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What is Denim? Why it’s called Denim?

Denim is a durable cotton twill textile, typically used to make jeans, overalls, and other
clothing. To create denim fabric, the weft (horizontal threads) passes under two or more
warps (vertical threads) threads. This process makes diagonal ribbing of denim that
distinguishes it from cotton duck, another twill fabric.
The name "denim" derives from French serge de Nîmes, meaning 'serge from Nîmes‘ - serge
material from Nimes, a town in France. Historically, originally called serge de Nîmes, lending
itself to the name “de Nim” then shortened to Denim. This fabric was not the cotton denim
we know today. It was a blend of silk and wool. Today’s all- cotton denim was first created in
England and later perfected in mills in America.

Properties of Denim Fabric:

Denim is very strong & durable.
It is feeling hard during wearing.
Denim fabric creases easily.
It is warp-faced twill, the colored warp yarns predominate on the face & the
white weft yarns on the back.
Usually the warp is colored & weft is white.
It is used for long time wearing.
Jeans & Denim?
Denim is the name of the fabric that is used to make jeans. It is a fabric made of cotton
twill that is 100% cotton and very comfortable. This fabric is used all over the world to
make jeans, jackets, shirts, purses, bags, and many other accessories for men and women
of all ages.
Types of Denim
Types of Denim : According to variants
Raw denim or Raw denim or dry denim is not washed
dry denim: after being dyed during its production

Selvedge denim It forms a clean natural edge that does

not unravel. This type of denim is more
expensive as compared to other types of

Organic denim Organic denim is manufactured from

100% organic cotton. To make organic
denim, all types of chemical are excluded.
Potato starch is used instead of chemicals

Stretch denim To manufacture stretch denim 2 to 3%

spandex material are used. So it allows to
move more freely than other denim
fabrics. It is widely used to make women
Poly denim It is lightweight and easy to wash and
dry. It is comfortable to wear. This fabric
is more resistant to wrinkling.

Ramie cotton denim Ramie denim is blended with other

fabrics such as cotton, polyester
and spandex. Which reduces
wrinkling and it keeps its shape.
This denim has a silky luster look

Cotton serge denim Serge denim is considered as

traditional type denim. It is made
with 100% cotton serge. Serge is
actually a fabric having a diagonal

Colored denim Colored denim is manufactured

with dyed yarn either warp or weft.
Bubblegum denim Bubble gum denim is lycra containing
denim that has between 35 to 50%

Denim from fox fiber This denim fabric manufactured by

colored cotton fiber. Developed
and patented by California cotton
breeder, Salley Fox.

Ecru denim Denim that has not been dyed

indigo. This denim contains single
color yarn (mostly gray colored
yarn is used) in its weft and wrap

Vintage denim Vintage denim is old looked

denim. Normal denim is treated
with stone wash or organic
enzyme cellulose wash with
bleach results in torn and old
looking texture over a denim.
Marble denim This is also called acid washed
denim. Marble denim is washed
with a strong bleach solution.

Bull denim A heavy weight denim weave (14oz.

Plus). Bull denim is durable and heavy.
This denim is perfect for slipcovers,
upholstery, draperies, pillow covers,
headboards and much more.

Printed denim That has been printed with a

pattern-a batik, stripe or floral.

Slub denim Slub denim is denim that has been

woven using uneven or slub yarn for
both the warp and weft threads. It is a
more rare type of denim and develops a
unique crisscrossed pattern as it fades.
It is also called crosshatch denim.
Manufacturing process of denim
Manufacturing Terminology:
Yarn Spinning:
Currently, it is possible to obtain different types of thread in the denim yarn market,
according to the manufacturing system used:
• Rotor or Open-End (OE) System
• Ring System
• Compact System (advanced system)

Lower count and coarse yarn is used for
denim making.
Opening and mixing or blending of
cotton fibers.
Carding is done to remove any foreign
materials and the short fibers.
Drawing process produces a single,
uniform sliver from a number of carded
Yarn is then spun through Open-End
Spinning or Ring Spinning.
Warp Preparation - Dyeing and Sizing:
Warp yarns are indigo dyed and sized with the help of some methods:
Indigo Rope dyeing:
There are some stages in indigo rope dyeing. They are: 1.Ball warping.
2.Dyeing. 3. drying. 4.Rebeaming. 5.beaming. 6.Sizing
Indigo sheet dyeing:
Threads from several back beams are combined to form a warp sheet
and dyed then sized on slasher machine
Indigo loop dyeing:
The yarn is dyed in a single bath instead of several. The desired depth
of color is attained by passing the yarn through the vat several times
then sized on the same machine.

