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Survey in Railway

Whenever there is demand for the provision of a new


Line, the following surveys are carried out before
taking construction of the line in hand.

1)Traffic Survey
2)Reconnaissance
3)Preliminary Survey
4) Final location Survey
Traffic survey
• This survey is carried out by the commercial department either
independently or with engineering surveys for detail study of the area
to determine.
• 1)Promising route ,
• 2)Probable traffic
• 3)Standard of construction required.
• Terms of reference:
• 1)tenteative alignment plotted on topo sheet.
• 2) Particulars of any existing Railway in area..
• 3)Interests involved in the proposal scope nature of investigation to be
done.
• 4)Estimated cost of survey work and submission of project report.
• .5)Time limit of completion of project reports.
• .6) Guidance regarding preparation of project report and estimate.
Traffic survey
• Field work:
• 1)Visit trade centers.
• 2)Consulting local authorities and prominent citizens as regards trade
& industry.
• 3)Most suitable route alternative alignments& possible extension .
• 4)Census to assess inward and outward goods and coaching traffic.
• 5)Existing means of communications and their effect on proposed
Railway.
• 6)Quantum of long distance short distance traffic.
• Estimate:
• 1) Coaching & goods earning compared with the existing lines of
similar country should be calculated.
• 2)Working expenses and financial prospects of the proposed line
should be examined.
Traffic survey
• Report
• 1) General description of the country.
• 2)Alternative routs & possible extensions..
• 3) Population
• 4)Existing import & export at station sites.
• 5)Goods & coaching earnings
• 6) Trains & other transportation services
• Covering Note:
• Should be submitted to the Railway Board giving
• 1)The gross earning & working expenses in the 6th year
after opening the line
&
• .2)Report with statement showing information collected
from the different parts.
RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
• Rough & rapid survey with or with out instruments
of one or routs for proposed line is called
Reconnaissance Survey.
• Terms of reference: Same as Traffic Survey (1to 6) 7)
Instruction regarding ruling gradients maximum degree of
curvature.
• Field Work :
• 1)Distance & height.2)Waterways & foundation for bridges
3)Best sites for stations.
• 4 ) crossing of roads ,ridges, bridges .5)Availability of
labour & material.
• Maps:
• 1) General map the country scale of 1cm = 25 KM 2)Index
map to a 1cm = 2.5KM
3) proposed route showing in red should be submitted.
RECONNAISSANCE SURVEY
Report :-
it should be divided in to following chapter where the line is
financially justified or not.
1)History & geography. 2)gauge ,length. fixed points, level ,
gradient & curves. 3)Location
4)Alternative routs & possible entrances.5) Relation with public
, Military & other Govt Deptt
.6)Constraction & engineering.7) Conclusions &
recommendations.
Cover Note :- The report ,plans & estimate should be submitted
to the Rly Board under a cover note with the following
information where the estimates are accepted or not or any
modification is necessary.
1)Lengthof the line .2)Gauge3)Cost including the junction
arrangement
4)Cost of line per KM.
PRELIMINARY SURVEY
A detail instrumental examination of the rout or routes selected a result
of reconnaissance survey in order to obtain a close estimate of the
line is called preliminary survey.
Terms of Reference:-Same as Traffic Survey (1to 6) 7) Instruction
regarding ruling gradients maximum degree of curvature. Category
of line
Field work:- ( Para 409)
1)It includes compass traverse along one or more routes.
2)longitudinal and traverse levels are taken at required locations.
3)Plottting of contour strip map on 1:10,000from aerial photographs by
photogram metric technique the “predicted section of rout or routes
proposed will be determined.
4)Geological mapping & soil survey may be done by photo-
interpretation of remotely sense data.
5)Soil survey by sampling at suitable location to obtain soil
classification & characteristics
PRELIMINARY SURVEY
6)Geophysical survey may be done in rocky terrain.
7)Centre line of pillar are provided at the approach of important
bridges, portals of tunnel ,important crossing of road & station .
8)Bench mark should be provided near all important bridges, tunnel
sites &road crossing with identifiable points

Maps & plans (Para 417)


