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Chapter 2

Images of Managing Change


Learning Objectives
• Understand the importance of organizational
images and mental models.
• Identify different images of managing and of
change outcomes.
• Outline six different images of managing change.
• Identify the theoretical underpinnings of these six
change management images.
• Understand the practical implications of the six
images and how to use them.
Images of Managing Change
Images of
Managing
Change  Controlling…
Images of ◦ Top-down view of management
Change
Outcomes
◦ Fayol’s theory of management:
planning, organizing, commanding,
Images of
Change
coordinating and controlling.
Managers:
-Director
 Shaping…
-Coach
-Navigator
◦ Participative style of management
-Interpreter ◦ Improving the capabilities of people
-Caretaker
-Nurturer within the organization
Three Core
Uses of the
Images
Images of Change Outcomes
Images of
Managing
Change  Intended Change:
Images of ◦ Change is a result of planned action
Partially Intended Change:
Change
Outcomes 
Images of
◦ Change may need to be re-modified
Change after it is initially implemented
Unintended Change:
Managers:
-Director 
-Coach
-Navigator ◦ Forces beyond the control of the
-Interpreter
-Caretaker
change manager
-Nurturer

Three Core
Uses of the
Images
Images of Change Managers
Images of
Managing
Change
Images of Managing
Images of
Change
Outcomes
Controlling . . . Shaping . . .
Images of (activities) (capabilities)
Change
Managers:
-Director Intended DIRECTOR COACH
-Coach
Images of
-Navigator Partially NAVIGATOR INTERPRETER
-Interpreter Change
-Caretaker Intended
Outcomes
-Nurturer
Unintended CARETAKER NURTURER
Three Core
Uses of the
Images
Images of Change Managers
Images of
Managing Director Coach
Change
 Based on an  Relies upon building
Images of image of in the right set of
Change
Outcomes
management as values, skills and
control and of “drills” that are
Images of
Change
change outcomes deemed to be the
Managers: as being best ones to be
-Director
-Coach achievable. drawn upon in order
-Navigator
-Interpreter  Supported by the to achieve desired
-Caretaker
n-step models and organizational
-Nurturer
contingency outcomes.
Three Core
Uses of the theory.  Related to OD
Images approaches.
Images of Change Managers
Images of
Managing Navigator Interpreter
Change  Control is the heart of  The manager
Images of management action, creates meaning for
Change although a variety of other organizational
Outcomes external factors mean members, helping
Images of that managers may them to make sense
Change achieve some intended of various
Managers:
-Director
change outcomes and organizational
-Coach others will occur over events and actions.
-Navigator
-Interpreter which they have little  Supported by the
-Caretaker control. sense-making
-Nurturer
 Supported by the theory of
Three Core
Uses of the
contextualist and organizational
Images processual theories of change
change.
Images of Change Managers
Images of
Managing Caretaker Nurturer
Change  The manager’s control  Even small changes may
Images of is severely impeded by have a large impact on
Change a variety of internal organizations and
Outcomes and external forces managers are not able to
Images of beyond their scope. control the outcome of
Change The caretaker these changes but may
Managers:
-Director
shepherds their nurture their organizations.
-Coach organizations along as This facilitates
-Navigator
-Interpreter best they can. organizational qualities
-Caretaker
 Supported by life- that enable positive self-
-Nurturer
cycle, population- organizing to occur.
Three Core ecology and  Related to chaos and
Uses of the
Images institutional theories. Confucian/ Taoist theories.
Three Core Uses of the Images
Images of
Managing
Change  These six images of change
Images of managers have three core uses:
Change 1) They highlight a variety of assumptions
Outcomes
that change managers make about change
Images of and increase the awareness of different
Change interpretations of change.
Managers:
-Director
2) They draw attention to the dominant
-Coach images of change within an organization.
-Navigator
-Interpreter
3) They highlight a range of perspectives
-Caretaker available to change managers.
-Nurturer

Three Core
Uses of the
Images
Table 2.5
Chapter Reflections for the Practicing
Change Manager
Chapter 3
Why Organizations Change
Why Change?
Why Change?

External
Pressures  Change is a risky activity – many
-Fashion
-Mandated organizational changes fail or do
not realize their intended
-Geopolitical
-Market decline
-Hyper- competition
-Reputation &
credibility
outcomes. This raises the
Role of the question: why is change so
Environment
prevalent?
 Pressure to change comes from:
Internal Pressures
-Growth
-Integration &
collaboration
-Identity
◦ External, environmental pressures
-New broom
-Power & political
◦ Internal, organizational pressures
Environmental Pressures
Why Change?

External
Pressures
-Fashion
Pressure Examples Description
-Mandated
-Geopolitical Neo-institutionalism: mimetic
-Market decline
-Hyper- competition Fashion Boeing isomorphism. Managers imitate
-Reputation & pressures Co. practices associated with successful
credibility
organizations
Role of the Neo-institutionalism: coercive
Environment
Mandated Chevron isomorphism. An organization
Internal Pressures pressures Texaco changes through formally or
-Growth
-Integration &
informally mandated requirements.
collaboration
-Identity
Macroeconomic changes (or crises)
-New broom Geopolitica place pressure on organizations to
3M
-Power & political l pressures
change the way they operate.
Environmental Pressures
Why Change?