FIG: Indigo sheet dyeing (slasher m/c)

The Sizing Process enables the yarn to survive the extreme mechanical stress during weaving
without damage. Only the warp yarn has to be sized.
In the denim production this sizing process can be carried out continuously linked to the dyeing
process on sheet or slasher dyeing machine or by using the rope dying machine.
The aim of this process :
•Protect the yarn from friction
•Prevent the warp threads from entangling or sticking to each other
•Increase the tensile strength to avoid breakages in the loom
•Reduce fiber dusting (formation of fiber clusters)
•Facilitate the use of a single yarn
•Achieved soft handle, excellent final appearance.
The weaving process interlaces the warp, which are the length-wise indigo dyed yarn and
the filling, which are white in color. Airjet, Rapier, or a Projectile weaving m/c used.
The most common weave structures made by using plane looms are:
• Twill
• Taffeta
• Sateen
Twill weave is normally used in denim, such as 3/1. A common way to read a fraction like
3/1 twill it is “three up, one down”.
Finishing :
The final woven fabric, wound on a cloth roll. The woven Denim Fabrics then goes
through various finishing processes. Generally, finishing processes can be divided into
the following groups:
• Denim fabric finishing
• Denim garment finishing
Denim Fabric Finishing
• Brushing and singeing
• Sanforizing
• Desizing Brushed
• Stenter
• Mercerizing
• Calendering
Denim garment finishing
-Aesthetic finish
-Removing dyestuff from fabric
-Creating special appearance and updating clothes
“Archroma” offers two breakthrough eco-advanced dyeing processes under its ADVANCED
DENIM concept: 1. Denim-Ox 2. Pad/Sizing-Ox
Innovative Denim Finishing
Laser finishing technology
 This technique enables patterns to be created
such as lines and/or dots, images, text or pictures.
 No use of water & chemical.
 Also called spray painting in denims.
 This technique has relatively high cost.

Ozone fading technology

Bleach Without Bleach.
Bleach Without Hot Water.
Uses up to 60% less & up to NO Water in our Ozone Denim
Cut utility costs by up to 50%

Water Jet Fading Technology

Enhancing the surface finish, texture, durability of denim garment
Not involve any chemical, it is pollution free.
It is a very economical & sustainable.
Produces a faded effect without loss of fabric strength or durability,
or excessive warp shrinkage.
Denim mats
Denim skirts
Mobile cover
Shoes Shorts
Sofa covers
Bean bag chairs
College Bags
Travel Bags
Car Seat Covers
Denim Curtains
Denim Face Mask etc
Diversification & as a Fashion Icon:
Denim is a type of cotton twill textile known for its use in blue jeans and other clothing. But,
consumer’s need for new products is unlimited. At present, hundreds of derivatives of denim
are available. Diversification can be done---
By using Slub/fancy Yarn.
By changing EPI & PPI.
By using different count.
Spandex(Lycra) can be used.
By applying different wash effect. (Stone, Enzyme, Bleach)
By applying different mechanical effect. (Rubbing, brushing)
Average number of denims apparels in a person’s wardrobe

A fashion survey taken in US states that, on an average every American owns 7 to 8 pairs of
jeans. 86 percent of women in the age group 16-55 chose denim as their favorite garment.
Bangladeshi Denim: The future lies in innovation
What are the key challenges for Bangladesh to capture more global denim market

Marketing and branding are very important for attracting buyers. Is Bangladeshi
manufacturer are doing these properly?

How can we attract buyers?

Position of Bangladesh in Denim World


European Union- 28 countries

1st $50 billion in exports denim.
€567.97 million
21.18 % market share
Annually 2.1 billion pieces of
denim are sold globally.
US- 3rd
2016 (1st -China-26.04%) Denim export annual average
$186.30 million (2nd - Mexico 25.40%) growth (CAGR)-
12.03 % market share 2010-2015 - 9.73%
Some Running Modern Denim Manufacturing Plant of BD
 Shasha Denim Ltd.
 Jamuna Denim Ltd.
 Square Denim Ltd.
 Partex Denim Ltd.
 Sinha Denim Ltd.
 Royal Denim Ltd.
 Chittagong Denim Ltd.
 Hameem Denim Ltd. International Brand of DENIM
 Pacific Denim Ltd.
 Titas Denim Ltd.
 Envoy Denim Ltd.
 Sinha Denim Ltd.
 Desh Denim Ltd.