1)Genarel map on scale 25 Km to 1cm
2)Index map on scale 2.5 Km to 1cm
3)Index plan & section on a scale 1cm =0.1Km (horizontal)
1cm=10m(Vertical)
Detailed plans & section and other drawings should be prepared with maximum
detail but need not to be submitted unless called by the Railway Board.
For aerial photograph or phtogrammetric techniques the scale of detailed plans &
section may be
1cm =100m(horizontal) & 1cm= 50m (Vertical)
PRELIMINARY SURVEY
Estimate:
Should be sufficiently accurate to enable to decide whether sanction to be
accorded or not.
Abstract estimate of cost of line, junction arrangement
Detailed estimate of land ,tunnels, bridge & one Km. of P.way
Report:
The report should be divided into the same chapter as for reconnaissance
survey.
Cover note :
Details same as for reconnaissance survey. The document should be bound in
the following order
(1)Cover note (2) Index (3) Abstract estimate the cost of line (4) Detailed cost
of 1 Km P.way
(5) report (6) Annexure
&
(7) Maps & drawings
Final location survey
• If the line is justified on the basis of data collected in
traffic & preliminary survey, before construction of the
line in hand another survey is carried out in detail. this
survey is called final location survey.
• Terms of reference :Same as for reconnaissance &
preliminary survey.
• Field work :Should be based on a good theodolite or
traverse, which should be approximately as closed as
possible to the centre line to be finally adopted.
Fixing of pegs at 20m intervals. Large pegs
stamping number (figure size not less than 25mm ) on
each at 100m interval .Pegs of 300m interval should be
of hard wood. Masonry pillar should be built at tangent
point of curves & at 500m interval along centre line.
Final location survey
Curve will be generally described by their radius of
curvature in meter but may also be described as degrees of
curvature . The amount shift depends on the length of transition
curve, which length usually depends on amount of cant and the
distance in which it is run out.
Gradients should be defined by the distance in which arise
or fall of 1m occurs per 100 m length .Sharp change of gradient
should be avoided ,if possible on curve. All sharp changes of
curve should be eased off by vertical curves. If ruling gradient
exceeded the curvature should be compensated @0.04% ,0
.03% & 0 .015% per degree on BG, MG & NG respectively.
Bench marks should be left at an interval not more than 1
Km along the line & at the site of important bridges & location
should be recorded.
Compass Bearing of each tangent should be taken at
every curve in level country, and the mean readings of two ends
should be recorded. In hilly section where curves a re frequent
the bearing should be taken at about 2 to 3 places in each Km.
Final location survey
• Plan, section & design for works : Project drawings consist of:
1. general map to a scale 1cm = 25 Km.
2.Index map to a scale 1cm = 2.5 Km
3. Index plans & sections
4.Detailed plan & sections.
5. Plans & cross sections
6. Plan of station yards
7.Detailed drawing of structures
8.Plans of junction arrangement
• Estimates : Detail estimates are prepared for all jobs to be done & these are
collectively called construction estimate. It should show, cost of construction of
proposed line and junction arrangements. Detailed estimates of preliminary
expenses, earthwork, bridges etc with general charge s along with abstract cost of
the project and junction arrangement should be attached with tabulated details.
1. Curve Abstract (Form E. 547)
2. Gradient Abstract (form E. 548)
3. Bridge Abstract (Form E. 549)
4. Important Bridge (Form E. 550)
5. Station Machinery (Form E. 551)
6. Station & Station Sites ( Form E. 552)
FINAL LOCATION SURVEY
– Covering Note :
Detail same as for reconnaissance survey. If any estimate has
been submitted previously the comparison shall be shown. Document
should be bounded the following order
1)Covering Note.
2) Index
3 ) Report , followed by a “ list of drawing
accompanying the report”
4 ) Appendices to the report :-
a) Historical & Geographical.
b) Location Report.
c) Rates for construction work.
5) Estimates & Tabulated Details
Techno-Economic Surveys.
Pre-investment decision investigations may also involve to
decide the best alternative from financial and operating point
of view to make an ideal investment decision. Such
investigations relating to new lines, doublings, gauge,
conversions schemes, yard remodellings, passenger terminal
etc. involving Preliminary Engineering-cum-Traffic Surveys,
are termed as Techno-Economic Surveys.
In these surveys, data, regarding the growth of traffic is
collected, traffic projections are made the existing facilities
are evaluated the possibility of optimising them and new
alternative schemes are examined.
An estimate prepared based on such an investigation should
under ordinary circumstances be sufficiently accurate to
permit investment decision being taken."
Categories of lines
For BG lines. (Para 210/Engg code)