External
Pressure Examples Description
Pressures
-Fashion
-Mandated Market When current markets begin to
-Geopolitical
AOL Time
decline decline there is pressure to find
-Market decline Warner
-Hyper- competition pressures newer, more viable markets.
-Reputation &
credibility
The highly intensified rate of
Role of the business – including shortened
Environment Hyper-
product life cycles and rapid
competition Gateway
responses by competitors –
Internal Pressures pressures
-Growth produces pressure for change at
-Integration & the organizational level.
collaboration
-Identity
-New broom
In light of recent corporate
-Power & political Reputation governance scandals, the
Walt Disney
and credibility pressure to maintain a good
Company
pressures reputation and high level of
credibility has increased.
Debate: Role of the Environment
Why Change?

External Pressures  Organizational learning vs. threat-rigidity


-Fashion ◦ whether external pressures facilitate or inhibit the process of change.
-Mandated
-Geopolitical
-Market decline  Environment as an objective entity vs. environment as a cognitive
-Hyper-competition construction
-Reputation & ◦ The former treats the environment as an objective entity to which
credibility managers must respond. The latter emphasizes the centrality of
managers’ interpretations of environmental conditions as the key
Role of the determinant of behavior.
Environment
 Forces for change vs. forces for stability:
Internal Pressures ◦ External forces can vary; they either promote change or promote stability.
-Growth
-Integration &
collaboration  Bridging (adapting) vs buffering (shielding):
-Identity ◦ These represent either strategies that can maintain effectiveness by
-New broom adapting parts of the organization to changes happening in the outside
-Power & political environment (bridging) or focusing on efficiency by avoiding change
through shielding parts of it from the effects of the environment
(buffering).
Internal Pressures
Why Change?

External Pressure Examples Description


Pressures
-Fashion Existing systems and processes in
-Mandated
-Geopolitical Growth an organization may no longer be
Microsoft
-Market decline pressures applicable when the size of the
-Hyper-competition
-Reputation & organization increases.
credibility
Integration Integration and creating
Role of the and economies of scale can lead to
Environment EDS
collaboration pressure for change in
Internal Pressures pressures organizations.
-Growth
-Integration & A common organizational identity
collaboration and the unified commitment of
-Identity
-New broom staff in different
Identity Forte
-Power & political areas/departments of an
pressures Hotel
organization can be difficult to
manage and may encourage
change.
Internal Pressures
Why Change?

External
Pressures
-Fashion Pressure Examples Description
-Mandated
-Geopolitical
-Market decline
-Hyper-competition Change at the senior
-Reputation & New management level – particularly of
credibility Bank of
broom CEO - can often be a catalyst for
America
Role of the pressures significant changes in an
Environment organization.
Internal Pressures
-Growth
-Integration & Power and Power relationships and
collaboration Morgan
-Identity
political politicking can change internal
Stanley
-New broom pressures processes and decision making.
-Power & political
Exercise 3.2
Public Change Rationales
More on the why of change…
Theories of Organizational Change

• Life cycle theories: linear and irreversible


sequence of prescribed change
• Organizations go through different stages: birth, youth,
midlife, maturity,…. When reached maturity, revitalization
is needed.
• Teleological theories: recurrent and
discontinuous sequence of goal setting,
implementation, and adaptation
• Dialectic theories: recurrent and discontinuous
sequence of confrontation, conflict, and synthesis
• Evolutionary theories: recurrent, cumulative and
probabilistic sequence of variation, selection, and
retention
Economic Pressures

• globalization: Deregulation, opening of national


economies
• Unpredictable and Rapidly changing markets
• Service and knowledge base business
• profitability based on machine power to profitability
based on intelligence and skills
Social Pressures

• Flexible working arrangements


• Women in management
• Educated workforce/society
• Demographics
• Immigrations
• People more independent, questioning
• Lack of loyalty between the workers and
companies
Technological Pressures

• Information and Communication


Technology
• High performance work systems
• Integrated information systems
• Access to information
• Global networking
• New media
• Shortening product life cycles
• High quality
Sustainable Development Pressures

SD Elements:
Social
1. Employee Well-Being
2. Quality of Life
3. Business Ethics
Economic
4. Shareholder Value Creation
5. Economic Development
Environmental
6. Environmental Impact Minimization
7. Natural Resource Protection
Organizational Self-renewal

• Challenging old assumptions


• Understanding the new rules of competition
• Capturing the potential of new paradigms by
rethinking business processes
• Constant innovation
• Improving continually as part of normal functioning
• Transforming while keeping purpose and direction

Continuous learning
Organic type of organizations, adopted to
unstable conditions
• continual new and unfamiliar problems cannot be
broken down and distributed among the existing
specialists roles
• continual adjustment and redefinition of individual
tasks is needed
• Interactions and communication may occur at any
level as required by the process
• organization charts are not always useful
Emerging Mindset
• Industrial mindset:
• Invalidity of the internal reality of human
consciousness
• Scarcity of resources
• Separate parts
• Discrete events
• emerging mindset:
• Consciousness is causative
• Abundance
• Relationships and Wholeness
• Continuous Process
parts are connected and they are connected to the
whole,
change is a continuous process, and
the internal and external dynamics are both
important.