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Single-phase half-bridge inverter

Operational Details

3-wire DC source

• Consists of 2 choppers, 3-wire DC source


• Transistors switched on and off alternately
• Need to isolate the gate signal for Q1 (upper device)
• Each provides opposite polarity of Vs/2 across the load
Q1 on, Q2 off, vo = Vs/2

Peak Reverse Voltage of Q2 = Vs


Q1 off, Q2 on, vo = -Vs/2
Waveforms with resistive load
Look at the output voltage

rms value of the output voltage, Vo


1
 To
 2
2  Vs
2 2
V
Vo   0 4 dt   2
s

 To 
 
Fourier Series of the instantaneous output
voltage
ao 
vo     an cos(nt )  bn sin(nt ) 
2 n 1
ao , an  0

1  Vs 
0
Vs
bn    sin( nt )d (t )   sin( nt )d (t ) 
   2 0
2 
2Vs
bn   n  1,3,5,...
n

2Vs
vo   sin(nt )
n 1,3,5,.. n
rms value of the fundamental component


2Vs
vo   sin nt
n 1,3,5,.. n

1 2Vs
Vo1 
2 
Vo1  0.45Vs
When the load is highly inductive
Turn off Q1 at t = To/2
Current falls to 0 via D2, L, Vs/2 lower

+
Vs/2
-

+
Vs/2
-
Turn off Q2 at t = To
Current falls to 0 via D1, L, Vs/2 upper

+
Vs/2
-

+
Vs/2
-
Load Current for a highly inductive load

Transistors are only switched on for a quarter-cycle, or 90


Fourier Series of the output current for an
RL load


vo vo 2Vs
io     sin(nt   n )
Z R  jn L n 1,3,5,... n R  (n L)
2 2

n L
 n  tan (
1
)
R
Fundamental Output Power
In most cases, the useful power

Po1  Vo1 I o1 cos 1  I o21 R


2
 2Vs 
Po1    R
 2 R  ( L) 
2 2
DC Supply Current

• If the inverter is lossless, average power


absorbed by the load equals the average
power supplied by the dc source.
T T

 v (t )i (t )dt   v (t )i (t )dt
0
s s
0
o o

• For an inductive load, the current is


approximately sinusoidal and the fundamental
component of the output voltage supplies the
power to the load. Also, the dc supply voltage
remains essentially at Vs.
DC Supply Current (continued)

T T
1
0 is (t )dt  Vs 
0
2Vo1 sin(t ) 2 I o sin(t  1 )dt  I s

Vo1
Is  I o cos(1 )
Vs
Performance Parameters

• Harmonic factor of the nth harmonic (HFn)

Von
HFn  for n>1
Vo1

Von = rms value of the nth harmonic component


V01 = rms value of the fundamental component
Performance Parameters (continued)

• Total Harmonic Distortion (THD)


• Measures the “closeness” in shape between a
waveform and its fundamental component

 1
1
THD  (  Von ) 2 2
Vo1 n 2,3,...
Performance Parameters (continued)

• Distortion Factor (DF)


• Indicates the amount of HD that remains in a
particular waveform after the harmonics have
been subjected to second-order attenuation.
1

1  
 Von  
2 2
DF     2  
Vo1  n  2,3,...  n  
Von
DFn  2 for n>1
Vo1n
Performance Parameters (continued)

• Lowest order harmonic (LOH)


• The harmonic component whose
frequency is closest to the fundamental,
and its amplitude is greater than or equal
to 3% of the amplitude of the fundamental
component.
Single-phase full-bridge inverter
Operational Details

• Consists of 4 choppers and a 3-wire DC source


• Q1-Q2 and Q3-Q4 switched on and off alternately
• Need to isolate the gate signal for Q1 and Q3 (upper)
• Each pair provide opposite polarity of Vsacross the load
Q1-Q2 on, Q3-Q4 off, vo = Vs

+ Vs -
Q3-Q4 on, Q1-Q2 off, vo = -Vs

- Vs +
When the load is highly inductive
Turn Q1-Q2 off – Q3-Q4 off
Turn Q3-Q4 off – Q1-Q2 off
Load current for a highly inductive load
Example 6.3 – MultiSim7

Q1 D1
1V0V DIODE_VIRTUAL
C1 D3 Q3
1000uF DIODE_VIRTUAL 1V0V

XFG1 R L C

10 Ohm 31.5mH
112uF

C2 Q4 D4
D2 Q2
1000uF 1V0V DIODE_VIRTUAL
DIODE_VIRTUAL 1V0V
Example 6.3 using the scope
XSC1
G

T
Q1 D1 A B
1V0V DIODE_VIRTUAL
C1 D3 Q3
1000uF DIODE_VIRTUAL 1V0V

Vs XFG1 L C
220 V Rs R

1 Ohm 9 Ohm 31.5mH 112uF

C2 Q4 D4
D2 Q2
1000uF 1V0V DIODE_VIRTUAL
DIODE_VIRTUAL 1V0V