group" A" sanctioned speed 160 Kmph, rail section 60 kg for


20GMT& over & 52kg for other, sleeper density 1660nos/Km,ballast
cushion 300 mm, bridge BGL 1975, maximum axle load of
locomotive 22.5 tonnes & for train 7.67 tonnes /m maximum 22.9
tonnes .
Group “B” sanctioned speed 130 Kmph, rail section 60 kg for
20GMT& over& 52kg for other, sleeper density m+7,ballast cushion
250 mm, bridge BGL 1975, maximum axle load of locomotive 22.5
tonnes & for train 7.67 tonnes /m maximum 22.9 tonnes .
Group “C”subarban sections . Other criteria same as Group “B”
Group “D” Maximum sanctioned speed 100kmph rail section 60 kg for
20GMT& over , 52kg from 10 to 20&44.5 kg less than 10 GMT,
sleeper density M+7 above 10 GMT & M+4 less than 10GMT,ballast
cushion 200 mm, bridge BGL 1975, maximum axle load of
locomotive 22.5 tonnes & for train 7.67 tonnes /m maximum 22.9
tonnes.
Group “E”. section to the branch lines. rail section 60 kg for 20GMT&
over , 52kg from 10 to 20&44.5 kg less than 10 GMT, minimum
sleeper density M+4 & for 10 GMT Subject to Rly Board approval
,ballast cushion 150 mm, bridge BGL 1975, maximum axle load of
Categories of lines
For MG lines. (Para 211/Engg. Code)
Trunk routes:
Traffic density -5million G.T.Km/Km/annum, Speed above 70 Kmph,
Rail section 37Kgs(75 Ibs ) ,Sleeper density M+7, Ballast cushion 250
mm, Bridges MGML, Axle load 13.2 tonnes & train 3.87 tonnes /m.
Main lines (other than trunk routes) :
Traffic density – 2.5 to 5 million G.T.Km/Km/annum, section 37Kgs(75
Ibs ) , Sleeper density M+7, Ballast cushion 200 mm, Bridges
MGML, Axle load 13.2 tonnes & train 3.87 tonnes /m.
Other than main lines & branch lines :
Traffic density –1.25 to 2.5 million G.T.Km/Km/annum, Rail section
30Kg , Sleeper density M+4, Ballast cushion 200 mm, Bridges
MGML, Axle load 13.2 tonnes & train 3.87 tonnes /m.
Territory lines :
Traffic density- 1.25 million G.T.Km/Km/annum, 30Kg (normally
released second hand rail), Sleeper density M+2, Bridges MGBL,
Axle load 13.2 tonnes & train 3.87 tonnes /m. Second hand rails have
not lost more than 10% of their weight.( Para 212/Engg code)
GRADIENT
GRADIENT IS PROVIDED IN THE RAILWAY
TRACK TO NEGOTIATE RISE OR FALL OF
LEVEL.
GRADIENT
1.RISIN 2. FALLING
G
1

D
TYPES
OF
GRADIENT
• RULING GRADIENT
* THE STEEPEST GRADIENT IN A SECTION.
* IT DETERMINES THE MAXIMUM LOAD THAT
THE LOCOMOTIVE CAN HAUL ON THE
SECTION.
* INDIAN RAILWAYS DO NOT SPECIFY ANY
FIXED RULING GRADIENT.
* HOWEVER IT IS
IN PLANE COUNTRY 1 IN 150 (APPROX)
&
IN HILLY TERRAIN 1 IN 100 (APPROX)
* ONCE RULING GRADIENT IS SPECIFIED FOR
A SECTION , THERE SHOULD NOT BE NO
GRADE STEEPER THAN THE RULING
GRADIENT.
• PUSHER OR HELPER GRADIENT
* THE GRADIENT IS SO STEEP AN EXTRA ENGIN E
FOR PUSHING THE TRAIN IS REQUIRED, THE SAME
GRADIENT IS CALLED PUSHER OR HELPER
GRADIENT.
*DARJEELING SECTION IS ONE OF THE EXAMPLE
• MOMENTUM GRADIENT
*IT IS THE GRADIENT STEEPER THAN THE RULING
GRADIENT.
*A TRAIN DUE TO ITS OWN MOMENTUM GATHERED
ON THE RUN CAN OVERCOME.
• GRADIENT IN STATION YARDS
*MAXIMUM GRADIENT IS 1 IN 400
*RECOMMENDED GRADIENT 1IN 1200
• THE GRADIENT OF A CURVED PORTION OF
SECTION SHALL REQUIRE TO BE FLATTER THAN
THE RULING GRADIENT BECAUSE OF THE
FACTOR OF CURVE RESISTANCE WHICH IS
DEVELOPED DUE TO MOVEMENT OF TRAIN ON
CURVE.
• THE GRADIENT OF CURVED PORTION SHOULD
BE COMPENSATED @0.04% ,0 .03% & 0 .015% PER
DEGREE ON BG, MG & NG RESPECTIVELY.
SAY , RULING GRADIENT =1 IN 150
i.e. 1/150 X100 % = 0.67%
SAY DEGREE OF CURVE IS 40
THEN COMPENSATION FOR THE CURVE (B.G.) IS
=0.04 X4 = 0.16
SO , COMPENSATED GRADIENT = 0.67 – 0.16 =
0.51 = 100÷ 0.51 = 196 i.e. 1 IN 196