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MBA - 601

Total Quality
Management
Module 9:
Quality Tools- Analysis
(Check Sheet, Scatter
Diagram)

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Description
• The check sheet is one of the so-called Seven
Basic Tools of Quality Control.
• The check sheet is a form (document) used to
collect data in real time at the location where
the data is generated.
• The data it captures can be quantitative or
qualitative.
• When the information is quantitative, the
check sheet is sometimes called a tally (Score)
sheet.

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When to Use
Kaoru Ishikawa identified five reasons/uses for
check sheets:
1) To check probability distribution of a process
2) To quantify defects by type
3) To quantify defects by location
4) To quantify defects by cause (machine, worker)
5) To keep track of the completion of steps in a
multistep procedure (in other words, as
a checklist)

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Procedure

Check sheets typically employ a heading that


answers the Five Ws:
1) Who filled out the check sheet
2) What was collected (what each check
represents, an identifying batch or lot number)
3) Where the collection took place (facility, room,
apparatus)
4) When the collection took place (hour, shift, day
of the week)
5) Why the data were collected

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Procedure
• A typical check sheet is divided into regions,
and marks made in different regions have
different significance.
• The defining characteristic of a check sheet is
that data are recorded by making marks
("checks") on it.
• Data are read by observing the location and
number of marks on the sheet.

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Example: Frequency Check Sheet

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Example: Defects location/Timing

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Example: Defect Check Sheet

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Example: Reason Check Sheet

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Example: Reason Check Sheet

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Any Question

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SCATTER DIAGRAM

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Description
• The scatter diagram graphs pairs of numerical data, with one
variable on each axis, to look for a relationship between them.
• The X-axis is used to measure the scale of one characteristic
(called the independent variable), and the Y-axis measures the
second, (called the dependent variable).
• If the variables are correlated, the points will fall along a line
or curve. The better the correlation, the tighter the points will
hug the line

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When to Use
• When you have paired numerical data.
• When your dependent variable may have multiple
values for each value of your independent variable.

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When to Use
• When trying to determine whether the two variables
are related, such as…
When trying to identify potential root causes of problems.
After brainstorming causes and effects using a fishbone
diagram, to determine objectively whether a particular
cause and effect are related.
When determining whether two effects that appear to be
related both occur with the same cause.
When testing for autocorrelation before constructing a
control chart.

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Example
• To display a link between a person's lung capacity, and how long that
person could hold his/her breath, a researcher would choose a
group of people to study, then measure each one's lung capacity
(first variable) and how long that person could hold his/her breath
(second variable).
• The researcher would then plot the data in a scatter plot, assigning
"lung capacity" to the horizontal axis, and "time holding breath" to
the vertical axis.
• A person with a lung capacity of 400 cl who held his/her breath for
21.7 seconds would be represented by a single dot on the scatter
plot at the point (400, 21.7).
• The scatter plot of all the people in the study would enable the
researcher to obtain a visual comparison of the two variables in the
data set, and will help to determine what kind of relationship there
might be between the two variables.

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Practical Example
• An XYZ manufacturing team suspects a
relationship between product Purity (%
purity) and the amount of Iron (measured in
parts per million or ppm).
• Purity and iron are plotted against each other
as a scatter diagram, as shown in the figure
below.
• There are 24 data points.
• Median lines are drawn so
that 12

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Practical Example
• To test for a relationship, they calculate:
A = points in upper left + points in lower right
= 9 + 9 = 18
B = points in upper right + points in lower left
=3+3=6
Q = the smaller of A and B = the smaller of 18
and 6 = 6
N = A + B = 18 + 6 = 24

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Practical Example

• Then they look up the


limit for N on the trend
test table.
• For N = 24, the limit is 6.
Q is equal to the limit.
• Therefore, the pattern
could have occurred from
random chance, and no
relationship is
demonstrated.

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Procedure
1. Collect pairs of data where a relationship is
suspected.
2. Draw a graph with the independent variable
on the horizontal axis and the dependent
variable on the vertical axis. For each pair of
data, put a dot or a symbol where the x-axis
value intersects the y-axis value. (If two dots
fall together, put them side by side, touching,
so that you can see both.)

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Procedure Cont.

3. Look at the pattern of points to see if a


relationship is obvious. If the data clearly
form a line or a curve, you may stop. The
variables are correlated.
You may wish to use regression or
correlation analysis now. Otherwise,
complete steps 4 through 7.

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Procedure Cont.
4. Divide points on the
graph into four
quadrants. If there are X
points on the graph,
– Count X/2 points from top to
bottom and draw a horizontal
line.
– Count X/2 points from left to
right and draw a vertical line.
– If number of points is odd, draw
the line through the middle
point

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Procedure Cont.
5. Count the points in each quadrant. Do not
count points on a line.
6. Add the diagonally opposite quadrants. Find
the smaller sum and the total of points in all
quadrants.
 A = points in upper left + points in lower right
 B = points in upper right + points in lower left
 Q = the smaller of A and B
 N=A+B

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Procedure Cont.

7. Look up the limit for N


on the :Trend Test Table.
 If Q is less than the limit,
the two variables are
related.
 If Q is greater than or equal
to the limit, the pattern
could have occurred from
random chance.

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Scatter Diagram Examples - 1
 Variable A is the temperature of a reaction after 15
minutes.
 Variable B measures the color of the product.
 You suspect higher temperature makes the product
darker.
 Plot temperature and color on a scatter diagram.

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Scatter Diagram Examples - 2
Variable A is the number of employees trained on
new software
Variable B is the numbers of calls to the computer
help line.
You suspect that more training reduces the number
of calls.
Plot number of people trained versus number of
calls.

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scatter diagram Examples
To test for autocorrelation of a measurement being
monitored on a control chart, plot this pair of
variables:
 Variable A is the measurement at a given time.
 Variable B is the same measurement, but at the
previous time.
 If the scatter diagram shows correlation, do another
diagram where variable B is the measurement two
times previously.
 Keep increasing the separation between the two
times until the scatter diagram shows no correlation.
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Scatter Diagram Show Relationship
• When the data are plotted, the more the diagram
resembles a straight line, the stronger the
relationship.
• If the scatter diagram shows a relationship, do not
assume that one variable caused the other. Both may
be influenced by a third variable.

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Scatter Diagram Show Relationship

• Positive correlation means that as one increases, so


does the other, and is shown on the Scatter Diagram
as a line with positive slope.
• If a line is not clear, statistics (N and Q) determine
whether there is reasonable certainty that a
relationship exists. If the statistics say that no
relationship exists, the pattern could have occurred
by random chance.

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Scatter Diagram Show No Relationship
• Negative correlation implies that as one
characteristic increases, the other decreases, and
a negative slope is seen on the Scatter Diagram.
• If the diagram shows no relationship, consider
whether the independent (x-axis) variable has
been varied widely. Sometimes a relationship is
not apparent because the data don’t cover a wide
enough range.

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Scatter Diagram Considerations

• Think creatively about how to use scatter diagrams


to discover a root cause.
• Drawing a scatter diagram is the first step in looking
for a relationship between variables.
• If the scatter diagram shows no relationship between
the variables, consider whether the data might be
stratified.

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Any Question

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