlled device and it acts as a
fast acting switch.
• It has very high input impedance and has a
positive temperature coefficient of resistance.
• There are two types of enhancement MOSFETs:
1. n-channel enhancement MOSFET.
2. p-channel enhancement MOSFET.
• With the gate circuit open, if a positive voltage
is applied between the drain and the source.

• When a positive supply is given to the gate

with respect to the source.
Steady State Characteristics
• The MOSFETs are voltage-controlled devices
and have a very high input impedance.
• The current gain, which is the ratio of drain
current ID to input gate current IG.
• The transconductance, which is the ratio of
drain current to gate voltage.
Transfer Characteristics

• The transfer characteristic is the variation of

the drain current ID with the gate-source
voltage VGS, keeping the drain-source voltage
VDS a constant.
Transfer Characteristics contd…
Output Characteristics
• (1) Cutoff region, where VGS < VT

• (2) Pinch-off or saturation region, where


• (3) Linear region, where VDS<=VGS — VT.

Turn ON and Turn OFF methods

• Turn On…….How………..?
• Turn On…….How………..?

• The typical switching time ranges from 10 to

100 ns.
• Without any gate signal, an enhancement-type
MOSFET may be considered as diodes
connected back to back or as an NPN-
• The gate structure has parasitic capacitances to
the source, Cgs, and to the drain, Cgd.
• The npn-transistor has a reverse-bias junction
from the drain to the source and offers a
capacitance, Cds.
Switching Model
Switching Characteristic
• The turn-on delay td(on) is the time that is required to
charge the input capacitance to threshold voltage level.

• The rise time tr is the gate-charging time from the

threshold level to the full-gate voltage VGSP, which is
required to drive the transistor into the linear region.

• The turn-off delay time td(off) is the time required for

the input capacitance to discharge from the overdrive
gate voltage V1 to the pinch-off region.

• The fall time tf is the time that is required for the input
capacitance to discharge from the pinch-off region to
threshold voltage. If VGS <=VT the transistor turns off.
• An IGBT combines the advantages of BJTs
and MOSFETs.
Basic Structure
Principle of operation
• Case1:When a positive voltage is applied at
the collector terminal with respect to the
emitter, in the absence of a gate-to-emitter

• Case 2: When a positive voltage is applied at

the gate with respect to the emitter
• Current flow from the collector to the emitter
is due to the flow of both the electrons and
holes .
IGBT is a bipolar device
• The structure of IGBT shows that there is a
PNPN structure between the collector and the

• Latch up
• Two static characteristics of an IGBT:

(1) The output characteristics

(2) The transfer characteristics

Output characteristics
Transfer characteristics